War of Devolution (1667-68)
Nominally ruled from 1643 (under regents Cardinal Mazarin and his mother Anne of Austria)
Ruled in his own right in 1661 after death of Cardinal Mazarin
Under pressure to seek glory in battlefield.
LOUIS XIV'S MARRIAGE TO MARIE-THERESE
Treaty of Pyrenees 1659
Ended 24 years of war between Spain and France
King Philip IV of Spain had to give up territory
And allow his daughter Marie-Therese to marry Louis XIV
Marie Therese gave up all her rights to her father's inheritance
In exchange for the promise of 500,000 gold ducats.
But the ducats were not paid.
LOUIS XIV'S CLAIMS TO SPANISH NETHERLANDS
When Philip IV died in 1665
Louis claimed parts of the Spanish Netherlands
Louis claimed the territory should "devolve" to Marie-Therese
Because the dowry (the 500,000 gold ducats) were not paid.
Also, the property should not go to Philip's infant son, Charles II
Because he was a son from Philip's second marriage.
According to custom, devolution of land should go to daughters of first marriage over sons of subsquent marriages.
Charles II's mother (his regent) rejected the claims
French army advanced on Flanders in 1667, easily won.
Then Louis concluded a treaty with Holy Roman Emperor Leopold I
Agreeing to partition Spanish dominions between them when Charles II died.
Charles II was very sickly and couldn't bear children.
France then annexed Netherlands
When victory seemed within reach
England joined with the Dutch and Sweden to stop French advances.
To prevent France from upsettng the balance of power.
By persuading Spain to agree to moderate terms
And supporting Spain in war if war happened.
Peace concluded at Aix-la-Chapelle April 1668
But Prince de Conde of France had already taken Franche-Comte
Franche-Comte was returned to Spain
Bergues, Furnes, Armentieres, Oudenaarde, Courtrai, Lille, Douai, Tournai, Binche, Ath and Charleroi.
FRANCO-DUTCH WAR (1672-1678)
In 1672 Louis turned against the Dutch
Blamed Dutch for organizing the alliance against him
Dutch were France's chief trade competitors.
Dutch stopped the invading French
By opening the dikes and flooding the land.
Spain, Brandenburg-Prussia and Holy Roman empire
France, Sweden, Munster, Cologne and England
Ended with Treaty of Nijmegen
Spain gave up Franche-Comte and some cities in Flanders to France
France returned some of its conquests (Maastricht and Principality of Orange) to the Dutch.