Britain 18th century
WHIGS, TORIES AND NON-JURORS
Supported James the Pretender (James II's son) and his successor (Bonnie Prince Charlie) as rightful kings
Generally controlled the House of Commons after Peace of Utrecht.
Whigs were pro-war
Supported George I and his successors
Made up largely of great landowning noblemen, wealthy London merchant, business people and nonconformists in religion.
Generally controlled the House of Lords.
Anglican clergy who refused to take the oath of loyalty after 1688
Kept alive a shadow church until 1805
Group of Tories, Scots and Non-jurors
Critical of the mounting national debt that the wars created
Distrustful of the business and moneyed interests
They looked wistfully to the exiled Stuarts (James II's son)
After 1701, when James died France
The Stuart claims devolved to his son
Who tried to make himself king until his death in 1766
Critics of Jacobites:
Whigs who feared that a return to "James III" and his divine-right supporters
Would undo principles of Glorious Revolution (limited monarchy, constitutionalism, parliamentary supremacy, rule of law, toleration of dissenting Protestants)
People who had stock in Bank of England or lent money to the government.
Who would be ruined with a change in power.
QUEEN ANNE (r. 1702-1714)
Mary's sister, last reigning Stuart
Act of Settlement (1701)
Successors to throne had to be Protestant descendants of the Stuart family
Act of Union (1707)
Created United Kingdom of Great Britain
Scots kept legal system and religion.
Anne also died without an heir
Whigs and Tories began to dissolve after 1714
THE FIFTEEN (1715)
In 1715 the Pretender ("James III") landed in Scotland and gathered followers from Scottish Highlands
Proclaimed a rebellion against George I
Civil war seemed close.
But Jacobite leaders made mistakes and many of their followers were undecided.
Rebellion petered out.
KING GEORGE I (r. 1714-1727)
First monarch from the German House of Hanover
Because of Act of Settlement, he was the nearest Protestant relative.
Son of James VI's granddaughter, Sophia of Hanover
George spoke no English
Continued to spend much of his time in Germany (and brought German ministers and mistresses to England)
Not popular in England
Parliament gained considerable independence from the crown under George.
George was supported by the Whigs (see above)
THE FORTY-FIVE (1745)
During war with France (1745)
Pretender's son, "Bonnie Prince Charlie" or "Young Pretender"
Landed in Scotland and again proclaimed rebellion.
This rebellion was more successful
Scottish force went to within 80 miles of London
Crushed by Hanoverian regiments from Germany.
Government set out to destroy Jacobinism in the Scottish Highlands.
Social system of Highlands was wiped out, clans broken up and their lands forcibly reorganized according to modern notions of property and landlord and tenant relationship.