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Hapsburg Empire


-- Under Construction --

TERRITORY

  • Austria - the "hereditary provinces" of the Hapsburgs

  • Kingdom of Bohemia (Bohemia, Moravia and Silesia) added 1620

  • Overseen by land-owners who had been officers in 30 Years War

  • Kingdom of Hungary (Hungary, Transylvania and Croatia) added 1683

  • After 1699 old Magyar nobility severely weakened

  • 1703 rebellion (encouraged by Louis XIV) was crushed.

  • Maintained Hungarian language

  • Each constituent country had its own law, diet and political life.

RELIGION

  • Catholic

  • Hapsburgs had eliminated Protestantism in most of its territories during Thirty Years War.


CHARLES V


  • Personal

  • Because of inbreeding, Charles V suffered from many ailments including:

  • The Hapsburg jaw (a deformity that prevented him from eating)

  • Epilepsy

  • Gout (because of his diet)

  • He died of malaria in 1558.

  • Territory:

  • Charles inherited Austria, Spain and Netherlands by birth (see tree above

  • Elected Holy Roman Emperor in 1519

  • Netherlands

  • Charles spend his childhood in the Low Countries (Netherlands)

  • 1515-1523 Frisian peasants rebelled in Netherlands.

  • Netherlands also provided income for the empire.

  • Spain and Italy

  • The crown of Aragon included included the Kingdom of Naples, Sicily and Sardinia.

  • The Spanish crown also included all the Spanish territories in the New World.

  • Charles V and Martin Luther

  • In 1521, Pope Leo X excommunicated Luther because he refused to recant his reformist ideas about the church.

  • Charles V, a supporter of the Pope, wanted to punish Luther more.

  • In 1521, Charles presided over the Diet of Worms and later outlawed Luther.

  • Battle of Mohacs 1526

  • In 1526, Hungary was conquered by Ottoman Empire sultan, Suleiman the Magnificent

  • Peasants revolt 1524-1526.

  • Sack of Rome (1527)

  • Charles imprisoned Pope Clement VII in 1527

  • Preventing the Pope from annulling the marriage of Henry VIII to Charles's aunt Catherine of Aragon.

  • Leading to Henry VIII's break from the Catholic Church to create the Anglican Church.

  • Siege of Vienna 1529

  • In 1529, Suleiman the Magnificent attempted to take Vnna.

  • The Muslims were unsuccessful.

  • Francis I of France allied with Suleiman against Charles.

  • Charles V finally allied with the Persian Safavids to open up a second front against the Ottomans.

  • 1531 the Lutherans formed the Schmalkaldic League.

  • 1545 the Council of Trent opened beginning the Counter-Reformation.

  • A year later, after the death of Martin Luther, Charles outlawed the Schmalkaldic League.

  • Peace of Augsburg 1555

  • Henry V abdicated his throne before he died.

  • Giving the Low Countries, Italy, Spain and the Spanish territories in the New World to his son, Philip II.

  • and Austria to his brother Ferdinand I.

PHILIP II (r. 1556-1598)


  • Personal

  • Devout Catholic

  • Considered "chief defender" of the Catholic Europe.

  • Son of Charles V

  • Territory

  • Philip II inherited Spain, Milan and the Low Countries (Seventeen Provinces) from his father, Charles V.

  • Also inherited all the Spanish territories in the New World.

  • Including Philippines, discovered by Magellan in 1521, named after Philip II in 1543

  • King of England (1554-1558)

  • Philip II was married Mary, the Queen of England ("Bloody Mary")

  • Becoming the King of England until her death in 1558

  • Spain's Golden Age

  • During Philip's reign, Spain reached it's highest position of power

  • However, the nation also experienced a number of bankruptcies

  • Because of the diminishing value of silver

  • Spain's delay in developing industry

  • And Philip's many wars (against Dutch, Britain etc.)

  • Revolt of Netherlands 1568 (link)

  • After inheriting the Netherlands (where Dutch Calvinism had strongly taken root), Philip waged a campaign against Dutch Protestants.

  • The Dutch, under the leadership of stadtholder William of Orange, waged an 80 year war of rebellion against Philip II (ended 1648)

  • Spanish Armada 1588

  • Unsuccessful naval expedition against Protestant England

  • Largely due to storms and winds (Protestants called it the "Protestant Wind")

THIRTY YEARS WAR (1618-1648)

  • War

  • Catholics (Hapsburgs, Pope, Catholic principalities) v. Protestants (Protestant princes, Scandinavia)

  • France (Catholic) enters on Protestant side in order to defeat rival Hapsburgs.

  • Hapsburgs defeated

  • After the War

  • Hapsburg's lost hope of support from Spain.

  • Princes in Holy Roman Empire gained more autonomy

  • Treaty of Augsburg extended to Calvinists

  • France became a dominant power in Europe

  • Holy Roman Empire after Thirty Years War

  • Weakened because of fighting and divisions (300 sovereign states)

  • Each state wanted to preserve liberties

  • Imperial Diet (general assembly of all the states)

  • Divided into Protestants and Catholics - decisions impossible

  • After 1648, Holy Roman Emperor was bound to decisions made in Diet

  • Without large-scale organization, HRE couldn't engag in overseas colonization or trade.

  • Internal commerce stifled by differing laws and currencies as well as tariffs.

RECOVERY (1648-1740)

SIEGE OF VIENNA, 1683

  • First battle in the Great Turkish War

  • Series of conflicts between Ottoman Empire and Holy League)

  • Ottoman Empire was supported by France (Louis XIV).

  • Hapbsburg Emperor Leopold I

  • ​Defended Vienna with help from Holy League

  • The Holy League (1683-1699)

  • Organized by Pope Pius XI (provided funding for war)

  • Papal States

  • Duke Charles of Lorraine (who needed Hapsburg help against Louis XIV's attempt to annex Lorraine)

  • Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth (under John II Sobieski)

  • German Nations of the Holy Roman Empire

  • (Russia joined the Holy League in 1686)

  • Turks defeated with help from Prince Eugene of Savoy

  • Who reorganized Austrian army

  • Hungry (Magyars) added to Hapsburg domains.

  • Ended 300 years of conflict between the Austrian Hapsburgs and the Ottomans.

  • After war, the Ottoman Turks declined and ceased being a menace to Europe.

PRAGMATIC SANCTION 1713

  • To create sense of unity, Emperor Charles VI

  • Every diet and all Hapsburg archdukes were to agree that the Hapsburg territories were united with only one line of heirs.

  • Charles VI's only heir was his daughter Maria Theresa.

  • Pragmatic Sanction was intended to secure her succession

  • In violation of Salic law = only men could succeed fathers

  • Charles got all major foreign powers to sign the guarantee as well.

  • Despite Charles VI's work, when he died in 1740 competitors challenged her authority.

  • Frederick II dismissed idea completely.

WAR OF AUSTRIAN SUCCESSION (1740-1748)

  • As soon as Maria Theresa took the crown, Frederick challenged her authority.

  • Frederick marched on Silesia (richest of the Hapsburg provinces)

  • Also forged alliances with other German states against Austria.

  • Plunged Europe into a series of wars for mastery of central Europe.

  • Maria Theresa with Hungarians

  • Defeated Prussia's allies (Bavarians, Saxons, French, Spanish)

  • Ended with military stalemate

  • 1748 peace treaty.

  • Maria Theresa preserved Hapsburg state as a major power

  • But unable to take Silesia back from Frederick.

DIPLOMATIC REVOLUTION

  • Prussia

  • Frederick afraid to be isolated - allied with Great Britain

  • Austria

  • Joined in new alliance with France

MARIA THERESA

  • Personal

  • Had 16 children (including Marie Antoinette and Joseph, her successor)

  • Reforms

  • To strengthen her postilion as ruler and command strong forces

  • Maria Theresa took control over taxation

  • Diminished burdens on peasantry

  • Reorganized bureaucracy

SEVEN YEARS WAR

  • After Diplomatic Revolution, Frederick the Great (Prussia) reopened hostilities

  • By striking Saxony in 1756 - initiating Seven Years War (1756-1763)

  • Austria joined by France and Russia and Sweden (hoping to gain lands at Prussia's expense)

  • Prussia backed financially by Britain (hoping to weaken France)

  • Sudden change in Russia n 1762

  • Tsarina Elizabeth died

  • Succeeded by Peter III (who admired Frederick the Great)

  • Russia pulled out of war.


PARTITION OF POLAND

  • Partition of Poland, 1772, 1793, 1795

  • Austria gained territory.




#Hapsburgs #PhilipII #ThirtyYearsWar

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