• amanda0195

1750-1900


BIG THEMES

  • Industrialization

  • Revolutions: American, French, Haitian, Latin American

  • Scramble for Africa

  • Opium Wars

  • Meiji Restoration

MOST IMPORTANT EVENTS

  • American Revolution (1775-1783)

  • French Revolution/Napoleon (1789-1815)

  • Haitian Revolution (1791-1804)

  • Opium Wars (China) (1839-1860)

  • Sepoy Rebellion (India) (1857)

  • American Civil War (1861-1865)

  • Meiji Restoration (Japan) (1868-1912)

  • Boxer Rebellion (China) 1900

TIMELINE

1757 – Battle of Plassey

1762-1796 – Catherine the Great

1776 – US independence from Britain

1789-1799 – French Revolution

1791-1804 – Haitian slave rebellion

1800 – Political dominance of British introduces Western culture, language, govt technology.

1803 – Napoleon sells Louisiana to US

1807-1814 – Napoleon fought Peninsular War (Spain/Portugal)

1807 – British ban slave trade (US in 1808)

1822 – US founds Liberia for freed slaves.

1815 – Napoleon finally defeated at Waterloo (Congress of Vienna)

1822 – Brazil independent

1825 – Mex, Central and South America all independent from Spanish

1830 – French invade Algeria

1830s – Boer trek

1830s – French in Algeria

1839-42 -- First Opium War

1846-48 – Mexican American War

1850-1864 -- Taiping Rebellion in China

1853 - 56 – Crimean War

1854 – Matthew Perry to Japan

1856 - 1860 -- Second Opium War

1857 - Sepoy Rebellion

1861 -- Russia ends serfdom

1863 – Slavery abolished in US

1867 – Diamonds found in South Africa (Cecil Rhodes) (gold, diamonds, ivory, rubber)

1868-1912 -- Meiji Restoration in Japan

1869 – Suez Canal opens

1879 – Zulu Wars (Zulus defeat British at Isandlwana but defeated at Ulundi)

1880-81 – Boer Wars (Br. v. Boers)

1882 – British in Egypt (to protect Suez Canal)

1884 – Germans take Namibia, Tanzania, Togo and Cameroon

1885 – Congress of Berlin

1886 – Kenya becomes British colony

1898 – Spanish-American War

1899 – United Fruit Company founded (1901 hired by Guatemala)

REVOLUTIONS

(see post)

AMERICAN REVOLUTION

FRENCH REVOLUTION

NAPOLEON

HAITIAN REVOLUTION

LATIN AMERICAN REVOLUTIONS

INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION

FOUNDATIONS/INVENTIONS

SPREAD OF INDUSTRIALISM

CAPITALISM

SOCIAL CONSEQUENCES

URBANIZATION AND MIGRATION

CHALLENGES TO INDUSTRIALISM

  • Socialism

  • Marx and Engels

  • Communist Manifesto

GLOBAL CONSEQUENCES

EUROPE

NATIONALISM

  • Nations and Nationalism

  • Reaction to Napoleon

  • Cultural Nationalism

  • Johan Gottfired von Herder

  • Paised the German Volk ("people)

  • Political Nationalism

  • Italy

  • Germany

  • Anti-Semitism

  • Nationalist Rebellions

UNITED STATES

AMERICAN INDEPENDENCE

CONSTITUTION

WESTWARD EXPANSION

NATIVE AMERICANS

SLAVERY

CIVIL WAR (1861-1865)

ECONOMY

CANADA

FRENCH COLONY

  • Canada was part of New France

  • Until the French and Indian War (1754-1763)

  • When Britain acquired the French territory up to the Mississippi River

BRITISH COLONY

  • Until the late 18th century, French Canadians outnumbered British Canadians

  • So British made large concession to their subjects.

  • Officially recognizing Roman Catholicism.

  • Permitting the observance of French civil law in Quebec and other areas of French Canadian settlement.

  • Govrnance through local elites.

  • British Canadians

  • Protestant

  • Lived mostly in Ontario

  • Followed British law

  • Governed through elected representatives

  • During American War of Independence (1763-1783)

  • Many American loyalists (colonists who were loyal to Britain) fled to Canada

  • Enlarging number of British people in Canada in relation to French

  • Some slaves were allowed to enter from 13 colonies (Lord Dunmore's Proclamation)

WAR OF 1812 (1812-1815) (see post)

  • Battle between United States and Britain

  • Caused by British impressment of American sailors during war with Napoleon

  • Created a sense of unity among French and British Canadians against a common threat (the U.S.)

  • After the War of 1812

  • Canada experience an era of rapid growth.

  • Which attracted British immigrants.

  • By 1830

  • There was discontent between the growing British population and French Canadians

DOMINION

  • Discontent in 1830 worried the imperial governors of Canada.

  • British government didn't want Canadians to fight for independence like the U.S. Americans

  • Home Rule

  • Expanded in Canada between 1840-1867

  • British permitted provinces to govern their own internal affairs.

  • Durham Report 1839

  • By John George Lambton (1st Earl of Durham and high commissioner of Canada)

  • Advocated high degree of self-government for a united Canada.

  • Report became a model for British imperial policy and colonial self-rule in other British regions (Australia, New Zealand etc.)

  • British North America Act 1867

  • After American Civil War, British feared the U.S. would try to expand to Canada.

  • The British North America Act joined Quebec, Ontario, Nova Scotia and New Brunswick

  • Other provinces joined later

  • Recognized them as the Dominion of Canada.

  • Each province had its own seat of government, provincial legislature, lieutenant govrnor.

  • Create a federal government headed by a governor-general who acted as British representative.

  • An elected House of commons and appointed Senate.

  • Provincial legislatures had authority

  • Britain kept jurisdiction over foreign affairs until 1931

  • John MacDonald (r. 1867–1873, 1878–1891)

  • First prime minister of Canada.

  • Negotiated purchase of Northwest Territories from the Hudson's Bay Company in 1869

  • Persuaded Manitoba, British Columbia an prince Edward Island to join th Dominion.

  • Built a transcontinental railroad to further unify the country.

  • Railroad attracted Alberta and Saskatchewan in 1905, Newfoundland in 1949 joined

ECONOMICS

  • British investment helped development of Canada.

  • Canadian leaders took advantage of British capital to industrialize.

  • Early 19th c.

  • Britain paid high prices for Canadian agricultural products and minerals

  • Partly to keep the colony stable and discourage separatist movement.

  • Canadians enjoyed high standard of living.

  • After establishment of Dominion

  • Politicians started National Policy

  • To attract migrants

  • Protect new industries through tariffs

  • Build national transportation systems.

  • Transcontinental Canadian Pacific Railroad (completed 1885)

  • Built largely with British investment capital

  • Opened the western prarie lands to commerce.

  • Promoted a Canadian national economy

  • Conflicts with indigenous people (First Nations) and trappers

  • Resented encroachment on their land.

  • Result of National Policy

  • Migrants flocked to Canada from Asia and Europe 1903-1914.

  • Increase in wheat production

  • Extraction of rich minerals (including gold, silver, copper, nickel and asbestos).

  • Canadian rivers produced hydroelectric power.

  • By 1918, US owned 30% of Canadian industry causing U.S. and Candian economies to become increasingly interdependent.

CULTURAL DIVERSITY

  • French Canadians in Quebec area (east)

  • Speak French, French law, Roman Catholicism

  • British Canadians

  • Speak English, English law, Protestantism

  • First Nations (Indians)

LATIN AMERICA AFTER INDEPENDENCE

(See link for Latin American Revolutions)

LATIN AMERICA

  • Creoles

  • Tried to create constitutions - but failed

  • Tried to prevent mass participation in politics

  • To maintain own power

  • But lack of open public discussion = violent dissent

  • And politically active population divided into factions/ideologies

  • United only in desire to control the land for agricuturee and ranching

  • By pushing aside indigenous people

  • Caudillos

  • Wars of independence lasted over a decade

  • Created miltiary rather than civilian heroes

  • Military leaders took political stage

  • Appealing to populist sentiments/exploiting discontent of masses

  • Conflicts with Indians

  • Mostly in Argentina and Chile

  • Where cultivators and ranchers wanted to take over South American plains

  • As US as crushing Indians to move west (Manifest Destiny)

  • Argentine and Chilean forces conquering indigenous people with modern weapons

  • By 1870s they had pacified the most prouctive lands

  • and forced indigenous people to either assimilate or retreat to substandard lands.

ARGENTINA

Independence

  • May Revolution 1810 led to disintegration of Spain's Viceroyalty of the Rio de la Plata

  • Congress of Tucuman 1816

  • Severed all remaining ties with Spain

  • Independence resulted in breakup of territories of Rio de la Plata

  • Buenos Aires province fight for autonomy

Juan Manuel de Rosas (r. 1829-1852)


  • 10th largest landowner in province of Buenos Aires

  • owned 300000 cattle, 420,000 acres

  • Military background

  • Had a private army of gauchos loyal to him.

  • Nicknames:

  • Machiavelli of the Pampas, Restorer of Laws

  • Argentina was badly divided between cattle-herding and gaucho society of pampas (see below)

  • Rosas was from cattle ranching world

  • Subdued other caudilos to control Buenos Aires

  • Called for regional autonomy but also worked to centralize government

  • Put down rebellions brutally

  • Accused of launching a reign of terror (like Robespierre in France)

  • Killed 20,404 people to stop opposition

  • Either in armed clashes, poisoning, hanging, assassination

  • Restored order by making terror a tool of the government

  • Populist

  • Appealed to people by identification with teh people and gauchos

  • Demonstrated physical strength and machismo


Domingo Faustino Sarmiento (r. 1868-1874)

  • President who despised rule of caudillow

  • Tried to develop a society based on European values

  • Wrote "Facundo: Civilization and Barbarism (1845)

  • Argued:

  • Only when cities (Buenos Aires) dominated countryside

  • Would social stability and liberty be possible.

Gauchos (Argentine cowboys/vaqueras)

  • Symbol of Latin American identity

  • Most were mestizos or castizos

  • Ethnic egalitarianism, self-sufficient, independent

  • Mostly in Argentine pampas

  • Interior grasslands

  • Dress: sashed trousers, ponchos, boots

  • Pastoralists who herded cattle and horses.

  • Gradually displaced by large cattle ranches and use of barbed wire

  • Romanticized by poet Hernandez - "The Gaucho Martin Fierro" (1873)

MEXICO

General Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna

  • Caudillo President intermittently from 1833 to 1854

  • Exiled after Plan of Ayutla in 1854

Texas independence 1845

Mexican-American War (1846-48)

  • Caused turmoil: defeat and disillusionment prompted efforts to reform.

La Reforma 1850s

  • Begun by President Benito Juarez who called for liberal reforms

  • Designed to create a liberal middle class.

  • Constitution of 1857

  • Curtailed rights of priests and military elites

  • guaranteed universal male suffrage

  • Civil liberties: freedom of speech etc.

  • Land reform to dismantle corporate properties

  • Sold communal Indian lands and villages as private property to large landowners.

  • Conservative Mexican elites opposed the liberal reforms.

  • Juarez government was forced out of Mexico City until 1861.

​Foreign intervention

  • To lessen Mexico's financial problems, Juarez suspended laon paymetns to foreing powers

  • Led to French, British, Spanish intervention to protect investments.

Maximilien

  • Napoleon III tried to end Mexican disorder by recreating monarchy.

  • Mexican pushed back French invaders May 5, 1862 (Cinco de Mayo)

  • Napoleon III sent 10s of 1000s of troops - proclaimed Mexico an Empire

  • Put Austrian archduke Maximilian as new emperor.

  • 1867, Mexicans killed Maximilien

  • Juarez returned to power

Mexican Revolution (1910-1920)

  • Middle class peasants workers to overthrow dictator Porfirio Diaz

  • 95% of peasants were landless, engaged in guerrilla warfare

  • Followed rebels: Emiliano Zapata and Francisco (Pancho) Villa

  • Fighting for tierra y libertad (land and liberty)

  • Zapata confiscated hacienda lands and began distributing land to peasants

  • Pancho Villa attacked and killed US citizens inretaliation for U.S support of Mexican government officials.

  • Revolution ended when Zapata was killed (1919) and Villa killed (1923)

Mexican Constitution 1917

  • Provided for land redistribution

  • Universal suffrage

  • State-supported education

  • minimum wage

  • Restrictions on foreign ownership of Mexican property and mineral resources.

OTTOMAN EMPIRE

DECLINE

REFORM

YOUNG TURKS

RUSSIA

ROMANOV TSARS

CRIMEAN WAR (1853-1856)

INDUSTRIALIZATION

REVOLUTION

CHINA

TRADE IN CHINA

  • 1759 Qianlong emperor restricted European commercial presence in China

  • To waterfront at Guangzhou

  • Only place where European merchants could trade and establish warehouses.

  • Chinese authorities controlled terms of trade.

  • Foreign merchants could only deal with specially licensed Chinese firms (cohongs)

  • Which bought and sold goods at set prices.

  • Under strict regulations by government.

  • Chinese also had little demand for European products.

  • Europeans merchants had to pay for Chinese goods in silver

  • Caused trade imbalance

OPIUM

  • To shift balance of trade, British East India Company found alternatives to bullion -- opium.

  • Grown in India (controlled by British East India Company) - shipped to China

  • Silver flowed back to Br.-controlled Calcutta, then London, then used to buy goods in China

  • Annual imports of highly addictive opium rose to 40,000 chests by 1839

  • Trade in opium was illegal

  • But continued because Chinese authorities made little effort to enforce the law.

  • By late 1830s government officials aware

  • Opium drained large silver from China

  • Serious drug addictions

  • 1838 government officials tried to stop illicit trade.

  • Lin Zexu charged with destroying opium trade, confiscated and destroyed 20,000 chests.

  • Ignited war with British

OPIUM WARS

  • British agents outrage by new Chinese action against opium

  • Pressed government to retaliate military

  • Opium War 1839-1842

  • British vessels were superior on the seas and infantry had rifles.

  • Chinese only had swords, knives, spears.

  • British struck Grand Canal (linked Yangtze and Yellow River valleys)

  • With aid of steam-powered gunboats.

  • 1842 British armada of 70 ships led by gunboat Nemesis up Yangtze River

  • Little Chinese resistance.

  • Chinese government sued for peace.

  • Treaty of Nanjing

UNEQUAL TREATIES

  • Unequal treaties signed with foreign nations.

  • Curtailed China's sovereignty

  • Treaty of Nanjing

  • After end of Opium War in 1842

  • Ceded Hong Kong Island in perpetuity to Britain (went back to China in 1997)

  • Opened five Chinese ports (including Guangzhou and Shanghai) to commerce and residence

  • Compelled Qing government to extend most-favored-nation status to Britain

  • Granted extraterritoriality to British subjects

  • British not subject to Chinese laws

  • Other nations also concluded similar unequal treaties with China

  • France, Germany, Denmark, Netherlands, Spain, Belgium, Austira-Hungrary, us and Japan.

  • Other concessions

  • Legalized the opium trade

  • Permitted establishment of Christian missions throughout China

  • Opened additional treaty ports.

  • Prevented Qing government from levying tariffs on imports to protect domestic induties

  • By 1900

  • 90 Chinese ports under the effective control of foreign powers.

  • Foreign merchants controlled much of the Chinese economy

  • Christians missionaries sought convverts thorughout China

  • Foreign gunboats patrolled Chinese waters.

  • Chinese system of tributary states also destroyed

  • Korea, Vietnam, Burma/Myanmar

PEASANT PROBLEMS

  • 1800-1900 population rose from 330 million to 475 million

  • But amount of cultivated land increased slowly

  • Land concentrated in hands of wealthy elites

  • Corruption in government

  • Drug addiction

  • Poverty and discontent caused rebellions throughout China

  • Nian rebellion (1851-1868)

  • Muslim rebellion (1855-1873)

  • Taiping rebellion (1850-1864)

TAIPING REBELLION (1850-1864)

  • Started by Hong Xiuquan

  • Village schoolteacher who claimed to be brother of Jesus

  • Called for destruction of foreign (Manchu) Qing dynasty

  • And radical transformation of Chinese society

  • Taiping reform program

  • Abolition of private property

  • Creation of communal wealth to be shared according to needs

  • Prohibition of foot binding and concubinage

  • Free public education

  • Simplification of the written language

  • Literacy for the masses.

  • Democratic political institutions

  • Building of an industrial society

  • Equality for men and women

  • Although army divided into separate divisions of men and women soldiers

  • No sex among followers - even married couples (although Hong and leaders had harems)

  • Successes

  • Took Nanjing in 1853 and made the Taiping capital

  • Taipings attracted whole villages as they campaigned through China

  • 1855, a million Taipings about to attack Beijing - but repelled by Qing

  • 1859 from base in Yangtze River valley, the Taiping threatened Shanghai.

  • Taiping defeat

  • Because of radical nature of Taiping program, Chinese gentry sided with government

  • After Manchu soldiers failed to defeat Taiping, Qing created regional armies

  • Staffed by Chinese instead of Manchu soldiers

  • Commanded by members of scholar-gentry class.

  • With help from European advisers and weapons, regional armies overcame Taipings

  • By 1862 Hong Xiuguan had withdrawn from affairs (time to religion and harem)

  • Then killed himself in Jun 1864 after an illness.

  • Nanjing fell July 1864 - government killed 100,000 Taiping

  • Rebellion over by end of 1864

  • Consequences

  • 20-30 million people had been killed.

  • Drastic decline in agricultural production (people had to eat grass, leather, human flesh)

EMPRESS DOWAGER CIXI

  • Former imperial concubine who established herself as effective ruler of China

SELF-STRENGTHENING MOVEMENT (1860-1895)

  • Because of Opium Wars and Taiping Rebellion

  • Qinq rulers believed change was necessary

  • From 1860-1895, Qinq tried to blend Confucianism and foreign technology to fix problems.

  • "Chinese learning at the base, Western learning for use."

  • Kept agrarian society

  • With modern industry

  • Built modern shipyards

  • Constructed railroads

  • Established weapons industries

  • Opened steel foundries with blast furnaces

  • Founded academies to develop scientific expertise

  • But only superficial change

  • Not enough industry to bring real military and economic strength to China

  • Obstacles

  • Cixi diverted funds from navy to build a expensive marble boat in lake of imperial gardens.

  • Also contradiction

  • Industrialization would bring social change to agrarian land

  • Education in European curriculum would undermine commitment to Confucian values.

END OF CHINESE TRIBUTARY SYSTEM

  • Late 19th century, foreign powers began to dismantle the Chinese system of tributary states

  • 1885 France incorporated Vietnam into its colony of Indochina

  • 1886 Britain took Burma

  • 1895 Japan

  • Forced China to grant Korea indendence

  • Give Taiwan (Formosa) and Liaodong Peninsula to Japan

SPHERES OF INFLUENCE 1898

  • Foreign powers carved China into spheres of economic influence.

  • Qing government powerless to stoop them

  • China granted exclusive rights for railway and mineral development

  • Germans in Shandong Province

  • France in the southern border provinces

  • Great Britain in the Yangtze River valley

  • Japan in southeastern coastal provinces

  • Russia in Manchuria

  • Distrust among the foreign powers prevented total dismemberment of China

HUNDRED DAYS REFORMS 1898

  • Leaders of new reform movement,

  • Scholars Kang Youwei and Liang Qichao

  • Reinterpreted Confucianism to justify radical change to imperial system.

  • Didn't try to preserve an agrarian society

  • Instead wanted to make China into modern industrial socity

  • Emperor Guangxu agreed and launched program to transform China

  • Constitutional monarchy

  • Civil liberties

  • Rooting out corruption

  • Remodeled eucational system

  • Encouraging foreign influence

  • Modernizing military forces

  • Stimulate economic development

  • Violent reaction

  • From gentry and Cixi (Guangxu's aunt)

  • After 103 days Cixi nullified reform decrees

  • Put Guangxu in prison in the Forbidden City

  • Executed leading reformers (Kang and Liang escaped to Japan)

BOXER REBELLION 1899

  • Antiforeign uprising

  • By militia called Society of Righteous and Harmonious Fists (aka Boxers)

  • Organized in 1899 to rid China of "foreign devils" and their influences.

  • Targeted foreigners, Chinese Christians, and Chinese who helped foreigners

  • They believed foreign weapons couldn't hurt them.

  • Encouraged by Cixi

  • Boxer rampage

  • First in northern China

  • In 1900, 14,000 Boxers besieged foreign embassies in Beijing

  • Foreign retaliation

  • Heavily armed force of British, French, Russian, U.S., German and Japanese troops

  • Defeated Boxers

  • Forced Chinese government to pay indemnity

  • And allow foreign powers to station troops in Beijing and along sea routes.

THE LAST EMPEROR

  • Because Cixi supported Boxers, many Chinese unhappy with Qing government

  • Revolutionary uprisings became popular (even among conservative Chinese)

  • Emperor

  • Cixi died in Nov 15 1908 - one day after the sudden, unexpected and mysterious death of the emeprorr

  • In her last act of state, the epress dowager appointed the two-year-d boy puyi to the immperial throne

  • Puyi never had a change to rule

  • revoution broe out in auten f 1911

  • by early 1912, the las temepror of he Qin dyanasty had abdicated his throne.

JAPAN

END OF TOKUGAWA

MEIJI REFORMS

  • Foreign influence

  • Abolition of the Social order

  • Constitutional Government

  • Economy

IMPERIALISM

REASONS FOR IMPERIALISM

JUSTIFICATION

TOOLS

REGIONS

India

Africa

Southeast Asia

GREAT GAME

LEGACIES OF IMPERIALISM

INDIA

MUGHALS

SEPOY REBELLION

BRITISH RAJ

SCRAMBLE FOR AFRICA

BELGIUM

  • Leopold II

BRITISH

FRENCH

DUTCH

PACIFIC

AUSTRALIA

NEW ZEALAND


1 view0 comments

Recent Posts

See All

Immigration

Alien and Sedition Acts Passed by John Adams 1820-1860 Irish immigration Irish potato famine Many were Catholic German immigrants Most to midwest to buy farms in Milwaukee, St. Louis, Cincinnati 1849

European History Timeline

1400S 1453 Ottoman Empire takes Constantinople End of Hundred Years War 1469 Isabella and Ferdinand get married uniting Castile and Aragon 1488 Bartholomeu Dias sails around the Cape of Good Hope 1492