Jefferson and Jackson Questions
JEFFERSON ESSAY QUESTIONS:
Jefferson spoke of his election as the "Revolution of 1800." To what extent did his policies mark a radical change from those of Washington and Adams?
To what extent was Jefferson true to his own ideals?
In what ways were Jacksonian Democrats different from the Jeffersonian Democratic-Republicans from whom they took much of their inspiration?
TO WHAT EXTENT WAS THE "REVOLUTION OF 1800" A RADICAL CHANGE?
Democratic-Republicans came to power (peaceful transition from one party to another)
Jefferson implemented a small government (for example, shrinking size of navy)
Bank lost its charter
Jefferson believed that Washington and Adams had acted too much like royalty.
Jefferson wanted to create a less formal style for the presidency.
Change in political parties
Federalists supported manufacturing, Dem-Reps. supported farmers
Federalists supported England, Dem-Reps. favored France
Federalists = loose interpretation of constitution, Dem-Reps. = strict interpretation.
Federalists favored strong central govt., Dem-Reps. favored small central govt., strong states.
Vote not extended to African-Americans, women or Indians
Still restricted to men with property in most places.
Chief Justice John Marshall continued to support some Federalist ideals.
No changes in the Constitution and government.
WAS JEFFERSON TRUE TO HIS OWN IDEALS?
Strict constructionist interpretation of constitution
Favored agriculture (the independent yeoman) over industry
Favored France over Britain
Favored state rights over federal rights
Favored small, weak government
Advocated rule of the people (but only literate people)
Should be no special privileges for special classes
Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions
Supported State rights to nullify a law (the Alien and Sedition Acts - considered unconstitutional because it would obstruct free speech and press, 1st Amendments).
Alien and Sedition Acts expired at end of Adam's term
So Jefferson didn't have to repeal them.
He pardoned those arrested under the acts
And affirmed his commitment to freedom of speech.
Bought Louisiana because of its agricultural potential
Sent Lewis and Clark to explore the West in order to open it up to agriculture.
Did away with the Whiskey tax.
More people granted suffrage
Jefferson rode on horseback rather than traveling in carriages.
Smaller dinners rather than big receptions.
Used circular table so all attendees were "equal"
Reduced the size of the federal government to a skeletal crew.
Only 130 people were employed by the executive branch of the govt. in 1801.
Got rid of some Federalist judges
By repealing the Judiciary Act of 1801 (allowing for Adams's "Midnight Judges")
And abolishing their jobs
Impeached John Pickering and Samuel Chase
Consequences: more difficult to fight Barbary Pirates and War of 1812.
Instead of standing army
He relied on local militia.
Began paying off the federal debt.
Bought Louisiana from France for $15 million.
France lost Louisiana in 1763 after French and Indian War (to Spain)
France regained territory in 1801 under Napoleon.
Napoleon needed money to fight his war with GB and sold it to the U.S.
Jefferson was at first reluctant (BC of "strict constructionism")
But quickly rushed the deal through Congress (which they approved)
"All men are created equal" (Declaration of Independence)
Jefferson owned slaves and had children with slave Sally Hemming.
Enacted the Embargo of 1807 halting all trade between the United States and Europe.
Effort by Jefferson not to entangle the U.S in the affairs of Europe.
Jefferson believed the nation should be governed by middle and upper class educated property holders - not democracy.
JEFFERSON V. JACKSON
Jefferson: Created the Democratic-Republican Party
Jackson: When the Democratic-Republicans began to fall apart, Jackson’s supporters created the Democratic Party (anti-Jacksonians formed Whigs in 1834). Jackson replaced party caucus with the national nominating convention (states decided party's presidential nominee, used in 1832 to reelect Jackson)
Both claimed that the "people should rule" and neither believed in extending voting to African-Americans, women or Indians
Jefferson: Jefferson believed in a superior "natural aristocracy" (like himself) and that educated men should play a greater role in government.
Jackson: Unlike Jefferson, Jackson didn’t put much weight in education and truly believed in the rule of the common man.
Both promoted agriculture
Jefferson - Expanded agricultural land through Louisiana Purchase
Jacksonians: favored Manifest Destiny
Both believed in “strict constructionism”
But Jefferson violated "strict constructionism" when he bought Louisiana and passed Embargo of 1807
Jackson violated "strict constructionism" with Force Bill.
Both were against a national bank and both refused to renew bank charters.
Jefferson didn't renew First Bank of US Charter
Jackson moved funds of Second Bank into “pet banks”
Both favored a “hands-off” policy for the government (“laissez-faire”)
Jefferson reduced military and cut bureaucracy
Jackson opposed American System policy of tariffs, internal improvements and bank.
But Jackson believed he had the right to exercise strong presidential powers because of his widespread victory.
Jackson challenged both Congress (vetoes) and the Supreme Court (Worcester v. Georgia)
Both Jefferson and Jackson were frugal and opposed federal spending
Both tried to pay off the national debt
Jefferson's Sec. of Treasury Albert Gallatin reduced debt to $45 million
It went up again with Louisiana Purchase and War of 1812
Jackson paid off the entire debt in 1835 by selling land and slashing spending
Changes in administration
Both wanted supporters of their parties in government
Jackson went further through spoils system and "kitchen cabinet" and believed that cabinet should change so that it doesn't become corrupt
JACKSON ESSAY QUESTIONS
The Jacksonian Period (1824-1840) has been celebrated as the era of the "common man." To what extent did the period live up to its characterization? (Economic developments, politics, reform movements)
Jackson was given the moniker "King Jackson" by his critics. Did Jackson deserve this nickname?
ERA OF THE COMMON MAN
First American president not born into an elite family.
But not "common" - he was a successful land speculator and soldier.
First president from a western state (not Virginia or Massachusetts)
Inauguration day - about 10,000 people crowded into the White House
Drinking, cursing, broke glasses, dirtied sofas, carpets etc. (Jackson out window, mobs lured outside with promises of lemonade and whiskey)
Politics; Expanded Democracy
Growth of Republic
Louisiana Purchase 1803
New states in West
Greater transportation (roads, canals, steamship)
Greater interest in voting
Because of issues like tariffs
People demanded greater say in government
Expansion of voting
To attract people, young states in West extended right to vote to all free adult white males.
Indiana, Mississippi, Illinois, Alabama, Missouri --> no property requirement to vote.
Older states in East copied western example because feared losing people to West.
Most adopted universal manhood suffrage
And popular election of presidential electors.
By 1824 about 1/2 states had property requirements to vote
By 1830, only N.C., VA, LA and R.I.
Rhode Island Dorr's Rebellion 1824.
Resulted in extension of vote to all white males.
People saw voting as form of recreation
1824: Jackson won the popular vote but not majority or presidency ("corrupt bargain")
Campaigned against J.Q. Adams.
Created "Democrat Party" to campaign on his behalf
1828: Jackson won (1st non-Virginian/non-Adams)
Spoils System ("To the victor go the spoils")
Jackson replaced numerous govt. officials with his political supporters.
Other presidents had done the same but as a true outsider, new people entered govt.
Bank believed to be supportive of elite
Opening the West
Many common farmers moved to the west to be independent (Free Soilers)
Opened opportunity for success
Vote not extended to women, African-Americans ,Indians.
"Gospel of Pure Womanhood"
Blacks still slaves
Indian Removal Act 1831
Ignoring the Supreme Court
Cherokee Nation v. Georgia (1831) and Worcester v. Georgia 1832)
Indian Removal Act 1831
John Marshall ruled in favor of Cherokee.
Jackson ignored ruling ("John Marshall has made his decision, now let him enforce it.")
Trail of Tears
1000s of Cherokee died en route to Oklahoma
John Marshall ruled that bank was constitution in McCulloch v. Maryland decision (1819)
The 2nd Bank of the US's 20-year charter was set to expire in 1836
But Jackson effectively destroyed the bank
By vetoing Congress's attempt to recharter the bank
Then by moving federal money into state "pet banks" leaving the bank powerless
Federal govt. over states (Nullification Crisis)
Tariff of Abominations passed under J.Q. Adams.
John C. Calhoun (Jackson's VP) anonymously wrote "South Carolina Exposition and Protest"
Argued states who disagreed with a law can nullify (invalidate) it.
New Tariff of 1832 passed (lowered tariff but not enough)
S.C. declared Tariffs of 1828 and 32 unconstitutional and refused to collect tariffs.
Jackson threatened to call in troops to enforce Tariff
Jackson convinced Congress to pass Force Law - 8 sections
President can use armed forces to protect customs officers, govt. can detain vessels to enforce revenue laws
Expands power of federal courts in cases related to tariffs and revenues.
Authorizes president to use force to suppress insurrections
Jackson vetoed twelve bills, more than all six preceding presidents combined.
Federal money to construct Maysville Road (1830) because it was entirely in Kentucky (Henry Clay's state)
And rechartering of Second Bank of US (1832)