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19th Century Europe in a Nutshell


CONGRESS OF VIENNA (1814-1815)

  • First meeting (Sep. 1814)

  • Held after Napoleon was defeated in the last Battle of Paris by the Sixth Coalition

  • Attendees:

  • Austria -- Prince Klemens von Metternich (Foreign minister Emperor Francis I)

  • Great Britain -- Viscount Castlereagh (Foreign Sec., leader of House of Commons)

  • Russia -- Tsar Alexander I

  • Prussia -- Prince Karl von Hardenberg (representing King Frederick William III)

  • France -- Charles-Maurice de Talleyrand (foreign minister to King Louis XVIII)

  • Aims

  • Wanted to ensure that France would not engage in anymore wars of aggression

  • But wanted to maintain France as a balance of power against all the other European nations

  • Restored what was considered legitimate rule of France, Louis XVIII

  • Territory changes

  • Poland

  • Napoleon had created Duchy of Warsaw (1807-1815) recreating Poland after partition

  • At Congress of Vienna, Russia got control of kingdom of Poland and Prussia got 2/5 of Saxony.

  • Hundred Days

  • Napoleon escaped exile in Elba and temporarily took back power

  • He was defeated again at Waterloo (Jun. 9, 1815)

  • Territory changes again

  • Russia kept Finland (which had been taken from Sweden)

  • Sweden kept Norway

  • Prussia got territory in Rhineland (western Germany) putting Prussia next to France to stop aggression

  • Netherlands got Austrian Netherlands (Belgium)

  • Piedmont-Sardinia (northern Italy) got Genoa

  • Austria lost Belgium but got Lombardy and Venetia in northern Italy. Relatives of Austrian emperor rule Parma, Modena and Tuscany in Italy while archduchess married to bourbon king of Two Siciies

  • Britain got Cape of Good Hope in southern Africa, Ceylon (Sri Lanka today) south of India and the French colonies of Trinidad and Tobago in the West Indies.


FRANCE

  • Napoleon (see post on Napoleon)

  • Defeated at Waterloo after his Hundred Day attempt to regain power.

  • Louis XVIII (r. 1814-1824)

  • Bourbon brother of Louis XVI

  • Restored as King of France by Congress of Vienna

  • Died in 1824

  • Charles X (r. 1824-1830)

  • Supported by émigrés (nobles who fled France during French Revolution)

  • Considered himself a monarch by divine right

  • Wanted to restore lands that French aristocrats (émigrés) had lost during revolution

  • Pressed conservative measures through Chamber of Deputies

  • Liberal opposition wanted constitutional regime

  • 1830 Charles wanted ultraroyalist government

  • Called for elections

  • But liberals won elections

  • Charles X seized power anyway

  • July 1830 sent naval expedition against Algeria.

  • Issued Four Ordinances July 25, 1830

  • Restricted freedom of press

  • Dissolved recently elected liberal Chamber of Deputies

  • Called for new elections

  • Under franchise (right to vote) that was restricted to wealthiest people in country.

  • 1830 Revolution

  • Parisian laborers suffering because of economic downturn flooded into streets

  • Erected barricades

  • 1,800 died

  • Charles X abdicated and fled into exile in England.

  • Louis Philippe (r. 1830-1848)

  • New Chamber of Deputies, constitutional monarchists

  • Proclaimed Louis Philippe as new monarch (July Monarchy)

  • Called himself “king of the French” not King of France”

  • King had to cooperate with Chamber of Deputies

  • Tricolor (not white flag of Bourbons) was flown freely

  • Charter (constitution)

  • Rights of people, not concession granted by monarch

  • Catholicism as “religion of majority” (as under Napoleon) not official religion

  • Censorship abolished

  • Franchise (still limited) extended.

  • Conservative Revolution

  • Landed oligarchy retained economic, politician and social influence

  • Money was path to power

  • Much corruption

  • King didn’t have much sympathy for lower and working class.

  • 1848 Revolution

  • Middle-class liberals viewed revolution as way to secure political right

  • More radical workers hoped revolution would provide increased economic opportunities

  • Led to the creation of national workshops that provided jobs for unemployed workers

  • Over objections of liberals who viewed workshops as a costly and unnecessary intrusion y the government into the economy

  • Louis Philippe overthrown

  • Second Republic (1848-1851)

  • ​Proclaimed by Alphonse de Lamartine

  • Provisional government created National Workshops in February for the unemployed.

  • Workshops were closed in June causing June Days Uprising (Jun. 24-26)

  • In reaction, Louis-Napoleon Bonaparte(Napoleon's nephew) was elected president of the Republic

  • Second Empire (1851)

  • 1851, Louis Napoleon organized a coup d'etat when he was blocked from running for a second term.

  • Declared himself "emperor"

  • Became Napoleon III on the 48th anniversary of Napoleon I's coronation.

  • Reconstruction of Paris (under Baron Haussmann), expanded railway system.

  • Promoted building of Suez Canal

  • Joined Britain in Crimean War (1853-56) to defeat Russia

  • Helped with Italian unification (annexed Savoy and Nice)

  • While defending Papal States

  • Tried to create a Second Mexican Empire under French protection (failed)

  • Fought Bismark in Franco-Prussian War

  • Franco-Prussian War 1871

  • France defeated by Prussians under Bismarck

  • Battle of Sedan

  • Napoleon III forced to abdicate

  • Paris Commune

  • After humiliating defeat, people of Paris refused to surrender to Prussians

  • When new republic govt. formed after abdication of Napoleon III (based at Versailles)

  • insisted Parisians lay down arms

  • People of Paris formed own radical govt.

  • Known as the Commune.

  • Led to civil war in France.

  • War ended when Paris taken by republican forces

  • 1000s of communards executed during “bloody week.”

  • French Third Republic (1873)

BRITAIN


  • King William IV (r. 1830-1867)

  • Government

  • Tories

  • Whigs

  • Liberal Party

  • Elected in power in 1868

  • House of Lords

  • House of Commons

  • Conservatives led by Benjamin Disraeli.

  • Passed social reform legislation

  • Great Reform Bill 1832

  • Replaced “rotten” boroughs” (few voters)

  • Increased number of voters in England and Wales

  • Increased by more than 200,000 people (about 50%) but basis of voting still with property qualification

  • New urban boroughs represented (like Manchester, Liverpool)

  • Middle class now entered Parliament (led to repeal of Corn Laws)

  • Corn Laws

  • Tariff on wheat, made price of bread high

  • Supported by landed aristocracy (so no competition in Britain)

  • Not supported by middle class (had to pay workers higher wages) or workers

  • Repealed 1846

  • Sadler Committee of 1832

  • Collected first hand testimony from adults who began their working lives as child laborers in factories and minds

  • Brought child labor to attention of British public

  • Led to passage of Factory Act 1833.

  • Ireland

  • Act of Union 1800 between England and Ireland

  • Had suppressed separate Irish Parliament and seated Irish representatives in British Parliament

  • Only Protestant Irishmen could be elected to represented Catholic country

  • 1828 Daniel O’Connell elected to Parliament but could not legally take his seat until Duke of Wellington steered Catholic Emancipation Act through Parliament.

  • Chartism

  • 1840s working-class political movement

  • Demands of industrial workers

  • Universal male suffrage

  • Annual parliamentary elections

  • End of property requirements for holders of parliamentary seats

  • Equal electoral districts

  • Payment for members of the Parliament

  • Secret ballot

  • Ignored in House of Commons

  • But all eventually passed except annual parliamentary elections (now every 5 years)

  • Second Reform Act 1867

  • Increased number of voters from 1,430,000 to 2,470,000

  • Passed by Disraeli

  • William Gladstone (r. 1868-1874) liberal party, became PM

  • Classical liberalism

  • Believed individualism, free trade and competition would solve social problems.

  • Introduced secret ballot

  • Brought competitive examinations into the civil service

  • Abolished purchase of officers’ commissions.

  • British govt. took responsibility for all primary education

  • Extended political liberty

  • Disraeli Prime Minister 1874

  • Believed state should protect weaker citizens

  • Paternalistic legislation to alleviate class antagonism

  • Public Health Act of 1875

  • Artisans Dwelling Act of 1875

  • Government became involved in providing housing for the working class.

  • Ireland

  • Late 1860s onward, Irish nationalists sought home rule (more Irish control of local govt.

  • Election 1885 Irish Party (led by Charles Stewart Parnell)

  • Emerged holding the balance of power between the English Liberals and Conservatives.

  • Gladstone supported home rule for Ireland, so Parnell supported him

  • Split the Liberal Party

  • And group know as Liberal Unionists joined with Conservatives to defeat Gladstone’s Home Rule Bill in 1886

  • 1892 Gladstone returned to power

  • Sponsored second Home Rule Bill (defeated in House of Lords)

  • 1914 third Home Rule ill passed by Liberal ministry

  • Implementation suspended during WWI.

ITALY

  • Carbonari

  • Populists

  • Italian nationalists formed a secret society called the Carbonari (charcoal burners)

  • Group was patriotic and liberal

  • Focused on repressive political situation in Italy after 1815 – esp. in south

  • Took part in process of Italian unification - Risorgimiento

  • Wanted to drive out the Austrians by popular military force then established a republic

  • Important members

  • Giuseppe Mazzini – organized Young Italy

  • Secret society to promote Italian unification through popular uprising (God and the People)

  • Marquis de Lafayette (American/French Revolutions)

  • Louis Blanqui

  • Lord Byron

  • Giuseppe Garibaldi (also joined Young Italy)

  • Inspired other young movements like the Young Turks

  • Uprising failed

  • lacked clear immediate political agenda

  • Piedmontese troops crushed it

  • Not enough popular support

  • 1848

  • Piedmont-Sardinia was the only independent state in Italy

  • It wanted to extend its influence over the rest of northern Italy but not interested in unifying the whole peninsula

  • Austrians controlled Venetia and Lombardy.

  • Piedmont-Sardinia had no specific connection to Mazzini and Young Italy


  • Unification 1860

  • Count Camillo Cavour

  • Prime minister of Piedmont (“Kingdom of Sardinia”

  • Piedmont

  • was the most independent state on the peninsula

  • Had fought unsuccessfully against Austria in 1848 and 1849

  • Victor Emmanuel II

  • 1852 the new monarch Victory Emmanuel II (r. 1849-1878) chose Cavour – an economic liberal and a strong monarchist who rejected republicanism, as his PM

  • Cavour

  • Believed that if Italians proved themselves to e efficient and economically progressive, the great powers might let Italy govern itself

  • Worked for free trade, railway construction, credit expansion and agricultural improvement

  • Fostered the Nationalist Society (est. chapters in their Italian states to press for unification under Peidmontese leadership)

  • Cavour joined French and British in Crimean War

  • Because he wanted French help with unification

  • France’s Napoleon III (r. 1825-1870) was sympathetic, and in 1858 Cavour and French emperor plotted to start war with Austria

  • War with Austria

  • April 1859 war erupted between Piedmont and Austria

  • France (Louis Napoleon) came to Piedmont’s aid

  • Promised land

  • but soon concluded a spate peace with Austria

  • Fear of Pope – against unification

  • And war with Austria

  • Cavour felt betrayed by France, but nonetheless war had driven Austria from most of northern Italy

  • (Lombardy)

  • Within months other Italian states voted to unite with Piedmont

  • Garibaldi

  • Began successful unification campaign in Sicily

  • To forestall a republican victory, Cavour rushed troops south to confront Garibaldi

  • On way Cavour’s troops conquered most of the papal states

  • Warned not to go further because of French

  • Garibaldi’s nationalism won out over his republicanism

  • and he unhappily accepted the Piedmontese nomination

  • Late 1860 Naples and Sicily voted to join northern union

  • March 1861 Victor Emmanuel II was proclaimed king f Italy

  • Three months later Cavour died.

  • Italy gained Veneto (region around Venice) in 1866

  • As result of war between Austria and Prussia

  • And Rome in 1870

  • Result of Franco-Prussian war

  • Franco-Prussian War 1870

  • Napoleon III forced to remove from Rome the French troops who were protecting the city on behalf of the papacy.

  • Following this withdrawal, Italian troops entered the city, which became new capital of the Italian state.

PRUSSIA/GERMANY

  • King Frederick William IV

  • After news of revolts in France against Louis Philippe in Feb. 1848, Frederick William IV promised a constitution

  • Germany after Napoleon

  • Napoleon had created Confederate of the Rhine

  • But Not unified – 39 states

  • 1833 – creation of the Zollverein

  • Promoted economic unity

  • Free tax union

  • Encouraged a productive economy

  • German states minus Austria

  • Dominated by Prussia

  • 1848 revolutions

  • There had been 39 states since Congress of Vienna, in a few of those, violence in March 1848, had caused collapse of governments.

  • Frankfurt Assembly 1848-49

  • Delegates form all the German states assembled in Frankfurt

  • Debated question of a unified Germany

  • Grosse oder Kleine Deutsche

  • No legal precedent

  • Professional people, Catholic clergy, businessmen – people who had no desire for revolution.

  • No connection with masses

  • Issued Declaration of the Rights of the German People

  • Emphasized individual rights. That is, German rights.

  • Also constitution that excluded Austria.

  • Offered leadership of a united state to Frederick William of Prussia –

  • who scornfully refused the crown.

  • He had no intention of submitting to a constitutional monarchy

  • Nor did he want to fight Austria.

  • First outbreaks of violence in Berlin in 1848 caused reaction of panic in Frederick William IV

  • Although he promised Prussia constitution, he soon recovered his nerve and shut down the Berlin Assembly gathered to write Prussia a constitution

  • Let the Frankfurt Assembly proceed,

  • though it had no legal precedent

  • and he totally disregarded its actions.

  • Junkers = landed aristocracy

  • Pride in being “Prussian”

  • Felt contempt for rest of Germany

  • Berlin Assembly

  • Prussian affair only,

  • different from all-German Frankfurt Assembly that concerned about the same time

  • Turned out to be very liberal and anti-Junker

  • Frederick William changed mind about a constitutional assembly

  • and shut down the Berlin meeting

  • Schleswig and Holstein

  • German states at base of Denmark

  • Realpolitik

  • Politics of reality – emphasized law and order and hard work.

  • William I to power 1861

  • Accepted constitutional restrains of 1850

  • More liberal

  • But Wanted to increase military spending

  • Rejected by parliament

  • Bismarck

  • 1862 William appointed Bismarck as chief minister

  • Junker at heart

  • Ignored parliament

  • Enlarged and reformed army

  • Built railroads to transport troops

  • Allied with Russia at expense of Austria

  • Kept Austria out of zollverein

  • Schleswig and Holstein

  • Holstein was member of German Confederation

  • 17th c. decree that two states could not be separated

  • Schleswig more mixed

  • Resistance to Denmark in both states in 1848

  • Denmark tried to take Schleswig in 1863,

  • Austria and Prussia joined to prevent this through war

  • War with Austria

  • Prussia occupied Schleswig,

  • Austria in Holstein

  • Arguments

  • Bismarck war with Austria

  • Promised Venetia to Italy for help against Austria.

  • Seven Weeks War (3 weeks over)

  • Prussia had new needle gun (forerunner of machine gun)

  • and superior railroads)

  • Creation of North German Confederation (union of 22 states)

  • South was Catholic,

  • under influence of Austria,

  • friendly with France

  • Franco-Prussia War

  • Louis Napoleon in decline.

  • Disastrous attempt to establish an empire in Mexico with Maximilian.

  • Bismarck hoped war with France would scare others away from allegiance to Austria

  • Spanish throne vacant, wanted Hohenzollern –

  • Ems Dispatch

  • Alsace-Lorraine.

AUSTRIA


  • Emperor Francis Joseph (r. 1848-1916)

  • Habsburg – dynastic, absolutist and agrarian

  • After revolutions of 1848, Emperor Francis Joseph tried to impose a centralize administration on the multinational empire

  • Military and bureaucratic govt. was dominated by German-speaking Austrians

  • Annoyed Hungarians

  • Dual Monarchy/Ausgleich ("Compromise") 1867

  • Austria’s power shrinking

  • Compelled Francis Joseph to come to terms with Hungarian nobility

  • Transformed Habsburg Empire into a dual monarchy

  • Common monarch

  • ​Francis Joseph crown king of Hungary in Budapest

  • But foreign policy and army separate

  • Austria and Hungary functioned largely as separate states.

  • Other national groups opposed compromise

Because it permitted the German-speaking Austrians and Hungarian Magyars

  • ​To dominate all other nationalities

​Czechs and Bohemians were the most vocal group

  • By turn of century, they and German speaking groups in Austrian Reichstrat disrupted Parliament rather than permit a compromise on language issues.

  • Constitutionalism survived in Hungary only because Magyars used it to dominate competing national groups

  • 1848

  • The political leadership of Austria in 1848 didn’t allow Ferdinand the emperor who had fled, to return to his position because

  • With Ferdinand gone, the government would not have to honor promises he had made

RUSSIA


  • Tsar Alexander I (r.1801 – 1825)

  • Fought Napoleon

  • Died suddenly 1825.

  • No direct heir

  • Brother Constantine had renounced claim to throne

  • Alexander had named younger bother Nicholas (r. 1825-1855)

  • Three weeks not ruler

  • Decembrists revolt 1825

  • Army to take oath of allegiance to Nicholas (seen as more conservative than Nicholas)

  • Army had seen ideas of French Revolution ad Enlightenment when pursuing Napoleon

  • Saw how economically backward and politically stifled Russia was.

  • Moscow regime refused, marched in Saint Petersburg calling for Constantine and a constitution

  • Nicholas ordered cavalry and artillery (plotters executed, 100 other officers exiled to Siberia)

  • Liberalism crushed

  • Nicholas (r. 1825-1855)

  • Extreme conservatism in foreign affairs

  • Provided troops to suppress liberal and nationalist movement throughout Europe

  • No liberal political structures

  • Tsar Alexander II

  • In 1861 emancipated serfs (after failure of Crimean War)

  • Serfs had to pay for their freedom in annual payments over fifty years

  • Brought an end to series of concessions by monarchy in aftermath of Revolution of 1905

1848 REVOLUTIONS

  • Causes: No single cause

  • Food shortages since 1846 due to poor harvests

Commercial and industrial economy in recession (which caused widespread unemployment)

  • Middle class political liberals wanted more representative governments, civil liberty and unregulated economic life.

  • Working class wanted better working conditions.

  • Liberals joined by working classes

  • Working classes

  • wanted improved employment and better working conditions

  • Liberals

  • Didn’t want social reform thus isolated themselves from working-class allies.

  • Once separated revolution of 1848 failed to established genuinely lieral or national sates.

  • Nationalism

  • Revolutions Failed

  • Because of emergence of strongly conservative government

  • That dominatedd Europe for next quarter century


HUNGARY

  • Hungarian revolt of 1848 began with Kossuth’s emotional speeches in the Hungarian diet

  • Declared their independence and moved their capital to Budapest

  • Hungarians became concerned when Magyar became official language of Hungary

  • Magyar official language very difficult non-Indo-European language, fewer than 50% of Hungarian population were Magyar.

LIBERALISM

  • Wanted legal equality, religious toleration, freedom of press

  • Legitimate govt. from representative govt rather than monarchy

  • Liberals

  • Those who were excluded form existing political process

  • But whose wealth and education made them believe such exclusion was unjustified.

  • Careers based on talent (academics, commerce, manufacturing)

  • Not democrats

  • Despised lower classes

  • Did not support political right for women (Seneca Falls 1848 elcaration f Female independence)

#Haussman #Bismarck #Communards #CornLaws #Chartism #Gladstone #Disraeli #Carbonari #Garibaldi

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