Thirty Years War
1555 Peace of Augsburg
Settlement between Charles V (Catholic, Hapsburg, Holy Roman Emperor) and the Schmalkaldic League (Protestants from HRE)
Allowed rulers in HRE to choose Lutheranism or Roman Catholicism as religion of their state.
Cuius regio, eius religio ("whose realm, his religion")
Subjects converted to rulers' faiths.
Rulers/Princes who chose Protestantism would not have to send money to Pope and could confiscate Catholic land (like monasteries)
Rulers couldn't choose Calvinism
In 1556, two years before Charles V died, he divided his empire between:
His son Philip II and
His brother Ferdinand I
Inherited Spain (including Spain's territories in America),
The Netherlands (Dutch Republic) and Italy
Became the Holy Roman Emperor
And inherited the Austrian territories, Bohemia and Hungary.
Eighty-years War (1568-1648)
Philip II more interested in Catholic Spain than 17 provinces in the Netherlands
Council of Blood or Council of Troubles (1567-1574)
Philip II sent Duke of Alba (Alva) to force Dutch Calvinists to become Catholic
Reign of terror, 1000s executed, high taxes, confiscated land of important nobles
Caused Dutch to unite under stadtholder William of Orange
Dutch rebel, civil war, anarchy
Protestant (Dutch Calvinist) Seven Provinces join (Union of Utrecht), become Holland, continue rebellion, not recognized by Spain until Twelve Years Truce 1609
Catholic (present-day Belgium) join Spanish (become Spanish Netherlands)
War between the Dutch Republic and Spanish Hapsburg's lasted 80 years
England's Queen Elizabeth (r. 1558-1603) allied with Protestants
See Spanish Armada 1588 - Spain loses because of "Protestant Wind"
The Dutch finally won independence at the end of the Thirty Years War with the Peace of Münster (part of Peace of Westphalia)
THIRTY YEARS WAR COMPONENTS
Civil war in German states between Protestants and Catholics
German civil war over authority of the Holy Roman Emperor v. independent rulers
International war: Bourbon France, Denmark and Sweden against Hapsburgs (Spain and Austria)
Battle between Spanish Hapsburgs and Dutch Republic
Fighting by independent soldiers of fortune trying to gain territory and booty (like Albrecht of Wallenstein)
FOUR STAGES OF THIRTY YEARS WAR
Bohemian Phase (1618-1625 or 1618-1621)
After ascending the throne as Holy Roman Emperor and King of Bohemia, Ferdinand II (r. 1619-1637) tried to take away religious freedoms from the Calvinist Bohemians
When Ferdinand's men came to Prague (Bohemia's capital), to enact Ferdinand's edict, they were thrown out of the window (called the "Defenestration of Prague").
They survived when they landed in excrement.
Bohemians then elected a Calvinist King, Frederick, causing a conflict
The Spanish Hapsburg's and German Catholic League sent troops to help Ferdinand put down the rebellion.
The Catholics defeated the Bohemians at the Battle of White Mountain -- Bohemians were "recatholicized."
Danish Phase (1625-1629 or 1621-1630)
The defeat of the Protestants by Hapsburgs alarmed Denmark
Denmark's King Christian IV entered the war with the help of other Protestant leaders
Ferdinand hires Bohemian general, Albrecht of Wallenstein
Ambitious and opportunistic
Commanded mercenary armies against Protestant Denmark
Wallenstein was successful
Confident of success, Ferdinand issued the "Edict of Restitution" (1629)
Ordering the restoration of all Catholic lands taken by Lutheran princes.
Reinforcing the Peace of Augsburg by making Calvinism illegal.
Authorizing the forced conversion of Protestants back to Catholicism (against terms of Peace of Augsburg).
The Edict strengthened the Protestants' resolve to defeat Ferdinand.
Swedish Phase (1629-1635 or 1630-1632)
Ferdinand's success prompted Sweden's Lutheran king, Gustavus Adolphus II, to join fight against Catholics to stop the Hapsburg threat to Swedish lands around Baltic Sea.
Sweden joined by France which helped subsidize the Protestant effort
Although Catholic, France wanted to weaken the power of the Hapsburgs who surrounded them.
Sweden's army was the most modern at the time: used muskets, pikes and cannons.
After Swedish successes Ferdinand fired Wallenstein then had him assassinated because of his independent ambition.
Gustavus Adolphus II died in the Battle of Lützen in 1632.
Swedish-French Phase (1635-1648 or 1632-1648)
The Protestant princes raised new armies becoming strong enough to force Ferdinand to make peace with them and suspend the Edict of Restitution (in 1635, Peace of Prague).
In the same year (1635) France (by the suggestion of King Louis XIII's chief minister, Cardinal Richelieu)
Increased subsidies to the Protestants.
And declared war on Ferdinand II
1637, Ferdinand II died
Succeeded by his son, Ferdinand III, who wanted to end the war.
France kept Spain (Philip IV) too busy to help Hapsburgs by helping insurgents in Spanish province of Catalonia.
1643 Louis XIII died
Leaving his 5-year old son, Louis XIV, on the throne.
In 1645, Louis XIV's new minister, Cardinal Mazarin, was preoccupied by the Fronde and worked to end the war.
War ended in 1648
PEACE OF WESTPHALIA
The Peace of Augsburg was renewed
With Calvinism legally recognized as an option (see above)
The United Provinces (Dutch Republic/Holland/northern Netherlands) became independent
The Swiss Confederacy (Switzerland) became independent.
Bavaria became an elector state and got more territory
Brandenburg-Prussia got more land (and became the most powerful German state)
France received rights over Alsace and Lorraine.
Sweden was given control over the mouths of the Oder, Elbe and Weser Rivers
CONSEQUENCES OF THE WAR
Diseases and battle killed more than 1/3 of Germany's population
Germany, the battlefield of the war, suffered economically because of looting, destruction, depopulation and the loss of trade.
Because of France's involvement
The battle was less about religion than geopolitics.
The era of religious wars was over.
France emerged as a superpower.
The Habsburg's lost their hold over the Holy Roman Empire
The 300 German states in the now defunct Holy Roman Empire were sovereign and separated.