August 15, 1769: Napoleon Bonaparte was born in Corsica.
May 17, 1779: ·Napoleon studied at the royal military academy.
October 28, 1785: Napoleon graduated from Ecole Militaire as second lieutenant in the artillery.
November 3, 1785: ·Stationed in Valence
FRENCH REVOLUTION BEGAN
July 14, 1789: Paris mob stormed Bastille prison - official beginning of French Revolution
April 20, 1792: France declared war on Austria
Prussia joined Austria to create the First Coalition (1792-1797)
May-October, 1792: ·While in Paris with his regiment, Napoleon witnessed the storming of the Tuileries Palace and the dethroning of the French King, Louis XVI.
THERMIDORIAN REACTION – JULY 1794
August 9-20, 1794: ·Napoleon was imprisoned under suspicion of being a Jacobin and a supporter of Robespierre
June 13, 1795: ·Napoleon is promoted to General of the Army of the West
March 9, 1796: Napoleon married Josephine Beauharnais
March 2, 1786: Napoleon (as Commander of Army of Interior) was given command of the French army in Italy
March 11, 1796: ·Italian campaign against Austria began
May 10, 1796: ·Napoleon won the Battle of Lodi
November 17, 1796: ·Napoleon won the Battle of Arcole
January 14, 1797: ·Napoleon won the Battle of Rivoli
October 17, 1797: ·Austria signed Treaty of Campo-Formio peace settlement with France
December 5, 1797: Napoleon returned to France as a hero
May 19, 1798: ·Napoleon began his Egyptian campaign
With a corps of 167 technical experts (engineers, translators, artists etc.)
Called "Commission des Sciences et des Arts"
July 21, 1798: ·Napoleon won Battle of the Pyramids against Mamelukes in Egypt
July 24, 1798: Cairo fell to Napoleon
August 1 - 3 1798: Battle of Nile
British fleet under Admiral Nelson, destroyed French ships in Egypt
Leaving French stranded.
July 1799: French corps of experts find the Rosetta Stone (written in Greek and Hieroglyphics)
BACK TO PARIS – FIRST CONSUL
August 23, 1799: Napoleon abandoned troops in Egypt
And returned to France after hearing about turmoil in Directory
November 9-10, 1799: Napoleon joined with Abbé Sieyès ("What is the Third Estate") to overthrow Directory in a coup.
A short, quick constitution was drawn up and approved by a national plebiscite (vote)
Following the coup, Napoleon named himself First Consul of the new French government
And moved into the Tuileries Palace.
Napoleon placed the 83 departments under control of an agent of government (a prefect).
Effectively ending democracy
Napoleon welcomed members of the Old Regime and moderate Jacobins into govt.
Welcomed back reactionary emigres from old aristocracy.
Continued revolutionary ideals.
The end of serfdom and feudal privilege
Accepted property rights of new owners of Church property (sold during revolution)
Continued equality before the law.
Science (Enlightenment reforms)
Supported scientific research
Rewarded surgeons, chemists, mathematicians etc. with government jobs and honors
To deter opposition (un-Enlightened changes)
Napoleon create secret police force headed by Joseph Fouche.
Censored newspapers and art.
Established Bank of France Jan. 1800
To handle governmental funds and issue money.
Enacted huge program of public works supporting certain industries
Established price controls.
Created long-lasting system of secondary schools tied to University of France
Used to spread patriotic propaganda.
Created Legion of Honor
To reward loyal servants to the state.
May 20, 1800: Napoleon led his army across the Alps
In Second Italian Campaign
June 14, 1800: Fr. defeated Austrians at Battle of Marengo
Austria forced to sign Treaty at Luneville
Declared "peace, amity and good understanding" between France and Austria
July 15, 1801: Concordat ended schism with Catholic Church
Granted Catholic Church special status as the religion of “the majority of Frenchmen”
Pope Pius VII regained right to confirm church dignitaries appointed by French govt.
In return, pope recognized the French govt. and accepted loss of church properties
That had been confiscated during Revolution
ASSASSINATION ATTEMPT, 1801
December 24, 1801: Napoleon survived an assassination attempt by royalists.
TREATY OF AMIENS
March 25, 1802: Britain signed Treaty of Amiens temporarily ending hostilities between Britain and France.
EDUCATION AND CENSORSHIP
May 1, 1802: ·Napoleon restructured French educational system
Also censored press and suppressed all political opposition
CONSUL FOR LIFE, August 4, 1802: ·
New constitution adopted, making Napoleon First Consul for life
LOUISIANA, May 3, 1803
France sold Louisiana territory to U.S.
Louisiana had supplied the French West Indies (Haiti)
After Haitian slave rebellion, no need for Louisiana to supply them
Fear that Britain would take Louisiana
Napoleon wanted money ($15 million) to help finance war on continent.
WAR, May 16, 1803
England violated Treaty of Amiens
EMPEROR, Dec. 2, 1804
December 2, 1804: Napoleon crowned himself Emperor in Notre-Dame Cathedral, Paris
October 21, 1805: French and Spanish navy are defeated by British navy under Admiral Nelson at the Battle of Trafalgar
December 2, 1805: French victory in the Battle of Austerlitz against Austria and Russia
Solidified his reputation as a military genius
Arc de Triomphe built in honor of victory
March 30, 1806: ·Napoleon names his brother, Joseph Bonaparte, king of Naples, and appoints other family members to various other posts
Nov. 21, 1806: Napoleon initiates a blockade preventing Britain from trading with the European continent.
Berlin decree (Nov. 21, 1806) and Milan decree (Dec. 17, 1807)
Continental System didn't hurt Britain too badly
Britain had a strong navy that could trade with colonies and non-European countries.
A lot of smuggling made the Continental System less effective.
Portugal refused to join Blockade.
Britain issued a reciprocal blockade against France.
Orders in Council (Nov. 11, 1807)
Attempts to stop U.S. trade with Europe resulted in American embargoes on Br. and Fr. trade
And eventually U.S. war with Britain (War of 1812)
WAR AND PEACE WITH RUSSIA
June 14, 1807: Napoleon defeats Russians at the Battle of Friedland
July 7, 1807: Czar Alexander I makes peace with Napoleon in the Treaty of Tilsit
July 22, 1807: Napoleon creates the Duchy of Warsaw (Poland)
To be overseen by France
IBERIAN PENINSULA (Spain and Portugal)
November 30, 1807: ·Beginning of French occupation of Portugal
February 20, 1808: ·Napoleon sends the French marshal Joachim Murat to lead an army in Spain
May 2, 1808: ·Unsuccessful Spanish revolt against French army under Murat
Called "Peninsular War"
June 4, 1808: ·Napoleon names his brother, Joseph Bonaparte King of Spain
And Murat King of Naples
December 15, 1809: ·Divorces Josephine
April 2, 1810: ·Marries Marie-Louise, Archduchess of Austria
March 20, 1811: ·Napoleon's son born, referred to as the "King of Rome"
June 24, 1812: Russian Campaign begins
Russian peasants burn their farms before French arrive ("scorched-earth" policy) to deprive them of food and housing.
September 7, 1812: French Grand Army defeats Russians at Borodino
Bloodiest battle of the war, 80,000 casualties
September 14, 1812: Grand Army enters Moscow
But Moscow had been destroyed by fire leaving French with no shelter or supplies.
French army retreats in the middle of winter
Only 100,000 troops of the original 600,000 make it home
Rest died from cold, starvation, disease or attacks from Russian Cossacks
December 18, 1812: Napoleon leaves troops behind and returns to Paris
Napoleon quickly puts together a new army.
Russia, Britain, Prussia and Austria join together in Sixth Coalition (1812-1814)
October 16-19, 1813: Allied armies defeat Napoleon's new army at Leipzig.
January 1814: ·Anti-French coalition army enters France
March 30-31, 1814: ·Paris falls
April 2, 1814: ·Senate proclaims end of the Empire; Napoleon's wife and son flee Paris.
April 4, 1814: ·Napoleon is forced to abdicate
Louis XVIII, Bourbon brother of Louis XVI, becomes King of France
(Title of "Louis XVII" was reserved for Louis XVI's son who died in prison during revolution)
May 4, 1814: Napoleon is exiled to Elba
His wife and son take refuge in Vienna
March 1, 1815: Napoleon escapes from Elba and returns to France
March 7, 1815: Napoleon rallies the French army
March 20, 1815: Louis XVIII flees
Napoleon takes control, begins "Hundred Days" campaign
BATTLE OF WATERLOO
June 18, 1815: Napoleon Defeated in the Battle of Waterloo by the British and Prussians, led by Wellington and Blucher
June 22, 1815: ·Abdicates for the second time
EXILE TO ST. HELENA
October 16, 1815: ·Napoleon is exiled to Saint Helena
March 5, 1821: ·Napoleon dies