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Nullification and Secession


KENTUCKY AND VIRGINIA RESOLUTIONS

  • Written by Madison and Jefferson (Dem-Reps) protesting Alien and Sedition Acts.

  • Attempt to nullify (negate) the Alien Act because it was unconstitutional (violated 1st Amendment)

HARTFORD CONVENTION

  • New England threatened to secede (withdraw) from the Union because of War of 1812

NULLIFICATION CRISIS

  • South suffered from tariffs (taxes on imports) more than the industrial North.

  • In 1828, Congress under J.Q. Adams passed a large tariff ("Tariff of Abominations")

  • South Carolina threatened to secede from the Union in protest

  • John C. Calhoun (VP from South Carolina) put forth idea of nullification.

  • Wrote The South Carolina Exposition and Protest

  • Arguing that states had right to declare a federal law null (invalid) since the states had created the federal Union.

  • Webster-Hayne debate (1830)

  • Robert Hayne

  • From S.C.

  • Great defended states rights.

  • Said Union was voluntary association of states.

  • Daniel Webster

  • From Massachusetts

  • Was defender of the Union.

  • Said neither liberty nor the Union could survive without federal laws observed by all.

  • Jackson

  • Said "Our federal union must be preserved"

  • 1832 cut tariffs

  • But S.C. not satisfied.

  • S.C. declared law unconstitutional.

  • Jackson sent warship to Charleston.

  • 1833 Congress passed Force Bill,

  • Authorizing president to use military to enforce acts of Congress.

  • Henry Clay

  • Pushed bill that would lower tariffs gradually until 1842.

  • South Carolina repealed nullification of the tariff laws.

  • Both claimed victory.

#Nullification

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