War of Spanish Succession (1701-1714)
CAUSES OF THE WAR
Battle over Spanish throne after death of childless Spanish Hapsburg, Charles II in 1700.
Louis XIV's wife was Charles II's sister.
Wanted his grandson, Philip, to become Bourbon ruler of Spain (and Louis's successor in France)
Grand Alliance saw this as threat - France would be too strong.
Emperor Leopold's wife was also Charles II's sister.
He wanted his son, Charles, to be ruler of Spain
Wanted to keep Spanish possessions unified.
Wanted to advance England's commercial position in America and the Mediterranean
Control over the Spain and its vast empire.
If France won the war,
Philip, Duke of Anjou (Louis XIV's grandson) would rule over France and Spain (along with all the Spanish colonies)
France would be stronger than all the other colonies disrupting balance of power.
If Hapsburgs won and Leopold died
Archduke Charles would reunify all the Hapsburg territories (back to borders of Charles V)
CONCLUSION OF WAR
France and Spain were defeated by Grand Alliance (League of Augsburg)
Grand alliance collapsed
Leopold died in 1711 (meaning Charles would inherit Holy Roman Empire and Austria)
Peace negotiations began 1712
TREATIES OF UTRECHT (1713)
Ignoring wishes of Charles II, Spain was divided.
Philip, Duke of Anjou, became King Philip V Bourbon.
But he and his descendants could never rule over France as well.
Most of Spain's European possessions (outside Spain itself) were given to Austrian Hapsburgs.
Agreed to stop supporting son of James II as England's king
And recognized Anne as rightful queen.
Gave up Newfoundland, Nova Scotia, Hudson Bay territory and St. Kitts in North America
Kept Alsace and Franche-Comte
Got Gibraltar and Minorca in Mediterranean from Spain
Making Eglnd a naval power in the Mediterranean.
Got Newfoundland and Nova Scotia in Canada from France
Got Hudson Bay region from France.
Got asiento from Spain
The privilege of providing slaves to Spanish colonies for next 30 years.
Got the Italian Hapsburg holdings (Milan, Naples)
And got Belgium (now the Austrian Netherlands)
Transferred from Spanish control (as Spanish Netherlands)
To Austrian control (as Austrian Netherlands)
Belgians founded an overseas trading company ("Ostend Company) in 1723
Under authority of Austria.
Austrians withdrew support to get Dutch and British recognition of Maria Theresa's
Receded from the international political stage.
Although they still had huge shipping and financial resources.
In exchange for his aid to the Austrians, the Elector of Brandenburg-Prussia is recognized by Leopold I as "King" Frederick I of Prussia.