French and Indian War
EVENTS BEFORE THE WAR
Europe's "long peace" (Ended 1739 when Britain declared war on Spain)
War of Jenkin's Ear
Merchant Robert Jenkins's ear was cut off by Spanish customs agent.
War merged into War of the Austrian Succession in Europe
War of Austrian Succession
Prussia (French ally) attacked Austria (GB ally)
American part of the battle was called "King George's War"
Battles in America
Spanish Florida had been fighting war with South Carolina and Georgia
French raiding New England shipping.
Then taking refuge in fort Louisbourg (state-of-the-art fortress) on Cape Breton Island.
Massachusetts captured Louisbourg in 1745.
But fort returned to French by British in the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle in 1748.
In return for French concessions elsewhere.
Parliament reimbursed Massachusetts for expenses
But Mass. still unhappy about 500 lives lost
And continued French harassment of New England merchants
King George's War
American leg of the War of Austrian Succession (see above)
FRENCH AND INDIAN WAR
Differed from early Fr/Br. wars
Was a worldwide war
Br. v. Fr. in West Indies, India, Europe and North America
War began in North America
to expel French from North America
ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES
British Colonies -- 1.2 million white colonists + British troops
French Colonies -- 50,000 whites
Spanish Colonies -- 20,000 whites north of Mexico
Alliance with Indians (west of Appalachians, between Ohio River and Great Lakes)
Colonists already claiming the "Ohio Country"
speculators, like George Washington, already held titles to land)
Shawnees, Delawares, Miamis aligned with French
French had no ambition to settle area (not enough colonists)
Indians traded furs for French goods, incl. arms
French stopped British settlement
KEY EVENTS IN WAR
George Washington and Ft. Necessity
French laid out string of forts
Governor of VA sent Washington west to tell French they were trespassing
French rejected VA claims to land
Washington back with small force but run off by Indians and French
Washington holed up at quickly constructed Ft. Necessity
Washington soundly defeated in skirmish
French built Fort Duquesne.
British Parliament sent troops under General Edward Braddock to VA
Washington was Braddock's aide in charge of VA volunteers
Duquesne only manned by 150 Canadian volunteers and 600 Indians
Indians said they would leave when heard that Braddock's troops coming but French convinced them to stay and launch surprise attack. (ambush style was alien to Braddock)
Braddock was killed, Washington organized the rest of the troops.
2.3 of British and Virginians killed or captured. (French/Indians only lost 23)
TREATY OF PARIS 1763
New France divided at Mississippi River
Spain gets French territory west of Mississippi River (gives up Florida to British)
Britain gets French territory to the east of Mississippi River (and Florida from Spanish)
France maintains West Indies sugar colonies of Martinique and Guadeloupe
LESSONS FROM WAR
American colonists serving in English army saw how English treated soldiers (badly)
Caused anti-British sentiments among colonial soldiers.
American officers, like Washington, could not rise ranks of militiary
English officers believed American colonists were unsophisticated because they fought like the Indians (guerrilla tactics)