• amanda0195

Texas


SPANISH TEXAS

ADAMS-ONIS TREATY 1819


  • Spanish gave up Florida

  • In exchange, U.S gave up rights to Texas

MEXICAN TEXAS

MEXICAN INDEPENDENCE 1821

  • In 1821, Mexico finally became independent from Spain

  • Mexico wants to settle northern parts of Mexico

  • Including Coahuila y Tejas (Texas)

AMERICANS SETTLE IN TEXAS

  • Mexican govt. reached out to land speculators Moses Austin and his son Stephen Austin.

  • To bring Americans to the Coahuila y Tejas region

  • Great draw

  • Cotton flourished on the fertile Texas plains

  • Mexicans offered free land and local autonomy

  • In exchange:

  • Americans supposed to follow Mexican laws

  • Convert to Catholicism

  • Learn and speak Spanish

  • By 1837

  • 27,000 white Americans in Texas

  • With their 3,000 African-American slaves

  • Only 3,000 Mexicans lived there (primarily in southwest Texas - Goliad and San Antonio)

MEXICAN CONFLICT WITH AMERICANS

  • Mexican government outlawed slavery in 1829

  • Americans tried to evade laws

  • By “freeing” the slaves and making them lifetime "indentured servants"

  • Ruse didn’t last long

  • The Mexicans began prohibiting further immigration of Americans

  • Then exerted more control over the region.

  • Mexican constitution of 1835

  • Stronger Mexican government

  • Americans split into two groups

  • "War Party"- led by Sam Houston

  • "Peace Party" - led by Stephen Austin

  • Austin won concessions from Mexico

  • exemption from law ending slavery for example.

  • But laws were nullified by Mexican president, General Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna.

BATTLES BETWEEN MEXICO AND TEXAS

TEXIANS DECLARE INDEPENDENCE​ (March 2, 1836)

  • March 2, 1836 American rebels ("Texians") proclaimed the independence of Texas

  • ​Becomes "Republic of Texas"

  • Adopt a constitution legalizing slavery

ALAMO (Feb. 23-Mar. 6, 1836)


  • Hostilities erupted in October 1835

  • Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna is determined to retake Texas

  • Marched north with 5,000 soldiers to subdue Texian rebels

  • Killing an Texians in their path (even those who surrendered

  • A group of 187 Texians took refuge in former mission (Alamo)

  • Including Jim Bowie, Davy Crockett

  • They held off the Santa Anna troops for two weeks

  • Finally Mexican troops broke down walls

  • And killed everyone inside

BATTLE OF SAN JACINTO (April 21, 1836)

  • Texians under the command of Sam Houston

  • Stage a surprise assault on Santa Anna’s troops

  • Crying out “forward, charge! Remember the Alamo!

  • Like the Mexicans

  • The Texians execute many of the Mexicans who tried to surrender

  • Took Santa Anna hostage

  • In exchange for his life

  • Santa Ann had to agree to retreat south of the Rio Grande

  • What the Texians decided was their new border

  • And recognize the independence of the Republic of Texas

  • The Mexican government rejected both of these decisions

  • And hostilities continued


REPUBLIC OF TEXAS - REJECTED BY U.S.


  • The Texians, knew they would have a hard time surviving of their own,

  • Reached out to the U.S. to absorb Texas

  • American arguments against annexation

  • U.S. not ready to take in Texas

  • Congress had promised not to interfere in Texas (Adams-Onis Treaty)

  • Couldn’t legally annex Texas

  • Whigs in the north

  • Opposed expansion of slavery

  • Creation of another slave state (or possibly a number of slave states if Texas split)

  • That would disturb the balance in the government

TEXAS APPEALS TO BRITAIN

  • After rejection by U.S., the Republic of Texas turned to European powers

  • Britain interested in absorbing Texas

  • To stop American expansion

  • To weaken Monroe Doctrine

  • Which would allow Britain to establish more colonies in N. America

  • And provide Britain with a new source of cotton

  • For textile manufactures

  • Americans still wouldn't budge

UNITED STATES ANNEXED TEXAS

  • Election of 1844 - Polk v. Henry Clay

  • Clay still campaigning for American System

  • Polk campaigned to get all of Oregon (54 40 or fight!) and Texas.

  • Which he considered part of Louisiana Purchase.

  • Polk (a slaveholder) won (Nov. 1844)

  • ​Interpreted win as a mandate for expansion.

  • Just before leaving office

  • Polk’s predecessor, John Tyler

  • Asked Congress for a joint resolution to annex Texas

  • Passed, and Texas was added to the Union as a slave state in 1845

MEXICO’S RESPONSE

  • Mexico reacted to the U.S. annexation with outrage.

  • The Mexican government immediately withdrew its ambassador to the US

  • The annexation brought another problem to the forefront

  • The dispute over the border between Mexico and Texas

  • Leading to the Mexican-American War (1846-1848)

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