Deism - Belief that God created earth then left. AKA "watchmaker's theory"
Established in America after War of 1812
Believed God was one person, not trinity (God, Jesus and Holy Ghost)
Jesus was a human being
Rejected original sin, predestination and infallibility of the Bible
Believed no individual or group had an exclusive claim to the truth.
Episcopalians, Presbyterians, Congregationalists (Puritans) and Unitarians
Members were wealthier and more conservative
Methodists and Baptists
South and West
Slavery issue split churches apart.
SECOND GREAT AWAKENING
Began 1800 in "burned-over district" along Erie Canal
Created religious fervor
Women more involved in religion during Second Great Awakening
Inspired women to become reformers
Charles Grandison Finney - one of the most significant revivalist preachers.
Revivalist preachers said God created man as a "free moral agent"
Therefore, sinners could reform themselves.
Saw individuals and society as capable of improvement.
Revivalism encouraged reform - especially among middle-class women.
Temperance (American Temperance Society founded 1826), abolition, pacifism.
Full name: United Society of Believers in Christ's Second Appearing
Known as Shakers because of ecstatic dances in their services.
First successful American communal movement
Founded by Ann Lee Stanley (Mother Ann) in 1770
Who had a a vision that she was the incarnation of Christ.
Mother Ann died 1784, Shakers continued to honor her as Second Coming of Christ.
Communal ownership of property
Abstained from alcohol, tobacco, politics and war
Believed God was a dual person-both male and female
Two sexes were spritually equal
Shaker government was in hands of male and female leaders (Elders and Eldresses)
No sex or marriage because lust was considered corruption.
Founded 20 communities in New England, NY and Ohio.
Money came from high-quality furniture making
Since they didn't believe in sex, they relied on new converts and adoptions of orphans to keep numbers high.
they bred cattle for profit and made beautifully crafted furniture.
Survived to 20th century.
Founded in 1848 in upstate New York by John Humphrey Noyes.
Believed that marriage was a major barrier to perfection (because of jealousy and exclusiveness)
Instead promoted "complex marriage"
All members were married to one another.
A man could propose sex to any woman who had the right to reject or accept invitation.
The sex would be registered in public record book.
No "exclusive affections."
Believed in equality of men and women, all cut hair short, for example
Urged women to avoid multiple pregnancies, Noyes arranged sexual partners.
Community started in Vermont but had to move to Oneida, New York because of outrage over complex marriage.
Made money by making silverware.
When Noyes fled to Canada in 1879 (to avoid prosecution for adultery) the community abandoned complex marriage but remained communal until middle of 20th century.
Founded by Joseph Smith in 1830
Smith said the angel Moroni visited him in NY in 1823 and told him about a sacred text inscribed on golden plates that were buried by the "lost tribe of Israel
Smith allegedly translated sacred text (Book of Mormon)
Formally organized the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints (LDS) or "Mormons"
Followers of Mormonism ostracized and harassed by the surrounding community because of polygamy (men married many women)
After Smith was murdered by a mob in Illinois, Brigham Young took over
Brigham Young moved the Mormons to Salt Lake City in Utah (then part of Mexico)
Utah became a state after Mormons gave up polygamy
Established by Robert Owen in 1825
British factory owner appalled by degradation of workers in early industrial revolution
Created a model factory village at New Lanark
Community of equals.
New Lanark, Scotland
Largest center of cotton manufacturing in the world in 1815
Strict rules, discipline
and comfortable housing and free education.
Around 1815 there were 1,500 employees.
In 1824, Owen bought Harmony community in Indiana (originally founded by German religious leader George Rapp)
Children removed from families at early age to be educated in New Harmony schools
Trained to support the common good rather than the individual.
Owen defended women's rights, women's education and right to divorce.
Promised women would no longer be "enslaved" to their husbands.
Settlement only lasted a few years because of squabbling.
But influenced labor movement , educational, women's rights.
TRANSCENDENTALISM (1820s and 30s)
Came out of Romantic movement in Europe
Believed knowledge/truth transcends the senses. It comes from within a person/intuition
Believed people at their best when truly self-reliant and independent
Connection between man and nature
Believed artistic expression was more important than pursuit of wealth
Questioned doctrines of established churches
Believed the essence of God could be found in nature
Ralph Waldo Emerson
From Concord Massachussets
Wrote "The American Scholar" -- an intellectual declaration of independence
Believed Americans should not imitate European culture but create a distinctive American culture
Said people are powerful themselves
They should be self-reliant, independent thinking
Primacy of spiritual matters over material ones
Emerson was a leading critic of slavery in 1850s
Henry David Thoreau
Close friend of Emerson
Conducted a two-year experiment living simply in a cabin in the woods (Walden)
Findings published in "Walden" in 1854
Used observations of nature to discover essential truths about life
Also wrote "On Civil Disobedience"
Favored passive resistance as form of protest
His own civil disobedience --> refused to pay taxes that supported Mexican-American War (1846-1848)
Called the war a "naked scheme to extend slavery"
Spent night in jail for breaking the tax law
Brook Farm, Massachusetts
Founded by Unitarian minister George Ripley and his wife
Full name: Brook farm Institute of Agriculture and Education
Short-lived Utopian community founded on transcendentalist principles
Communal living (based on socialist ideas of Fourier)
Participants promised a portion of profits in exchange for work.
All chose work and were paid equally (including women)
Not successful, closed iin 1847 after a building (the Phalanstery) burned down.