Revolutions: American, French, Haitian, Latin American
Scramble for Africa
MOST IMPORTANT EVENTS
American Revolution (1775-1783)
French Revolution/Napoleon (1789-1815)
Haitian Revolution (1791-1804)
Opium Wars (China) (1839-1860)
Sepoy Rebellion (India) (1857)
American Civil War (1861-1865)
Meiji Restoration (Japan) (1868-1912)
Boxer Rebellion (China) 1900
1757 – Battle of Plassey
1762-1796 – Catherine the Great
1776 – US independence from Britain
1789-1799 – French Revolution
1791-1804 – Haitian slave rebellion
1800 – Political dominance of British introduces Western culture, language, govt technology.
1803 – Napoleon sells Louisiana to US
1807-1814 – Napoleon fought Peninsular War (Spain/Portugal)
1807 – British ban slave trade (US in 1808)
1822 – US founds Liberia for freed slaves.
1815 – Napoleon finally defeated at Waterloo (Congress of Vienna)
1822 – Brazil independent
1825 – Mex, Central and South America all independent from Spanish
1830 – French invade Algeria
1830s – Boer trek
1830s – French in Algeria
1839-42 -- First Opium War
1846-48 – Mexican American War
1850-1864 -- Taiping Rebellion in China
1853 - 56 – Crimean War
1854 – Matthew Perry to Japan
1856 - 1860 -- Second Opium War
1857 - Sepoy Rebellion
1861 -- Russia ends serfdom
1863 – Slavery abolished in US
1867 – Diamonds found in South Africa (Cecil Rhodes) (gold, diamonds, ivory, rubber)
1868-1912 -- Meiji Restoration in Japan
1869 – Suez Canal opens
1879 – Zulu Wars (Zulus defeat British at Isandlwana but defeated at Ulundi)
1880-81 – Boer Wars (Br. v. Boers)
1882 – British in Egypt (to protect Suez Canal)
1884 – Germans take Namibia, Tanzania, Togo and Cameroon
1885 – Congress of Berlin
1886 – Kenya becomes British colony
1898 – Spanish-American War
1899 – United Fruit Company founded (1901 hired by Guatemala)
LATIN AMERICAN REVOLUTIONS
SPREAD OF INDUSTRIALISM
URBANIZATION AND MIGRATION
CHALLENGES TO INDUSTRIALISM
Marx and Engels
Nations and Nationalism
Reaction to Napoleon
Johan Gottfired von Herder
Paised the German Volk ("people)
CIVIL WAR (1861-1865)
Canada was part of New France
Until the French and Indian War (1754-1763)
When Britain acquired the French territory up to the Mississippi River
Until the late 18th century, French Canadians outnumbered British Canadians
So British made large concession to their subjects.
Officially recognizing Roman Catholicism.
Permitting the observance of French civil law in Quebec and other areas of French Canadian settlement.
Govrnance through local elites.
Lived mostly in Ontario
Followed British law
Governed through elected representatives
During American War of Independence (1763-1783)
Many American loyalists (colonists who were loyal to Britain) fled to Canada
Enlarging number of British people in Canada in relation to French
Some slaves were allowed to enter from 13 colonies (Lord Dunmore's Proclamation)
WAR OF 1812 (1812-1815) (see post)
Battle between United States and Britain
Caused by British impressment of American sailors during war with Napoleon
Created a sense of unity among French and British Canadians against a common threat (the U.S.)
After the War of 1812
Canada experience an era of rapid growth.
Which attracted British immigrants.
There was discontent between the growing British population and French Canadians
Discontent in 1830 worried the imperial governors of Canada.
British government didn't want Canadians to fight for independence like the U.S. Americans
Expanded in Canada between 1840-1867
British permitted provinces to govern their own internal affairs.
Durham Report 1839
By John George Lambton (1st Earl of Durham and high commissioner of Canada)
Advocated high degree of self-government for a united Canada.
Report became a model for British imperial policy and colonial self-rule in other British regions (Australia, New Zealand etc.)
British North America Act 1867
After American Civil War, British feared the U.S. would try to expand to Canada.
The British North America Act joined Quebec, Ontario, Nova Scotia and New Brunswick
Other provinces joined later
Recognized them as the Dominion of Canada.
Each province had its own seat of government, provincial legislature, lieutenant govrnor.
Create a federal government headed by a governor-general who acted as British representative.
An elected House of commons and appointed Senate.
Provincial legislatures had authority
Britain kept jurisdiction over foreign affairs until 1931
John MacDonald (r. 1867–1873, 1878–1891)
First prime minister of Canada.
Negotiated purchase of Northwest Territories from the Hudson's Bay Company in 1869
Persuaded Manitoba, British Columbia an prince Edward Island to join th Dominion.
Built a transcontinental railroad to further unify the country.
Railroad attracted Alberta and Saskatchewan in 1905, Newfoundland in 1949 joined
British investment helped development of Canada.
Canadian leaders took advantage of British capital to industrialize.
Early 19th c.
Britain paid high prices for Canadian agricultural products and minerals
Partly to keep the colony stable and discourage separatist movement.
Canadians enjoyed high standard of living.
After establishment of Dominion
Politicians started National Policy
To attract migrants
Protect new industries through tariffs
Build national transportation systems.
Transcontinental Canadian Pacific Railroad (completed 1885)
Built largely with British investment capital
Opened the western prarie lands to commerce.
Promoted a Canadian national economy
Conflicts with indigenous people (First Nations) and trappers
Resented encroachment on their land.
Result of National Policy
Migrants flocked to Canada from Asia and Europe 1903-1914.
Increase in wheat production
Extraction of rich minerals (including gold, silver, copper, nickel and asbestos).
Canadian rivers produced hydroelectric power.
By 1918, US owned 30% of Canadian industry causing U.S. and Candian economies to become increasingly interdependent.
French Canadians in Quebec area (east)
Speak French, French law, Roman Catholicism
Speak English, English law, Protestantism
First Nations (Indians)
LATIN AMERICA AFTER INDEPENDENCE
(See link for Latin American Revolutions)
Tried to create constitutions - but failed
Tried to prevent mass participation in politics
To maintain own power
But lack of open public discussion = violent dissent
And politically active population divided into factions/ideologies
United only in desire to control the land for agricuturee and ranching
By pushing aside indigenous people
Wars of independence lasted over a decade
Created miltiary rather than civilian heroes
Military leaders took political stage
Appealing to populist sentiments/exploiting discontent of masses
Conflicts with Indians
Mostly in Argentina and Chile
Where cultivators and ranchers wanted to take over South American plains
As US as crushing Indians to move west (Manifest Destiny)
Argentine and Chilean forces conquering indigenous people with modern weapons
By 1870s they had pacified the most prouctive lands
and forced indigenous people to either assimilate or retreat to substandard lands.
May Revolution 1810 led to disintegration of Spain's Viceroyalty of the Rio de la Plata
Congress of Tucuman 1816
Severed all remaining ties with Spain
Independence resulted in breakup of territories of Rio de la Plata
Buenos Aires province fight for autonomy
Juan Manuel de Rosas (r. 1829-1852)
10th largest landowner in province of Buenos Aires
owned 300000 cattle, 420,000 acres
Had a private army of gauchos loyal to him.
Machiavelli of the Pampas, Restorer of Laws
Argentina was badly divided between cattle-herding and gaucho society of pampas (see below)
Rosas was from cattle ranching world
Subdued other caudilos to control Buenos Aires
Called for regional autonomy but also worked to centralize government
Put down rebellions brutally
Accused of launching a reign of terror (like Robespierre in France)
Killed 20,404 people to stop opposition
Either in armed clashes, poisoning, hanging, assassination
Restored order by making terror a tool of the government
Appealed to people by identification with teh people and gauchos
Demonstrated physical strength and machismo
Domingo Faustino Sarmiento (r. 1868-1874)
President who despised rule of caudillow
Tried to develop a society based on European values
Wrote "Facundo: Civilization and Barbarism (1845)
Only when cities (Buenos Aires) dominated countryside
Would social stability and liberty be possible.
Gauchos (Argentine cowboys/vaqueras)
Symbol of Latin American identity
Most were mestizos or castizos
Ethnic egalitarianism, self-sufficient, independent
Mostly in Argentine pampas
Dress: sashed trousers, ponchos, boots
Pastoralists who herded cattle and horses.
Gradually displaced by large cattle ranches and use of barbed wire
Romanticized by poet Hernandez - "The Gaucho Martin Fierro" (1873)
General Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna
Caudillo President intermittently from 1833 to 1854
Exiled after Plan of Ayutla in 1854
Texas independence 1845
Mexican-American War (1846-48)
Caused turmoil: defeat and disillusionment prompted efforts to reform.
La Reforma 1850s
Begun by President Benito Juarez who called for liberal reforms
Designed to create a liberal middle class.
Constitution of 1857
Curtailed rights of priests and military elites
guaranteed universal male suffrage
Civil liberties: freedom of speech etc.
Land reform to dismantle corporate properties
Sold communal Indian lands and villages as private property to large landowners.
Conservative Mexican elites opposed the liberal reforms.
Juarez government was forced out of Mexico City until 1861.
To lessen Mexico's financial problems, Juarez suspended laon paymetns to foreing powers
Led to French, British, Spanish intervention to protect investments.
Napoleon III tried to end Mexican disorder by recreating monarchy.
Mexican pushed back French invaders May 5, 1862 (Cinco de Mayo)
Napoleon III sent 10s of 1000s of troops - proclaimed Mexico an Empire
Put Austrian archduke Maximilian as new emperor.
1867, Mexicans killed Maximilien
Juarez returned to power
Mexican Revolution (1910-1920)
Middle class peasants workers to overthrow dictator Porfirio Diaz
95% of peasants were landless, engaged in guerrilla warfare
Followed rebels: Emiliano Zapata and Francisco (Pancho) Villa
Fighting for tierra y libertad (land and liberty)
Zapata confiscated hacienda lands and began distributing land to peasants
Pancho Villa attacked and killed US citizens inretaliation for U.S support of Mexican government officials.
Revolution ended when Zapata was killed (1919) and Villa killed (1923)
Mexican Constitution 1917
Provided for land redistribution
Restrictions on foreign ownership of Mexican property and mineral resources.
CRIMEAN WAR (1853-1856)
TRADE IN CHINA
1759 Qianlong emperor restricted European commercial presence in China
To waterfront at Guangzhou
Only place where European merchants could trade and establish warehouses.
Chinese authorities controlled terms of trade.
Foreign merchants could only deal with specially licensed Chinese firms (cohongs)
Which bought and sold goods at set prices.
Under strict regulations by government.
Chinese also had little demand for European products.
Europeans merchants had to pay for Chinese goods in silver
Caused trade imbalance
To shift balance of trade, British East India Company found alternatives to bullion -- opium.
Grown in India (controlled by British East India Company) - shipped to China
Silver flowed back to Br.-controlled Calcutta, then London, then used to buy goods in China
Annual imports of highly addictive opium rose to 40,000 chests by 1839
Trade in opium was illegal
But continued because Chinese authorities made little effort to enforce the law.
By late 1830s government officials aware
Opium drained large silver from China
Serious drug addictions
1838 government officials tried to stop illicit trade.
Lin Zexu charged with destroying opium trade, confiscated and destroyed 20,000 chests.
Ignited war with British
British agents outrage by new Chinese action against opium
Pressed government to retaliate military
Opium War 1839-1842
British vessels were superior on the seas and infantry had rifles.
Chinese only had swords, knives, spears.
British struck Grand Canal (linked Yangtze and Yellow River valleys)
With aid of steam-powered gunboats.
1842 British armada of 70 ships led by gunboat Nemesis up Yangtze River
Little Chinese resistance.
Chinese government sued for peace.
Treaty of Nanjing
Unequal treaties signed with foreign nations.
Curtailed China's sovereignty
Treaty of Nanjing
After end of Opium War in 1842
Ceded Hong Kong Island in perpetuity to Britain (went back to China in 1997)
Opened five Chinese ports (including Guangzhou and Shanghai) to commerce and residence
Compelled Qing government to extend most-favored-nation status to Britain
Granted extraterritoriality to British subjects
British not subject to Chinese laws
Other nations also concluded similar unequal treaties with China
France, Germany, Denmark, Netherlands, Spain, Belgium, Austira-Hungrary, us and Japan.
Legalized the opium trade
Permitted establishment of Christian missions throughout China
Opened additional treaty ports.
Prevented Qing government from levying tariffs on imports to protect domestic induties
90 Chinese ports under the effective control of foreign powers.
Foreign merchants controlled much of the Chinese economy
Christians missionaries sought convverts thorughout China
Foreign gunboats patrolled Chinese waters.
Chinese system of tributary states also destroyed
Korea, Vietnam, Burma/Myanmar
1800-1900 population rose from 330 million to 475 million
But amount of cultivated land increased slowly
Land concentrated in hands of wealthy elites
Corruption in government
Poverty and discontent caused rebellions throughout China
Nian rebellion (1851-1868)
Muslim rebellion (1855-1873)
Taiping rebellion (1850-1864)
TAIPING REBELLION (1850-1864)
Started by Hong Xiuquan
Village schoolteacher who claimed to be brother of Jesus
Called for destruction of foreign (Manchu) Qing dynasty
And radical transformation of Chinese society
Taiping reform program
Abolition of private property
Creation of communal wealth to be shared according to needs
Prohibition of foot binding and concubinage
Free public education
Simplification of the written language
Literacy for the masses.
Democratic political institutions
Building of an industrial society
Equality for men and women
Although army divided into separate divisions of men and women soldiers
No sex among followers - even married couples (although Hong and leaders had harems)
Took Nanjing in 1853 and made the Taiping capital
Taipings attracted whole villages as they campaigned through China
1855, a million Taipings about to attack Beijing - but repelled by Qing
1859 from base in Yangtze River valley, the Taiping threatened Shanghai.
Because of radical nature of Taiping program, Chinese gentry sided with government
After Manchu soldiers failed to defeat Taiping, Qing created regional armies
Staffed by Chinese instead of Manchu soldiers
Commanded by members of scholar-gentry class.
With help from European advisers and weapons, regional armies overcame Taipings
By 1862 Hong Xiuguan had withdrawn from affairs (time to religion and harem)
Then killed himself in Jun 1864 after an illness.
Nanjing fell July 1864 - government killed 100,000 Taiping
Rebellion over by end of 1864
20-30 million people had been killed.
Drastic decline in agricultural production (people had to eat grass, leather, human flesh)
EMPRESS DOWAGER CIXI
Former imperial concubine who established herself as effective ruler of China
SELF-STRENGTHENING MOVEMENT (1860-1895)
Because of Opium Wars and Taiping Rebellion
Qinq rulers believed change was necessary
From 1860-1895, Qinq tried to blend Confucianism and foreign technology to fix problems.
"Chinese learning at the base, Western learning for use."
Kept agrarian society
With modern industry
Built modern shipyards
Established weapons industries
Opened steel foundries with blast furnaces
Founded academies to develop scientific expertise
But only superficial change
Not enough industry to bring real military and economic strength to China
Cixi diverted funds from navy to build a expensive marble boat in lake of imperial gardens.
Industrialization would bring social change to agrarian land
Education in European curriculum would undermine commitment to Confucian values.
END OF CHINESE TRIBUTARY SYSTEM
Late 19th century, foreign powers began to dismantle the Chinese system of tributary states
1885 France incorporated Vietnam into its colony of Indochina
1886 Britain took Burma
Forced China to grant Korea indendence
Give Taiwan (Formosa) and Liaodong Peninsula to Japan
SPHERES OF INFLUENCE 1898
Foreign powers carved China into spheres of economic influence.
Qing government powerless to stoop them
China granted exclusive rights for railway and mineral development
Germans in Shandong Province
France in the southern border provinces
Great Britain in the Yangtze River valley
Japan in southeastern coastal provinces
Russia in Manchuria
Distrust among the foreign powers prevented total dismemberment of China
HUNDRED DAYS REFORMS 1898
Leaders of new reform movement,
Scholars Kang Youwei and Liang Qichao
Reinterpreted Confucianism to justify radical change to imperial system.
Didn't try to preserve an agrarian society
Instead wanted to make China into modern industrial socity
Emperor Guangxu agreed and launched program to transform China
Rooting out corruption
Remodeled eucational system
Encouraging foreign influence
Modernizing military forces
Stimulate economic development
From gentry and Cixi (Guangxu's aunt)
After 103 days Cixi nullified reform decrees
Put Guangxu in prison in the Forbidden City
Executed leading reformers (Kang and Liang escaped to Japan)
BOXER REBELLION 1899
By militia called Society of Righteous and Harmonious Fists (aka Boxers)
Organized in 1899 to rid China of "foreign devils" and their influences.
Targeted foreigners, Chinese Christians, and Chinese who helped foreigners
They believed foreign weapons couldn't hurt them.
Encouraged by Cixi
First in northern China
In 1900, 14,000 Boxers besieged foreign embassies in Beijing
Heavily armed force of British, French, Russian, U.S., German and Japanese troops
Forced Chinese government to pay indemnity
And allow foreign powers to station troops in Beijing and along sea routes.
THE LAST EMPEROR
Because Cixi supported Boxers, many Chinese unhappy with Qing government
Revolutionary uprisings became popular (even among conservative Chinese)
Cixi died in Nov 15 1908 - one day after the sudden, unexpected and mysterious death of the emeprorr
In her last act of state, the epress dowager appointed the two-year-d boy puyi to the immperial throne
Puyi never had a change to rule
revoution broe out in auten f 1911
by early 1912, the las temepror of he Qin dyanasty had abdicated his throne.
END OF TOKUGAWA
Abolition of the Social order
REASONS FOR IMPERIALISM
LEGACIES OF IMPERIALISM
SCRAMBLE FOR AFRICA