• amanda0195

War of Devolution (1667-68)


BACKGROUND

  • Louis XIV

  • Nominally ruled from 1643 (under regents Cardinal Mazarin and his mother Anne of Austria)

  • Ruled in his own right in 1661 after death of Cardinal Mazarin

  • Under pressure to seek glory in battlefield.

LOUIS XIV'S MARRIAGE TO MARIE-THERESE

  • Treaty of Pyrenees 1659

  • Ended 24 years of war between Spain and France

  • King Philip IV of Spain had to give up territory

  • And allow his daughter Marie-Therese to marry Louis XIV

  • Marie Therese gave up all her rights to her father's inheritance

  • In exchange for the promise of 500,000 gold ducats.

  • But the ducats were not paid.


LOUIS XIV'S CLAIMS TO SPANISH NETHERLANDS

  • When Philip IV died in 1665

  • Louis claimed parts of the Spanish Netherlands

  • Louis claimed the territory should "devolve" to Marie-Therese

  • Because the dowry (the 500,000 gold ducats) were not paid.

  • Also, the property should not go to Philip's infant son, Charles II

  • Because he was a son from Philip's second marriage.

  • According to custom, devolution of land should go to daughters of first marriage over sons of subsquent marriages.

  • Charles II's mother (his regent) rejected the claims

BATTLE

  • French army advanced on Flanders in 1667, easily won.

  • Then Louis concluded a treaty with Holy Roman Emperor Leopold I

  • Agreeing to partition Spanish dominions between them when Charles II died.

  • Charles II was very sickly and couldn't bear children.

  • France then annexed Netherlands

  • When victory seemed within reach

  • England joined with the Dutch and Sweden to stop French advances.

  • To prevent France from upsettng the balance of power.

  • By persuading Spain to agree to moderate terms

  • And supporting Spain in war if war happened.

PEACE

  • Peace concluded at Aix-la-Chapelle April 1668

  • But Prince de Conde of France had already taken Franche-Comte

  • Franche-Comte was returned to Spain

  • France kept

  • Bergues, Furnes, Armentieres, Oudenaarde, Courtrai, Lille, Douai, Tournai, Binche, Ath and Charleroi.


FRANCO-DUTCH WAR (1672-1678)

  • In 1672 Louis turned against the Dutch

  • Blamed Dutch for organizing the alliance against him

  • Dutch were France's chief trade competitors.

  • Dutch stopped the invading French

  • By opening the dikes and flooding the land.

  • Dutch allies

  • Spain, Brandenburg-Prussia and Holy Roman empire

  • vs.

  • France, Sweden, Munster, Cologne and England

  • Ended with Treaty of Nijmegen

  • Spain gave up Franche-Comte and some cities in Flanders to France

  • France returned some of its conquests (Maastricht and Principality of Orange) to the Dutch.


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