Nullification and Secession
KENTUCKY AND VIRGINIA RESOLUTIONS
Written by Madison and Jefferson (Dem-Reps) protesting Alien and Sedition Acts.
Attempt to nullify (negate) the Alien Act because it was unconstitutional (violated 1st Amendment)
New England threatened to secede (withdraw) from the Union because of War of 1812
South suffered from tariffs (taxes on imports) more than the industrial North.
In 1828, Congress under J.Q. Adams passed a large tariff ("Tariff of Abominations")
South Carolina threatened to secede from the Union in protest
John C. Calhoun (VP from South Carolina) put forth idea of nullification.
Wrote The South Carolina Exposition and Protest
Arguing that states had right to declare a federal law null (invalid) since the states had created the federal Union.
Webster-Hayne debate (1830)
Great defended states rights.
Said Union was voluntary association of states.
Was defender of the Union.
Said neither liberty nor the Union could survive without federal laws observed by all.
Said "Our federal union must be preserved"
1832 cut tariffs
But S.C. not satisfied.
S.C. declared law unconstitutional.
Jackson sent warship to Charleston.
1833 Congress passed Force Bill,
Authorizing president to use military to enforce acts of Congress.
Pushed bill that would lower tariffs gradually until 1842.
South Carolina repealed nullification of the tariff laws.
Both claimed victory.