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Jefferson and Jackson Questions


JEFFERSON ESSAY QUESTIONS:


  • Jefferson spoke of his election as the "Revolution of 1800." To what extent did his policies mark a radical change from those of Washington and Adams?

  • To what extent was Jefferson true to his own ideals?

  • In what ways were Jacksonian Democrats different from the Jeffersonian Democratic-Republicans from whom they took much of their inspiration?

TO WHAT EXTENT WAS THE "REVOLUTION OF 1800" A RADICAL CHANGE?

Changes:

  • Democratic-Republicans came to power (peaceful transition from one party to another)

  • Jefferson implemented a small government (for example, shrinking size of navy)

  • Bank lost its charter

  • Jefferson believed that Washington and Adams had acted too much like royalty.

  • Jefferson wanted to create a less formal style for the presidency.

  • Change in political parties

  • ​Federalists supported manufacturing, Dem-Reps. supported farmers

  • Federalists supported England, Dem-Reps. favored France

  • Federalists = loose interpretation of constitution, Dem-Reps. = strict interpretation.

  • Federalists favored strong central govt., Dem-Reps. favored small central govt., strong states.

Continuities:

  • Vote not extended to African-Americans, women or Indians

  • Still restricted to men with property in most places.

  • Chief Justice John Marshall continued to support some Federalist ideals.

  • No changes in the Constitution and government.

WAS JEFFERSON TRUE TO HIS OWN IDEALS?

Jefferson's ideals:

  • Strict constructionist interpretation of constitution

  • Favored agriculture (the independent yeoman) over industry

  • Favored France over Britain

  • Favored state rights over federal rights

  • Favored small, weak government

  • Advocated rule of the people (but only literate people)

  • Should be no special privileges for special classes

Observed ideals:

  • States Rights

  • Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions

  • Supported State rights to nullify a law (the Alien and Sedition Acts - considered unconstitutional because it would obstruct free speech and press, 1st Amendments).

  • ​​Alien and Sedition Acts expired at end of Adam's term

  • So Jefferson didn't have to repeal them.

  • He pardoned those arrested under the acts

  • And affirmed his commitment to freedom of speech.

  • Agriculture

  • Bought Louisiana because of its agricultural potential

  • Sent Lewis and Clark to explore the West in order to open it up to agriculture.

  • Did away with the Whiskey tax.

  • Common man

  • More people granted suffrage

  • Simplicity

  • Jefferson rode on horseback rather than traveling in carriages.

  • Smaller dinners rather than big receptions.

  • Used circular table so all attendees were "equal"

  • Small Government

  • Reduced the size of the federal government to a skeletal crew.

  • Only 130 people were employed by the executive branch of the govt. in 1801.

  • Got rid of some Federalist judges

  • By repealing the Judiciary Act of 1801 (allowing for Adams's "Midnight Judges")

  • And abolishing their jobs

  • Impeached John Pickering and Samuel Chase

  • Decreased navy​

  • ​Consequences: more difficult to fight Barbary Pirates and War of 1812.

  • Instead of standing army

  • ​He relied on local militia.

  • Began paying off the federal debt.

Betrayed ideals:

  • "Strict Constructionism"

  • Bought Louisiana from France for $15 million.

  • ​France lost Louisiana in 1763 after French and Indian War (to Spain)

  • France regained territory in 1801 under Napoleon.

  • Napoleon needed money to fight his war with GB and sold it to the U.S.

  • Jefferson was at first reluctant (BC of "strict constructionism")

  • But quickly rushed the deal through Congress (which they approved)

  • "All men are created equal" (Declaration of Independence)

  • Jefferson owned slaves and had children with slave Sally Hemming.

  • Government power

  • ​Enacted the Embargo of 1807 halting all trade between the United States and Europe.

  • ​Effort by Jefferson not to entangle the U.S in the affairs of Europe.

  • Common man

  • ​Jefferson believed the nation should be governed by middle and upper class educated property holders - not democracy.

JEFFERSON V. JACKSON

  • Political parties

  • Jefferson: Created the Democratic-Republican Party

  • Jackson: When the Democratic-Republicans began to fall apart, Jackson’s supporters created the Democratic Party (anti-Jacksonians formed Whigs in 1834). Jackson replaced party caucus with the national nominating convention (states decided party's presidential nominee, used in 1832 to reelect Jackson)

  • Democracy

  • Both claimed that the "people should rule" and neither believed in extending voting to African-Americans, women or Indians

  • Jefferson: Jefferson believed in a superior "natural aristocracy" (like himself) and that educated men should play a greater role in government.

  • Jackson: Unlike Jefferson, Jackson didn’t put much weight in education and truly believed in the rule of the common man.

  • Agriculture

  • Both promoted agriculture

  • Jefferson - Expanded agricultural land through Louisiana Purchase

  • Jacksonians: favored Manifest Destiny

  • Constitution

  • Both believed in “strict constructionism”

  • But Jefferson violated "strict constructionism" when he bought Louisiana and passed Embargo of 1807

  • Jackson violated "strict constructionism" with Force Bill.

  • Bank

  • Both were against a national bank and both refused to renew bank charters.

  • Jefferson didn't renew First Bank of US Charter

  • Jackson moved funds of Second Bank into “pet banks”

  • Government

  • Both favored a “hands-off” policy for the government (“laissez-faire”)

  • Jefferson reduced military and cut bureaucracy

  • Jackson opposed American System policy of tariffs, internal improvements and bank.

  • But Jackson believed he had the right to exercise strong presidential powers because of his widespread victory.

  • Jackson challenged both Congress (vetoes) and the Supreme Court (Worcester v. Georgia)

  • Spending

  • Both Jefferson and Jackson were frugal and opposed federal spending

  • National Debt

  • Both tried to pay off the national debt

  • Jefferson's Sec. of Treasury Albert Gallatin reduced debt to $45 million

  • It went up again with Louisiana Purchase and War of 1812

  • Jackson paid off the entire debt in 1835 by selling land and slashing spending

  • Changes in administration

  • Both wanted supporters of their parties in government

  • Jackson went further through spoils system and "kitchen cabinet" and believed that cabinet should change so that it doesn't become corrupt

JACKSON ESSAY QUESTIONS


  • The Jacksonian Period (1824-1840) has been celebrated as the era of the "common man." To what extent did the period live up to its characterization? (Economic developments, politics, reform movements)

  • Jackson was given the moniker "King Jackson" by his critics. Did Jackson deserve this nickname?

ERA OF THE COMMON MAN

Jackson himself

  • First American president not born into an elite family.

  • But not "common" - he was a successful land speculator and soldier.

  • First president from a western state (not Virginia or Massachusetts)

  • "King Mob"

  • Inauguration day - about 10,000 people crowded into the White House

  • Drinking, cursing, broke glasses, dirtied sofas, carpets etc. (Jackson out window, mobs lured outside with promises of lemonade and whiskey)


Politics; Expanded Democracy

  • Growth of Republic

  • Louisiana Purchase 1803

  • New states in West

  • Greater transportation (roads, canals, steamship)

  • Connected population

  • Greater interest in voting

  • Because of issues like tariffs

  • More newspapers

  • People demanded greater say in government

  • Expansion of voting

  • To attract people, young states in West extended right to vote to all free adult white males.

  • Indiana, Mississippi, Illinois, Alabama, Missouri --> no property requirement to vote.

  • Older states in East copied western example because feared losing people to West.

  • Most adopted universal manhood suffrage

  • And popular election of presidential electors.

  • By 1824 about 1/2 states had property requirements to vote

  • By 1830, only N.C., VA, LA and R.I.

  • Rhode Island Dorr's Rebellion 1824.

  • Resulted in extension of vote to all white males.

  • People saw voting as form of recreation

  • 1824: Jackson won the popular vote but not majority or presidency ("corrupt bargain")

  • ​Campaigned against J.Q. Adams.

  • Created "Democrat Party" to campaign on his behalf

  • 1828: Jackson won (1st non-Virginian/non-Adams)

  • Spoils System ("To the victor go the spoils")

  • Jackson replaced numerous govt. officials with his political supporters.

  • Other presidents had done the same but as a true outsider, new people entered govt.

  • Bank war

  • Bank believed to be supportive of elite

  • Opening the West

  • Many common farmers moved to the west to be independent (Free Soilers)

  • Opened opportunity for success

  • BUT

  • Vote not extended to women, African-Americans ,Indians.

  • "Gospel of Pure Womanhood"

  • Blacks still slaves

  • Indian Removal Act 1831

"KING JACKSON"


  • Ignoring the Supreme Court

  • Cherokee Nation v. Georgia (1831) and Worcester v. Georgia 1832)

  • See Native American Wars and Court Cases.

  • Indian Removal Act 1831

  • John Marshall ruled in favor of Cherokee.

  • Jackson ignored ruling ("John Marshall has made his decision, now let him enforce it.")

  • Trail of Tears

  • 1000s of Cherokee died en route to Oklahoma

  • Bank

  • John Marshall ruled that bank was constitution in McCulloch v. Maryland decision (1819)

  • The 2nd Bank of the US's 20-year charter was set to expire in 1836

  • But Jackson effectively destroyed the bank

  • By vetoing Congress's attempt to recharter the bank

  • Then by moving federal money into state "pet banks" leaving the bank powerless

  • Federal govt. over states (Nullification Crisis)

  • Tariff of Abominations passed under J.Q. Adams.

  • John C. Calhoun (Jackson's VP) anonymously wrote "South Carolina Exposition and Protest"

  • ​Argued states who disagreed with a law can nullify (invalidate) it.

  • New Tariff of 1832 passed (lowered tariff but not enough)

  • S.C. declared Tariffs of 1828 and 32 unconstitutional and refused to collect tariffs.

  • Jackson threatened to call in troops to enforce Tariff

  • Force Act

  • Jackson convinced Congress to pass Force Law - 8 sections

  • President can use armed forces to protect customs officers, govt. can detain vessels to enforce revenue laws

  • Expands power of federal courts in cases related to tariffs and revenues.

  • Authorizes president to use force to suppress insurrections

  • Veto

  • Jackson vetoed twelve bills, more than all six preceding presidents combined.

  • Including:

  • Federal money to construct Maysville Road (1830) because it was entirely in Kentucky (Henry Clay's state)

  • And rechartering of Second Bank of US (1832)

#Jefferson #Jackson

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