• amanda0195

Britain 18th century


WHIGS, TORIES AND NON-JURORS

  • Tories

  • Supported James the Pretender (James II's son) and his successor (Bonnie Prince Charlie) as rightful kings

  • Generally controlled the House of Commons after Peace of Utrecht.

  • Whigs were pro-war

  • Whigs

  • Supported George I and his successors

  • Made up largely of great landowning noblemen, wealthy London merchant, business people and nonconformists in religion.

  • Generally controlled the House of Lords.

  • Non-jurors

  • Anglican clergy who refused to take the oath of loyalty after 1688

  • Kept alive a shadow church until 1805

JACOBITES

  • Group of Tories, Scots and Non-jurors

  • Who were

  • Critical of the mounting national debt that the wars created

  • Distrustful of the business and moneyed interests

  • They looked wistfully to the exiled Stuarts (James II's son)

  • After 1701, when James died France

  • The Stuart claims devolved to his son

  • Who tried to make himself king until his death in 1766

  • Critics of Jacobites:

  • Whigs who feared that a return to "James III" and his divine-right supporters

  • Would undo principles of Glorious Revolution (limited monarchy, constitutionalism, parliamentary supremacy, rule of law, toleration of dissenting Protestants)

  • People who had stock in Bank of England or lent money to the government.

  • Who would be ruined with a change in power.

QUEEN ANNE (r. 1702-1714)

  • Mary's sister, last reigning Stuart

  • Act of Settlement (1701)

  • Successors to throne had to be Protestant descendants of the Stuart family

  • Act of Union (1707)

  • Created United Kingdom of Great Britain

  • Scots kept legal system and religion.

  • Anne also died without an heir

Whigs and Tories began to dissolve after 1714

THE FIFTEEN (1715)

  • In 1715 the Pretender ("James III") landed in Scotland and gathered followers from Scottish Highlands

  • Proclaimed a rebellion against George I

  • Civil war seemed close.

  • But Jacobite leaders made mistakes and many of their followers were undecided.

  • Rebellion petered out.

KING GEORGE I (r. 1714-1727)

  • First monarch from the German House of Hanover

  • Because of Act of Settlement, he was the nearest Protestant relative.

  • Son of James VI's granddaughter, Sophia of Hanover

  • Bio

  • George spoke no English

  • Continued to spend much of his time in Germany (and brought German ministers and mistresses to England)

  • Not popular in England

  • Parliament

  • Parliament gained considerable independence from the crown under George.

  • George was supported by the Whigs (see above)

THE FORTY-FIVE (1745)


  • During war with France (1745)

  • Pretender's son, "Bonnie Prince Charlie" or "Young Pretender"

  • Landed in Scotland and again proclaimed rebellion.

  • This rebellion was more successful

  • Scottish force went to within 80 miles of London

  • Crushed by Hanoverian regiments from Germany.

  • Government set out to destroy Jacobinism in the Scottish Highlands.

  • Social system of Highlands was wiped out, clans broken up and their lands forcibly reorganized according to modern notions of property and landlord and tenant relationship.


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