19th Century Europe in a Nutshell
CONGRESS OF VIENNA (1814-1815)
First meeting (Sep. 1814)
Held after Napoleon was defeated in the last Battle of Paris by the Sixth Coalition
Austria -- Prince Klemens von Metternich (Foreign minister Emperor Francis I)
Great Britain -- Viscount Castlereagh (Foreign Sec., leader of House of Commons)
Russia -- Tsar Alexander I
Prussia -- Prince Karl von Hardenberg (representing King Frederick William III)
France -- Charles-Maurice de Talleyrand (foreign minister to King Louis XVIII)
Wanted to ensure that France would not engage in anymore wars of aggression
But wanted to maintain France as a balance of power against all the other European nations
Restored what was considered legitimate rule of France, Louis XVIII
Napoleon had created Duchy of Warsaw (1807-1815) recreating Poland after partition
At Congress of Vienna, Russia got control of kingdom of Poland and Prussia got 2/5 of Saxony.
Napoleon escaped exile in Elba and temporarily took back power
He was defeated again at Waterloo (Jun. 9, 1815)
Territory changes again
Russia kept Finland (which had been taken from Sweden)
Sweden kept Norway
Prussia got territory in Rhineland (western Germany) putting Prussia next to France to stop aggression
Netherlands got Austrian Netherlands (Belgium)
Piedmont-Sardinia (northern Italy) got Genoa
Austria lost Belgium but got Lombardy and Venetia in northern Italy. Relatives of Austrian emperor rule Parma, Modena and Tuscany in Italy while archduchess married to bourbon king of Two Siciies
Britain got Cape of Good Hope in southern Africa, Ceylon (Sri Lanka today) south of India and the French colonies of Trinidad and Tobago in the West Indies.
Napoleon (see post on Napoleon)
Defeated at Waterloo after his Hundred Day attempt to regain power.
Louis XVIII (r. 1814-1824)
Bourbon brother of Louis XVI
Restored as King of France by Congress of Vienna
Died in 1824
Charles X (r. 1824-1830)
Supported by émigrés (nobles who fled France during French Revolution)
Considered himself a monarch by divine right
Wanted to restore lands that French aristocrats (émigrés) had lost during revolution
Pressed conservative measures through Chamber of Deputies
Liberal opposition wanted constitutional regime
1830 Charles wanted ultraroyalist government
Called for elections
But liberals won elections
Charles X seized power anyway
July 1830 sent naval expedition against Algeria.
Issued Four Ordinances July 25, 1830
Restricted freedom of press
Dissolved recently elected liberal Chamber of Deputies
Called for new elections
Under franchise (right to vote) that was restricted to wealthiest people in country.
Parisian laborers suffering because of economic downturn flooded into streets
Charles X abdicated and fled into exile in England.
Louis Philippe (r. 1830-1848)
New Chamber of Deputies, constitutional monarchists
Proclaimed Louis Philippe as new monarch (July Monarchy)
Called himself “king of the French” not King of France”
King had to cooperate with Chamber of Deputies
Tricolor (not white flag of Bourbons) was flown freely
Rights of people, not concession granted by monarch
Catholicism as “religion of majority” (as under Napoleon) not official religion
Franchise (still limited) extended.
Landed oligarchy retained economic, politician and social influence
Money was path to power
King didn’t have much sympathy for lower and working class.
Middle-class liberals viewed revolution as way to secure political right
More radical workers hoped revolution would provide increased economic opportunities
Led to the creation of national workshops that provided jobs for unemployed workers
Over objections of liberals who viewed workshops as a costly and unnecessary intrusion y the government into the economy
Louis Philippe overthrown
Second Republic (1848-1851)
Proclaimed by Alphonse de Lamartine
Provisional government created National Workshops in February for the unemployed.
Workshops were closed in June causing June Days Uprising (Jun. 24-26)
In reaction, Louis-Napoleon Bonaparte(Napoleon's nephew) was elected president of the Republic
Second Empire (1851)
1851, Louis Napoleon organized a coup d'etat when he was blocked from running for a second term.
Declared himself "emperor"
Became Napoleon III on the 48th anniversary of Napoleon I's coronation.
Reconstruction of Paris (under Baron Haussmann), expanded railway system.
Promoted building of Suez Canal
Joined Britain in Crimean War (1853-56) to defeat Russia
Helped with Italian unification (annexed Savoy and Nice)
While defending Papal States
Tried to create a Second Mexican Empire under French protection (failed)
Fought Bismark in Franco-Prussian War
Franco-Prussian War 1871
France defeated by Prussians under Bismarck
Battle of Sedan
Napoleon III forced to abdicate
After humiliating defeat, people of Paris refused to surrender to Prussians
When new republic govt. formed after abdication of Napoleon III (based at Versailles)
insisted Parisians lay down arms
People of Paris formed own radical govt.
Known as the Commune.
Led to civil war in France.
War ended when Paris taken by republican forces
1000s of communards executed during “bloody week.”
French Third Republic (1873)
King William IV (r. 1830-1867)
Elected in power in 1868
House of Lords
House of Commons
Conservatives led by Benjamin Disraeli.
Passed social reform legislation
Great Reform Bill 1832
Replaced “rotten” boroughs” (few voters)
Increased number of voters in England and Wales
Increased by more than 200,000 people (about 50%) but basis of voting still with property qualification
New urban boroughs represented (like Manchester, Liverpool)
Middle class now entered Parliament (led to repeal of Corn Laws)
Tariff on wheat, made price of bread high
Supported by landed aristocracy (so no competition in Britain)
Not supported by middle class (had to pay workers higher wages) or workers
Sadler Committee of 1832
Collected first hand testimony from adults who began their working lives as child laborers in factories and minds
Brought child labor to attention of British public
Led to passage of Factory Act 1833.
Act of Union 1800 between England and Ireland
Had suppressed separate Irish Parliament and seated Irish representatives in British Parliament
Only Protestant Irishmen could be elected to represented Catholic country
1828 Daniel O’Connell elected to Parliament but could not legally take his seat until Duke of Wellington steered Catholic Emancipation Act through Parliament.
1840s working-class political movement
Demands of industrial workers
Universal male suffrage
Annual parliamentary elections
End of property requirements for holders of parliamentary seats
Equal electoral districts
Payment for members of the Parliament
Ignored in House of Commons
But all eventually passed except annual parliamentary elections (now every 5 years)
Second Reform Act 1867
Increased number of voters from 1,430,000 to 2,470,000
Passed by Disraeli
William Gladstone (r. 1868-1874) liberal party, became PM
Believed individualism, free trade and competition would solve social problems.
Introduced secret ballot
Brought competitive examinations into the civil service
Abolished purchase of officers’ commissions.
British govt. took responsibility for all primary education
Extended political liberty
Disraeli Prime Minister 1874
Believed state should protect weaker citizens
Paternalistic legislation to alleviate class antagonism
Public Health Act of 1875
Artisans Dwelling Act of 1875
Government became involved in providing housing for the working class.
Late 1860s onward, Irish nationalists sought home rule (more Irish control of local govt.
Election 1885 Irish Party (led by Charles Stewart Parnell)
Emerged holding the balance of power between the English Liberals and Conservatives.
Gladstone supported home rule for Ireland, so Parnell supported him
Split the Liberal Party
And group know as Liberal Unionists joined with Conservatives to defeat Gladstone’s Home Rule Bill in 1886
1892 Gladstone returned to power
Sponsored second Home Rule Bill (defeated in House of Lords)
1914 third Home Rule ill passed by Liberal ministry
Implementation suspended during WWI.
Italian nationalists formed a secret society called the Carbonari (charcoal burners)
Group was patriotic and liberal
Focused on repressive political situation in Italy after 1815 – esp. in south
Took part in process of Italian unification - Risorgimiento
Wanted to drive out the Austrians by popular military force then established a republic
Giuseppe Mazzini – organized Young Italy
Secret society to promote Italian unification through popular uprising (God and the People)
Marquis de Lafayette (American/French Revolutions)
Giuseppe Garibaldi (also joined Young Italy)
Inspired other young movements like the Young Turks
lacked clear immediate political agenda
Piedmontese troops crushed it
Not enough popular support
Piedmont-Sardinia was the only independent state in Italy
It wanted to extend its influence over the rest of northern Italy but not interested in unifying the whole peninsula
Austrians controlled Venetia and Lombardy.
Piedmont-Sardinia had no specific connection to Mazzini and Young Italy
Count Camillo Cavour
Prime minister of Piedmont (“Kingdom of Sardinia”
was the most independent state on the peninsula
Had fought unsuccessfully against Austria in 1848 and 1849
Victor Emmanuel II
1852 the new monarch Victory Emmanuel II (r. 1849-1878) chose Cavour – an economic liberal and a strong monarchist who rejected republicanism, as his PM
Believed that if Italians proved themselves to e efficient and economically progressive, the great powers might let Italy govern itself
Worked for free trade, railway construction, credit expansion and agricultural improvement
Fostered the Nationalist Society (est. chapters in their Italian states to press for unification under Peidmontese leadership)
Cavour joined French and British in Crimean War
Because he wanted French help with unification
France’s Napoleon III (r. 1825-1870) was sympathetic, and in 1858 Cavour and French emperor plotted to start war with Austria
War with Austria
April 1859 war erupted between Piedmont and Austria
France (Louis Napoleon) came to Piedmont’s aid
but soon concluded a spate peace with Austria
Fear of Pope – against unification
And war with Austria
Cavour felt betrayed by France, but nonetheless war had driven Austria from most of northern Italy
Within months other Italian states voted to unite with Piedmont
Began successful unification campaign in Sicily
To forestall a republican victory, Cavour rushed troops south to confront Garibaldi
On way Cavour’s troops conquered most of the papal states
Warned not to go further because of French
Garibaldi’s nationalism won out over his republicanism
and he unhappily accepted the Piedmontese nomination
Late 1860 Naples and Sicily voted to join northern union
March 1861 Victor Emmanuel II was proclaimed king f Italy
Three months later Cavour died.
Italy gained Veneto (region around Venice) in 1866
As result of war between Austria and Prussia
And Rome in 1870
Result of Franco-Prussian war
Franco-Prussian War 1870
Napoleon III forced to remove from Rome the French troops who were protecting the city on behalf of the papacy.
Following this withdrawal, Italian troops entered the city, which became new capital of the Italian state.
King Frederick William IV
After news of revolts in France against Louis Philippe in Feb. 1848, Frederick William IV promised a constitution
Germany after Napoleon
Napoleon had created Confederate of the Rhine
But Not unified – 39 states
1833 – creation of the Zollverein
Promoted economic unity
Free tax union
Encouraged a productive economy
German states minus Austria
Dominated by Prussia
There had been 39 states since Congress of Vienna, in a few of those, violence in March 1848, had caused collapse of governments.
Frankfurt Assembly 1848-49
Delegates form all the German states assembled in Frankfurt
Debated question of a unified Germany
Grosse oder Kleine Deutsche
No legal precedent
Professional people, Catholic clergy, businessmen – people who had no desire for revolution.
No connection with masses
Issued Declaration of the Rights of the German People
Emphasized individual rights. That is, German rights.
Also constitution that excluded Austria.
Offered leadership of a united state to Frederick William of Prussia –
who scornfully refused the crown.
He had no intention of submitting to a constitutional monarchy
Nor did he want to fight Austria.
First outbreaks of violence in Berlin in 1848 caused reaction of panic in Frederick William IV
Although he promised Prussia constitution, he soon recovered his nerve and shut down the Berlin Assembly gathered to write Prussia a constitution
Let the Frankfurt Assembly proceed,
though it had no legal precedent
and he totally disregarded its actions.
Junkers = landed aristocracy
Pride in being “Prussian”
Felt contempt for rest of Germany
Prussian affair only,
different from all-German Frankfurt Assembly that concerned about the same time
Turned out to be very liberal and anti-Junker
Frederick William changed mind about a constitutional assembly
and shut down the Berlin meeting
Schleswig and Holstein
German states at base of Denmark
Politics of reality – emphasized law and order and hard work.
William I to power 1861
Accepted constitutional restrains of 1850
But Wanted to increase military spending
Rejected by parliament
1862 William appointed Bismarck as chief minister
Junker at heart
Enlarged and reformed army
Built railroads to transport troops
Allied with Russia at expense of Austria
Kept Austria out of zollverein
Schleswig and Holstein
Holstein was member of German Confederation
17th c. decree that two states could not be separated
Schleswig more mixed
Resistance to Denmark in both states in 1848
Denmark tried to take Schleswig in 1863,
Austria and Prussia joined to prevent this through war
War with Austria
Prussia occupied Schleswig,
Austria in Holstein
Bismarck war with Austria
Promised Venetia to Italy for help against Austria.
Seven Weeks War (3 weeks over)
Prussia had new needle gun (forerunner of machine gun)
and superior railroads)
Creation of North German Confederation (union of 22 states)
South was Catholic,
under influence of Austria,
friendly with France
Louis Napoleon in decline.
Disastrous attempt to establish an empire in Mexico with Maximilian.
Bismarck hoped war with France would scare others away from allegiance to Austria
Spanish throne vacant, wanted Hohenzollern –
Emperor Francis Joseph (r. 1848-1916)
Habsburg – dynastic, absolutist and agrarian
After revolutions of 1848, Emperor Francis Joseph tried to impose a centralize administration on the multinational empire
Military and bureaucratic govt. was dominated by German-speaking Austrians
Dual Monarchy/Ausgleich ("Compromise") 1867
Austria’s power shrinking
Compelled Francis Joseph to come to terms with Hungarian nobility
Transformed Habsburg Empire into a dual monarchy
Francis Joseph crown king of Hungary in Budapest
But foreign policy and army separate
Austria and Hungary functioned largely as separate states.
Other national groups opposed compromise
Because it permitted the German-speaking Austrians and Hungarian Magyars
To dominate all other nationalities
Czechs and Bohemians were the most vocal group
By turn of century, they and German speaking groups in Austrian Reichstrat disrupted Parliament rather than permit a compromise on language issues.
Constitutionalism survived in Hungary only because Magyars used it to dominate competing national groups
The political leadership of Austria in 1848 didn’t allow Ferdinand the emperor who had fled, to return to his position because
With Ferdinand gone, the government would not have to honor promises he had made
Tsar Alexander I (r.1801 – 1825)
Died suddenly 1825.
No direct heir
Brother Constantine had renounced claim to throne
Alexander had named younger bother Nicholas (r. 1825-1855)
Three weeks not ruler
Decembrists revolt 1825
Army to take oath of allegiance to Nicholas (seen as more conservative than Nicholas)
Army had seen ideas of French Revolution ad Enlightenment when pursuing Napoleon
Saw how economically backward and politically stifled Russia was.
Moscow regime refused, marched in Saint Petersburg calling for Constantine and a constitution
Nicholas ordered cavalry and artillery (plotters executed, 100 other officers exiled to Siberia)
Nicholas (r. 1825-1855)
Extreme conservatism in foreign affairs
Provided troops to suppress liberal and nationalist movement throughout Europe
No liberal political structures
Tsar Alexander II
In 1861 emancipated serfs (after failure of Crimean War)
Serfs had to pay for their freedom in annual payments over fifty years
Brought an end to series of concessions by monarchy in aftermath of Revolution of 1905
Causes: No single cause
Food shortages since 1846 due to poor harvests
Commercial and industrial economy in recession (which caused widespread unemployment)
Middle class political liberals wanted more representative governments, civil liberty and unregulated economic life.
Working class wanted better working conditions.
Liberals joined by working classes
wanted improved employment and better working conditions
Didn’t want social reform thus isolated themselves from working-class allies.
Once separated revolution of 1848 failed to established genuinely lieral or national sates.
Because of emergence of strongly conservative government
That dominatedd Europe for next quarter century
Hungarian revolt of 1848 began with Kossuth’s emotional speeches in the Hungarian diet
Declared their independence and moved their capital to Budapest
Hungarians became concerned when Magyar became official language of Hungary
Magyar official language very difficult non-Indo-European language, fewer than 50% of Hungarian population were Magyar.
Wanted legal equality, religious toleration, freedom of press
Legitimate govt. from representative govt rather than monarchy
Those who were excluded form existing political process
But whose wealth and education made them believe such exclusion was unjustified.
Careers based on talent (academics, commerce, manufacturing)
Despised lower classes
Did not support political right for women (Seneca Falls 1848 elcaration f Female independence)