War of 1812
WAR BETWEEN FRANCE AND BRITAIN
Beginning July, 1789, France underwent a revolution
European monarchs watched with alarm as members of the Third Estate forced France's King Louis XVI to move back to Paris to rule as a Constitutional Monarch.
French war with Austria
In 1791, Austrian King Leopold and Prussian Frederick William II issued the Declaration of Pillnitz threatening consequences if harm befell King Louis or his family.
France declared war on Austria in retaliation on April 20, 1792.
French war with Britain
On January 21, 1793, the French revolutionary government executed Louis XVI for treason.
Ten days later (Feb. 1, 1793) France declared war against Britain
Which until that time was neutral, but allied to Spain, Austria and Prussia
Became 1st Consul, 1799 and Emperor of France, 1804
Defeated Russia & Austria (Battle of Austerlitz) in 1805
Defeated Prussia at Battles of Jena and Auerstedt 1806
Treaties of Tilsit 1807
Uneasy peace with Prussia and Russia
Only Britain was left to fight France
U.S RELATIONS WITH FRANCE AND BRITAIN
U.S. RELATIONS WITH FRANCE
US had mutual assistance treaty with France
For helping U.S. against Britain in War of Independence)
US would join France against GB only if Britain was aggressor
Agreement was made with Louis XVI (who had been killed)
April 1793, French minister Edmond Genêt came to South Carolina to recruit American privateers (raiders) to seize British ships.
But US had proclaimed neutrality.
Washington commanded Genet to stop and go back to France.
Genet fearful of French Reign of Terror, asked US for political asylum.
U.S. RELATIONS WITH BRITAIN
Britain blocking trade
Britain made an effort to block trade to France by neutral vessels (American merchants) carrying grain and livestock to the French West Indies (Martinique, Guadeloupe, Saint Domingue/Haiti)
From 1793-4 the British seized 600 American vessels (1/2 in West Indies)
Sailors on these ships were forced ("pressed") into service on British ships
Because British Royal Navy was short-handed
British claimed the American seamen were British because they were born in GB.
Jay's Treaty, 1794
Washington sent Chief Justice John Jay to Britain to settle issues.
But Jay was too friendly with British
British agreed to:
Compensate Americans whose ships had been seized
Open some trade in India to Americans
Evacuate British forts in western US (old promise from 1783)
Nothing resolved regarding impressment
Nor about British helping Indians in northwest (see Tecumseh)
Nor American slaves that had escaped to British Canada.
Jay's treaty caused uproar among Americans
Esp. southern Jeffersonian Republicans
PINCKNEY'S TREATY (TREATY OF SAN LORENZO), 1794
Spain, fearful of U.S.-Br. alliance concluded a treaty with U.S.
Resolved territorial disputes (see map)
Granted U.S. ships right to free navigation on Mississippi River
Duty-free transport through port of New Orleans
And "right of deposit" - storing and selling exports in New Orleans port.
Treaty calmed outrage of Americans from Kentucky, Tennessee and Northwest Territory
EMBARGO OF 1807
Forbade American ships to set sail for foreign ports
Foreign ships had to leave with no cargoes
All imports and exports prohibited.
Belief that British and French would give in because of importance of trade in American goods
Reduced American exports from $108 million to $22 million.
Hurt U.S. business and traders more than Britain
Britain found resources in other colonies + smuggling.
NON-INTERCOURSE ACT, 1809
U.S. opened trade to all European countries except Britain and France.
MACON'S BILL NO. 2, 1810
Congress modified non-intercourse
Offered to open commerce with either Britain or France.
If either of the two stopped disrupting American shipping, the U.S would cut off trade with the other country.
Pledged U.S would be economic ally to either France or Britain - whichever acted first.
France (Napoleon) acted first
Napoleon revoked parts of Continental System that prevented American trade.
U.S. resumed trade with France
IMPORTATION ACT AGAINST BRITAIN, 1811
U.S. would no longer buy British goods (which hurt Britain's economy)
1812, Britain revoked Orders in Council and ended restrictions on American trade in Europe.
But too late
U.S. Congress had already declared war on Britin
CAUSES OF WAR
Reasons U.S. declared war on Britain
To punish Britain for destroying U.S. ship U.S.S. Constitution
Border disputes with Canada (War Hawks wanted to take Canada)
Henry Clay (KY) and John C. Calhoun (SC) called for war with G.B.
British were supporting Indian tribes in West
Geographical differences in U.S.
War would hurt New England merchants.
But Southern and Western farmers wanted war
They blamed British for clashes with Indians (see Battle of Tippecanoe)
First Bank of U.S. lost charter 1811 - made financing war difficult.
Madison ordered invasion of Canada (despite weak U.S. military)
Three directions: from Detroit, Niagara Falls, up Hudson River (all failed)
Riots in Baltimore Maryland break out in protest of war.
April, 1813 U.S. capture and burn Canadian city of York (Toronto)
September, 1813 U.S. Commodore Oliver Perry attacked British fleet on Lake Erie.
October, 1813 Shawnee Indian Chief Tecumseh (British ally) killed in Battle of Thames.
Napoleon defeated by Sixth Coalition at Battle of Leipzig, Oct. 181
April 1814, Napoleon exiled to Elba.
August, 1814 While fighting taking place in Canada, British enter Washington DC.
British enter unopposed because of poorly trained U.S. militia.
In retaliation for attack on York (Toronto) British burn down White House and Capitol then head to Baltimore, MD.
September, 1814 British troops bombard Fort McHenry in Baltimore, Maryland
Francis Scott Key writes "Star-Spangled Banner" while aboard a British ship.
September, 1814 British take control of Lake Champlain and advance on to New York.
December, 1814 Federalists in New England meet at Hartford, Connecticut to discuss their opposition to the war (see below)
December 24, 1814 British and Americans sign Treaty of Ghent ending war.
January 8-18, 1815 Andrew Jackson fights and wins Battle of New Orleans.
February, 1815 Napoleon escapes from Elba, takes control of France again.
June, 1815, Napoleon defeated again by Seventh Coalition at Battle of Waterloo
Exiled to Saint Helena island in Atlantic Ocean.
TREATY OF GHENT (Dec. 1814)
Napoleon had been defeated
= End of war between Britain and France
= No need for impressment or embargoes.
Restored prewar boundaries
But no mention of impressment or trade rights (moot point because of end of war in Europe)
BATTLE OF NEW ORLEANS (Jan. 1815)
After war had ended
British fleet with 7,500 men landed near New Orleans
Americans under Andrew Jackson defended New Orleans with bales of cotton (absorbed British bullets)
Created surge in patriotism.
Americans had won a second "War of Independence" against Br. without help of France.
(December 15, 1814 – January 5, 1815)
Federalists in New England badly affected by the disruption of trade during War of 1812
Met in Hartford, Connecticut to discuss grievances
Radicals of New England threatened to secede from the U.S.
And sign separate peace with Britain
Convention attendees wanted to:
Remove 3/5 clause (which favored Southern slave owners)
Prohibit trade embargoes lasting over 60 days.
Limit presidents to one term and be from different state from previous president (to eliminate dominance of Virginia).
Require 2/3 majority in Congress for:
Declarations of war
Laws restricting trade
Admission of new state
Hartford Convention was very unpopular.
Because of patriotism - especially after victory in New Orleans.
Led to end of Federalist party.
And Era of Good Feelings after the War of 1812.