-- Under Construction --
Austria - the "hereditary provinces" of the Hapsburgs
Kingdom of Bohemia (Bohemia, Moravia and Silesia) added 1620
Overseen by land-owners who had been officers in 30 Years War
Kingdom of Hungary (Hungary, Transylvania and Croatia) added 1683
After 1699 old Magyar nobility severely weakened
1703 rebellion (encouraged by Louis XIV) was crushed.
Maintained Hungarian language
Each constituent country had its own law, diet and political life.
Hapsburgs had eliminated Protestantism in most of its territories during Thirty Years War.
Because of inbreeding, Charles V suffered from many ailments including:
The Hapsburg jaw (a deformity that prevented him from eating)
Gout (because of his diet)
He died of malaria in 1558.
Charles inherited Austria, Spain and Netherlands by birth (see tree above
Elected Holy Roman Emperor in 1519
Charles spend his childhood in the Low Countries (Netherlands)
1515-1523 Frisian peasants rebelled in Netherlands.
Netherlands also provided income for the empire.
Spain and Italy
The crown of Aragon included included the Kingdom of Naples, Sicily and Sardinia.
The Spanish crown also included all the Spanish territories in the New World.
Charles V and Martin Luther
In 1521, Pope Leo X excommunicated Luther because he refused to recant his reformist ideas about the church.
Charles V, a supporter of the Pope, wanted to punish Luther more.
In 1521, Charles presided over the Diet of Worms and later outlawed Luther.
Battle of Mohacs 1526
In 1526, Hungary was conquered by Ottoman Empire sultan, Suleiman the Magnificent
Peasants revolt 1524-1526.
Sack of Rome (1527)
Charles imprisoned Pope Clement VII in 1527
Preventing the Pope from annulling the marriage of Henry VIII to Charles's aunt Catherine of Aragon.
Leading to Henry VIII's break from the Catholic Church to create the Anglican Church.
Siege of Vienna 1529
In 1529, Suleiman the Magnificent attempted to take Vnna.
The Muslims were unsuccessful.
Francis I of France allied with Suleiman against Charles.
Charles V finally allied with the Persian Safavids to open up a second front against the Ottomans.
1531 the Lutherans formed the Schmalkaldic League.
1545 the Council of Trent opened beginning the Counter-Reformation.
A year later, after the death of Martin Luther, Charles outlawed the Schmalkaldic League.
Peace of Augsburg 1555
Henry V abdicated his throne before he died.
Giving the Low Countries, Italy, Spain and the Spanish territories in the New World to his son, Philip II.
and Austria to his brother Ferdinand I.
PHILIP II (r. 1556-1598)
Considered "chief defender" of the Catholic Europe.
Son of Charles V
Philip II inherited Spain, Milan and the Low Countries (Seventeen Provinces) from his father, Charles V.
Also inherited all the Spanish territories in the New World.
Including Philippines, discovered by Magellan in 1521, named after Philip II in 1543
King of England (1554-1558)
Philip II was married Mary, the Queen of England ("Bloody Mary")
Becoming the King of England until her death in 1558
Spain's Golden Age
During Philip's reign, Spain reached it's highest position of power
However, the nation also experienced a number of bankruptcies
Because of the diminishing value of silver
Spain's delay in developing industry
And Philip's many wars (against Dutch, Britain etc.)
After inheriting the Netherlands (where Dutch Calvinism had strongly taken root), Philip waged a campaign against Dutch Protestants.
The Dutch, under the leadership of stadtholder William of Orange, waged an 80 year war of rebellion against Philip II (ended 1648)
Spanish Armada 1588
Unsuccessful naval expedition against Protestant England
Largely due to storms and winds (Protestants called it the "Protestant Wind")
Catholics (Hapsburgs, Pope, Catholic principalities) v. Protestants (Protestant princes, Scandinavia)
France (Catholic) enters on Protestant side in order to defeat rival Hapsburgs.
After the War
Hapsburg's lost hope of support from Spain.
Princes in Holy Roman Empire gained more autonomy
Treaty of Augsburg extended to Calvinists
France became a dominant power in Europe
Holy Roman Empire after Thirty Years War
Weakened because of fighting and divisions (300 sovereign states)
Each state wanted to preserve liberties
Imperial Diet (general assembly of all the states)
Divided into Protestants and Catholics - decisions impossible
After 1648, Holy Roman Emperor was bound to decisions made in Diet
Without large-scale organization, HRE couldn't engag in overseas colonization or trade.
Internal commerce stifled by differing laws and currencies as well as tariffs.
SIEGE OF VIENNA, 1683
First battle in the Great Turkish War
Series of conflicts between Ottoman Empire and Holy League)
Ottoman Empire was supported by France (Louis XIV).
Hapbsburg Emperor Leopold I
Defended Vienna with help from Holy League
The Holy League (1683-1699)
Organized by Pope Pius XI (provided funding for war)
Duke Charles of Lorraine (who needed Hapsburg help against Louis XIV's attempt to annex Lorraine)
Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth (under John II Sobieski)
German Nations of the Holy Roman Empire
(Russia joined the Holy League in 1686)
Turks defeated with help from Prince Eugene of Savoy
Who reorganized Austrian army
Hungry (Magyars) added to Hapsburg domains.
Ended 300 years of conflict between the Austrian Hapsburgs and the Ottomans.
After war, the Ottoman Turks declined and ceased being a menace to Europe.
PRAGMATIC SANCTION 1713
To create sense of unity, Emperor Charles VI
Every diet and all Hapsburg archdukes were to agree that the Hapsburg territories were united with only one line of heirs.
Charles VI's only heir was his daughter Maria Theresa.
Pragmatic Sanction was intended to secure her succession
In violation of Salic law = only men could succeed fathers
Charles got all major foreign powers to sign the guarantee as well.
Despite Charles VI's work, when he died in 1740 competitors challenged her authority.
Frederick II dismissed idea completely.
WAR OF AUSTRIAN SUCCESSION (1740-1748)
As soon as Maria Theresa took the crown, Frederick challenged her authority.
Frederick marched on Silesia (richest of the Hapsburg provinces)
Also forged alliances with other German states against Austria.
Plunged Europe into a series of wars for mastery of central Europe.
Maria Theresa with Hungarians
Defeated Prussia's allies (Bavarians, Saxons, French, Spanish)
Ended with military stalemate
1748 peace treaty.
Maria Theresa preserved Hapsburg state as a major power
But unable to take Silesia back from Frederick.
Frederick afraid to be isolated - allied with Great Britain
Joined in new alliance with France
Had 16 children (including Marie Antoinette and Joseph, her successor)
To strengthen her postilion as ruler and command strong forces
Maria Theresa took control over taxation
Diminished burdens on peasantry
SEVEN YEARS WAR
After Diplomatic Revolution, Frederick the Great (Prussia) reopened hostilities
By striking Saxony in 1756 - initiating Seven Years War (1756-1763)
Austria joined by France and Russia and Sweden (hoping to gain lands at Prussia's expense)
Prussia backed financially by Britain (hoping to weaken France)
Sudden change in Russia n 1762
Tsarina Elizabeth died
Succeeded by Peter III (who admired Frederick the Great)
Russia pulled out of war.
PARTITION OF POLAND
Partition of Poland, 1772, 1793, 1795
Austria gained territory.