Ming explored Indian Ocean 1405-1433 but halted voyages and destroyed ships.
Then Muslims, Indians, Malays etc.
Asian goods to Europe
Pepper, ginger, cloves, nutmeg
Ottomans took Constantinople 1453 (end of Byzantine Empire)
Acquisition of technology from China and Muslim world helped Europeans expand seagoing capabilities
Sternpost rudder, triangular lateen sails, magnetic compass, astrolabe.
Sugar plantations on islands in Atlantic off coast of Africa
Prince Henry the Navigator
Responsible for the early days of Portuguese Empire and age of Discoveries
Third son of King John I of Portugal, founder of the Aviz dynasty
Encouraged father to conquer Ceuta (Muslim port o N. African coast)
Intrigued by Christian legend of Prester John
Legendary Christian patriarch and king said to rule over a Christian nation lost amidst Muslims and pagans in the Orient.
Descendant of Three Magi
Patron of Portuguese exploration
Sponsored voyages down coast of Africa (as far as Guinea)
Once believed to have had a school of navigation
He did employ some cartographers to chart the coast of Mauritania after the voyages he sent there, but no center of navigation science.
Bartolomeu Dias (Portugal) 1488, around Cape of Good Hope
Appointed by King John to find route to India and find lands ruled by Prester John.
Columbus (Spain) 1492, to Bahamas, Caribbean
Vasco da Gama (Portugal) 1497, to Calicut in India (later Goa established)
Magellan (Spain) 1519-1522, to Philippines, circumnavigated globe
Marriage of Ferdinand and Isabella ("Catholic Monarchs")
Financed Christopher Columbus 1492
Landed in Hispaniola, Taino Indians
Amerigo Vespucci: Map "America"
Vasco Nunez de Balboa
Juan Ponce de Leon
Francisco Vazquez de Coronado
Hernando de Soto
Hernan Cortes -- Aztecs
Francisco Pizarro -- Incas
Bartolome de Las Casas
Goal of exploration not to conquer but control trade
Wanted to force merchant ships to trade in fortified trading sites and pay duties for privilege
By mid 1500s Portugal had 50 trading posts, after that power declined
English and Dutch: joint stock companies (rather than crown)
From Old World: smallpox, wheat, sugarcane, cotton, horses, cattle, pigs, sheep, chickens
From New World: Maize, potatoes, beans, tomatoes, peanuts avocados, tobacco
Most abundant Americans precious metal
Stimulated a truly global trade network
Areas rich in silver
And Potosi mines in Andes
Employed large numbers of indigenous laborers
Driven by China’s desire for silver
Powered Spanish economy and stimulated world economy
Used to trade for silk, porcelain in Asia
Financed Spain’s powerful army and bureaucracy
Complex production of land, labor, buildings, animals, capital and technical skills
Required heavy labor (for planting, harvesting) and specialized skills (sugar-making process)
Because smallpox wiped out so many natives, imported Africans became the main labor force
Worked under harsh conditions.
Sugar plantations were proto-factories
Financed and organized to create a single product in complex manufacturing proces in one area.
OTTOMAN, SAFAVID, MUGHAL
STATE BUILDING (1300s to 1923)
Started as seminomadic Turks who migrated to Anatolia in 13th c.
As Mongol’s power declined in Middle East, Ottomans replaced them as the dominant influence.
Military might and gunpowder weapons
Drove Ottomans to power.
Elite fighting force of slave troops, Christian boys, led the military powerhouse.
1453 captured Constantinople and ended long life of Byzantine Empire (Mehmed II)
By 1566 ruled all of former eastern Roman Empire
Social and political
Granted great independence to the military aristocracy to which it owed its success.
These nobles, granted conquered lands, eventually came to threaten the sultan’s power
The Janissaries, (14th – 19th c.) infantry made up largely of onquered peoels, formed the new military core of the empire
Under sultans such as Mehmed II and Suleyman
Tightly centralized absolute monarchy ruled
Early sultans ruled directly, as poltical and military leaders
Later, sultans rule through their viziers (CHANGE) and through manipulation of the powerful groups within the empire.
As empire grew and the sultans became surrounded by ritual and luxury, the power of the viziers grew.
Rebuilt and improved Constantinople.
Suleymaniya mosque built at the apex of Ottoman culture 1th c.
City restored to its position at the point of commercial exhcnage between east and west.
Merchant and artistans
Were again central to the city’s culture
Became the official language of court and literature.
Islamic religious scholars and legal experts
Served administrative functions
As empire more wealthy
Sultans grew more distant and removed from running of the government
Headed the bureaucracy
Often had more control and power than the sultan
Serious problem as succeeding sultans often have brothers executed to eliminate any challenge to their authority.
Capital – Istanbul
Hagia Sophia became mosque
aqueducts, marketplace, rest houses, religious schools, hospitals
large merchant and artisan class conducted business
Commercial exchanges and handicraft production were closely regulated by the government.
Sultan’s harem (private domain) influential
Concubines, female relatives lived there, accorded status when they had sons.
Members of harem – all very close to the sultan and wielded a lot of political power – often slave origin and non-Muslim (enslavement of Muslims forbidden)
Trained in Quran, sewing, music.
Sultan’s mother was sultan valide (queen mother) served as advisor to the throne, administered imperial household and engaged in diplomatic relations.
Empire reached peak in mid 1600s
Effectiveness of administration declined and plagued by corruption
Corruption among officials resulted
Successor to the throne often lived sheltered lives and unequipped to rule
Because of competition.
As European military and naval technology outpaced theirs, the Ottomans ill-equipped to effectively compete
As conquests ended, some of dynamism lost.
Too large to maintain
Oversight of vast empire hampered by poor communication
As Portuguese rounded Africa, they were able to bypass Ottoman control of the spice trade
Silver from Latin America led to crippling inflation in the Ottoman Empire
Champions of Islam – embraced Shi’ism
Struggles with Ottomans intensified by religious conflict.
Shi’a followers called the Red Heads.
Ismail named shah in 1501 – ed to war with Ottomans
Great Safavid defeat at Chaldiran in 1514 didn’t end their power but stopped the spread of their emipire and Shi’ism.
Shah Abbas the Great
Brought the empire to its apogee.
Built up slave regiments (like Ottomans COMP)
Safavid ruers were of Turkic background like Ottomans COMP)
But adopted Perian as the court language (CONTRAST)
Worldly power buttressed by claims to be imams – successors of Ali (COMP)
Used mullahs to add religious support for their rule.
Abbas was major patron of craft and trade revival as well as arts
Capital Isfahan – court dominated city ife. Maginificent mosques and royal tombs n city.
COMPARE – Safavids shared cultural traits with Ottomans
Nobiilty grew in power
Exploitation of peasants increased.
Shahs and sultans were important patrons of the arts and crafts.
limited in both public roles and even in creative pursuits allowed to them in other cultures.
Women of Turkic and Mongol backgrounds lost ground as their cultures were changed by contact with Arabic and Persian traditions.
At courts in both empires, women could wield great power, though indirtly.
Women could retain some control over inherited property
Despite Abbas’s achievements his empire was short-lived
Weak successors easily manipulated,
1722 Nadir Khan Ashar usurped the throne inaugurating a period of unending conflict.
MUGHAL INDIA (1523-mid 1700s)
Decentralized history of regional kingdoms
interrupted by conquest of Babur and establishment of the Mughal empire
Babur, a descendant of Turkic nomads, began his conquest of India in 1526
COMPARE showed same leadership ability and cultivation of arts as Shah Abbas I and Sultan Mehmed II.
His main goal of reclaiming his kingdom in central Asia was never achieved, but he managed to win much of northern India.
Humayan – Babur’s son – abe successor
Babur’s grandson (a minor at his succession)
Strong military commander
Interested in uniting his empire
Created new religion called “Divine Faith” 1582 Din-I-Ilahicombining elements of Islam and Hinduism
purpose – to promote religious unity – although also legitimized the ruler as head of state and head of religion
Patronized arts and very interested in religious discussion
Initiated policy of cooperation with Hindu rulers and Hindu population by encouraging intermarriage
promoted Hindus to high-ranking government jobs
Like Ottomans and Safavids
He granted lands to his noble, yet left many Hindu rulers in place
Outlawed sati and tried to easE the seclusion of women
Changed marriage customs to protect women
Improved plight of urban poor
Fell behind in the sciences
Exports of textile industry
Jahangir and Shah Jahan
Also great patrons of the arts (CONT)
Many of India’s finaest monuments date from their reign.
Mughal architecture blended Persian and Indain traditions.
But did little to buid on his achievements
Under Mughals India fell behind in sciences
Although exports of the textile industry remained important.
Jahangir and Shah Jahan were much more devoted to pleasure than Akbar (CHANGE)
Wife Nur Jahan took power her husband neglected
Her influence brought able men to court and was used to help charities
His wife Mumtaz Mahal
Smaller role than Nur Jahan
But tomb Taj Mahal is grandest in India
Other Indian women
Reforms did little to improve thei status.
Painting workshops expanded, leading to creation of 1000s of exquisite miniatures.
Mughal architecture blended Persian and Hindu traditions by using Islamic domes, arches and minarets along with Hindu ornamentation.
Most famous: Taj Mahal, which Emperor Shah Jahan built as tomb for late wife.
Shah Jahan’s son
Seized throne with a neglected and corrupt bureaucracy
Pushed to extend Muslim control to the whole of India
Sought to rid India of all Hindu influences (bringing back jizya) and to purify India’s Islam
Attack on position of Hindus more disruptive – overturned Akbar’s attempt to bring peace.
His many wars drained the treasury, and peasant uprisings and revolts by both Muslim and Hindu princes weakened the empire.
Although Mughal empire was large at his death, it was weakened by rivalries.
Emergence of new sects added to the strain.
Attacks on the Sikhs turned the Din-i-Ilahi sect from its original goal of blending Hindu and Muslim traditions, to a rigidly Hindu, anti-Muslim religion.
India became a major overseas destination for European traders who demanded cotton.
With a weakened empire, those traders were able to increase their influence
Ottoman, Safavid, Mughal
Common roots – all three emerged from groups of Turkic steppe nomads
All carved out areas formerly controlled by Mongols through military might
To consolidate their control ther new lands, the ruler f each awarded lands to their followers
From the latter, a new landed, military aristocracy arose in all there areas
Differences in areas they conquered
Attitudes of the conquerors towards other religions
Abilities of successive rulers
Crusades had brought Europe in contact with Arab culture
Renaissance (Beg. 1400s)
Petrarch – first European to typify the new spirit of Renaissance
Italian Renaissance began 1300s, took shape 1400s.
Looked to ancient Greece and Rome for inspiration.
Focus on human artistic and intellectual endeavor
Also spurred by merchant wealth
Focused on perfection of man in Christian context
Shakespeare and Rabelais
Printing press in 1400s
Da Vinci, Michelangelo etc
Italy middle between Europe and Middle East
Medici rich as merchants
German lands divided into 100s of small kingdoms
Nominally ruled over by the Holy Roman Emperor (Charles V of Spain, staunch Catgolic)
Germans resented having to support both an “emperor” who was not German and the Church.
Sided with Luther – Protestants.
Martin Luther, 95 Theses on Wittenberg Church 1517
Against corruption in Roman Catholic Church (Indulgences)
Lack of piety of priesthood (Pope Leo)
Reformers promoted public education (Luther translating Bible, Calvinists)
Changing role of family (Luther married nun)
Thirty Years War (1618-1648)
Catholics v. Protestants
Devastated German lands.
Sovereignty of the state became model for future nation-state relations.
Protestant Reformation spread
To Netherlands, Switzerland (Calvin), Scandinavia, France (Hugeunots),
England – Henry VIII – created Church of England.
Catholic Church reforms itself – Council of Trent
Jesuits/Loyola (spread religion and educ. internationally), Baroque Art
Persecution of Witches
Fueled by fear and hatred by dispossessed poor.
SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION (17th, 18th c.)
Copernicus -- Rediscovered heliocentrism revolutionizing the western view of the cosmos.
Kepler’s planetary observations (elliptical orbit)
Galileo used telescope
Descartes and Newton = scientific approach to knowledge.
ENLIGHTENMENT (Beg. 1700s)
Centered in France (philosophes)
John Locke (Br.)
Thought all men born with natural rights and should be free
Also “tabula rasa” – everything could be known through the sense with use of reason.
Freedom of speech, against organized church (“ecrasez l’infame”)
Separation of powers (Executive, Legislative, Judicial)
Different types of government for different types of regions (ex. Republic in small city-states)
Led by France, monarchy entered new phase: absolutism.
Larger bureaucracies and elaborate court ritual raised monarchs to new heights
C. European monarchs followed French model, their power strengthened by defeat of the Turks.
Ideas of sovereignty of the people developed (see Locke)
Britain and Netherlands – representative law-making bodies limited power of monarchs.
All European countries ha commonalities as nation-states
People bound by common culture, within clearly defined boundaries, at odds with other nation-states
Political forms crystallize
Enlightened despotism – Prussia of Frederick the Great
Enlightenment thinkers set out to fix the world.
Salons, coffeehouses, promoting growth of scholarly journals.
Consumer demand for imported products
Agriculture developed with improved drainage and importation of New World crops
Manufacturing, fueled by capitalism and employing large number of works, increasingly dove economy
Exploration (see above)
Henry the Navigator (financed navigation)
Bartholomeu Dias (sailed around Cape of Good Hope)
Vasco Da Gama (sailed to India)
Marriage of Ferdinand II of Aragon and Isabella of Castile 1469
Take back Granada – last Muslim territory
Non-Christians (Jews and Muslims) expelled
“Converts” on trial (auto-da-fe), tortured, killed
Spanish conquistadors to Americas, followed by Spanish crown
New Spain (Mexico) and New Castile (Peru)
Each governed by a viceroy who was responsible to the Spanish king
1494 Treaty of Tordesillas
Divided America in half (Sp. In W., Port. In E)
Multicultural and ethnically mixed population
Majority of migrants were men
Peninsulares, Creoles, mestizos, mulattoes and zambos (Native American and African)
Empire thrived with silver mining, farming, stock raising, craft production
Haciendas (large estates)
served initially by labor acquired through encomienda system
which gave settlers right to demand labor from native peoples
At urging of Catholic priests (like De Las Casas)
Who saw encomienda as hindering their conversion attempts
This system was replaced with repartimiento system
Which compelled native communities to supply laborers
but only for limited periods of time and for a fair wage.
As the plantation system grew in Americas
so did use of African slave labor
Hoped to spread Christian faith to the natives
Many did adopt Christianity but blended it with own traditions
RUSSIAN EMPIRE (1480-1917)
After 100s of years under Mongol tributary rule, Russia emerged as empire of its own
Removal of the Mongol yoke (mid 15th c. )
Grand Duchy (1283-1547)
Initial Westward Expansion 1480s
Grand prince of Moscow
Stopped paying tribute to Mongols
In 1480 began building an empire for himself
Established a strong central govt. ruled by an absolute monarch (czar) who was also head of the Russian Orthodox Church.
Czar also received authority from God.
Influence of Mongols
Didn’t’ change Russian culture but caused Russia to stagnate
Tsars began process of reviving and recreating Russian culture
Largely by tying its past to that of Byzantine Emprie.
Russian independence meant territorial expansion.
Cossacks, peasant-adventurers, were used to settle the newly taken lands.
The lands, in turn, could be used to buy the loyalty of the boyars.
Russian expansion put an end to the periodic emergence of nomadic peoples from central Asia
Tsars began policy of contact with the West, commercially and culturally.
Ivan the Terrible (r. 1533-1584) (Rurik Dynasty)
Grand Prince of Moscow 1533-1547, Tsar of all Russias 1547-death in 1584)
Khanates of Kazan, Astakhan and Siberia
= multiethnic and multi religious state
Transformed Russia from a medieval state to an empire
(first ruler to be crowned as Tsar of all the Russias)
Was intelligent and devout
But also prone to rages and mental illness
Killed his heir leaving throne to younger, weaker son (Feodor)
Duties to minister Boris Godunov
Time of Troubles
Between death of last Russian Tsar of Rurik Dynasty (Feodor Ivanovich) in 1598
And establishment of Romanov Dynasty in 1613
In 1601-1603 Russia suffered famine that killed 1/3 of pupation (about 2 million)
Russia occupied by Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth
Civil uprisings, usurpers, imposters
After a reign of terror by Ivan the Terrible and Time of Troubles
Romanov family to power
Ruled next 300 years
Peter the Great (1682-1725)
fascinated with Western technology
Instituted policy of forced and rapid modernization.
Russian noble dress and manners – resented by many.
Established industries based on the most advanced science and technology
Not interested in representative government
Instead reformed the midair with professional soldiers and began to construct a navy
Obsession with “everything western”
symbolized by insistence that all Russian men wear western clothes and shave bears
St. Petersburg = “window to the West.”
Great Northern War with Sweden
Catherine the Great (r. 1762-1796)
Longest-ruling female leader of Russia
Took over in coup after assassination of her husband Peter III at the end of the Seven Years’ War
Continued many of Peter the Great’s policies
Russia’s “Golden Age”
Russia revitalize, growing larger and stronger than ever, became one of great powers of Europe
Restricted freedom of peasants and intellectual wanting further reforms.
Relied on favorites (Orlov and Potemkin)
South: Crimean Khanate crushed after victory over Ottoman Empire in Russo-Turkish Wars
Partition of Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth
Ruled by Catherine’s former lover, king Stanislaw August Poniatowsky
Russian Empire got largest share
Russia began to colonize Alaska
Catherine admired Peter the Great – set out to modernize
But military conscription and economy continued to depend on serfdom
Increasing demands of the state and private landowners led to increased levels of reliance on serfs
Reason for several rebellions, including the large-scale Pugachev’s Rebellion of Cossacks and peasants
Cossacks are East Slavic people from Ukraine a
Manifesto on Freedom of the Nobility issued by Peter III
Confirmed by Catherine
Nobles freed from compulsory military or state service
Russian nobles had a more important role than their western counterparts
Who, by this time, were largely ornamental.
Corresponded with Voltaire
First higher education for women in Europe
Fur trade with N. America
After Mongol rule many free peasants fell into great debt, were forced to become serfs on large estates
Russian govt. encouraged the process beginning in 1500s because it was way to satisfy the nobility and to regulate the peasants at the same time.
As new territories added to empire, serfdom extended as well
1649, an act proclaimed that serfs were born into their status
and could not escape it.
Serfs could be bought or sold, gambled away, punished
Whole villages could be sold to supply manufacturing labor – but not literally slaves
Serfs who were illiterate and poor had to pay high taxes and owed extensive labor service to their landlords in form of agriculture, mining or manufacturing.
Position of serfs declined in 1600s and 1700s satisfying the nobility (who managed this agrarian population for the tsars).
Serfdom resembled slavery
Peasant society largely self-governed
Status declined throughout 18th century.
Agricultural practices saw little improvement
Peasant rebellions brutally repressed (Pugachev)
Merchant class small
ASIAN TRADING WORLD
Asian trading network linked Pacific and Indian oceans in three commercial zones
Red Sea and Persian Gulf
Glass and textiles from Middle East
Paper, porcelain and silks
Spices still dominated the trade
From Ceylon and Indonesia.
Coastal routes preferred
When Portuguese arrived
No central power controlled trade
Military power rarely used
Portugues changed the rules.
Lacking goods desired in east, Portuguese resorted to force to obtain spices they came for.
Da Gama in 1502 used advantage to capture ports
To fortify their grwoign network, they took Goa and Ormuz.
Portuguese aimed to establish a system in which they would control all traffic in the Indian Ocean.
Portuguese never able to extend the monopoly they desired, even by using the most brutal measures.
Dutch and English
Arrived in 1600s
Dutch early lead
Built port of Batavia on Java – well positioned for the spice trade
Dutch trading empire followed same lines as Portugues, yet Dutch eventually turned to peaceful cooperation (COMP AND CCOT)
In general Euroepans remained on coastlines
With a few exceptions like Dutch control north of Java installing coffee planations
Conquest of Philippines in 1500s starting with Luzon and the nearby islands
Failed to take Mindanao and the northern islands.
Tribute system established
Leaving local rulers in place
Converting Asians to Christianity was made difficult by the secure position of Islam in many areas
Francis Xavier, a Jesuit missionary, made headway in converting low-cast Hindus.
Robert di Nobili learned Sanskrit to help convert high-caste Indians – but little success.
Spanish work in the Philippines led to more converts.
Christianity there, however, was Filipino blend of traditional and Christian beliefs.
CONT – Great continuity of customs and religious practices in the Philippines mitigated the impact of Christianity.
Founded by Zhu Yuanzhang, of peasant stock
Influenced by time spent in a Buddhist monarstery, he led a rebel group and defeated the Mongol ruler
Claimed title of Hongwu emperor in 1368 and began purge of Mongol influences
Ming reestablished and extended the examination system
cleaned up corruption at court.
Also tried to rid the palace of intrigues of royal wies and eunuchs.
Programs included public works, improving agricultureal irrigation, encoruaign farming on abandoned lands.
Increasing power of landlords greatly lessened the impact of these improvements.
This gentry class created its own cutlrue
To justify it inceasing power.
Women and children
Under Ming emperors the low place of women and the young was intensified.
Agricutlural expansion and imports from Spanish and Portugeuse stimulated an economic boom
Miaze, sweet potatoes and peanuts were imported and became staples
High demand for Chiense goods
Meant influx of Aemrican silver
Foreign traders allowed only on Macao and Canton
Chinese merchants fared well.
In imitation of gentry, merchants invested in land.
Fine arts flourished as well
Mainly along traditional lines
Novel achieved its lasic form
Under Emperor Yongle
Admiral Zheng he led seven expeditions to the west.
Size and scope demonstrated the Chinese capacity to undertake global expansion.
Yet Chinese retreated, instead closing off more firmly than ever
Missionaries to China
Matteo Ricci and Alan Schall chose to convert the country from the top down
But met with little success.
Ming court weakened by corruption and rulers distance themselves from the people
Public works lapsed
Disaffected farmers turned to banditry
Rebellion brought Ming dynasty down in 1644, when the last emperor hanged himself to avoid capture.
Qing Dynasty (1644-1911)
1640s Ming dynasty had declined and taken over by peasant army.
But nomadic people from north east, the Manchu, which had aided the peasant army
Soon ousted the peasant army
And took over as the Qing dynasty
China under foreigners for the second time
Manchus mimicked Chinese culture generations before
bolstered many aspects of Chinese govt.
to include using Confucian civil service exam system
Manchu wanted to preserve their own ethic and cultural identity
So forbade intermarriage between Manchu and Han Chinese
Forbade Chinese from travelling to Manchuria and from learning their language
forced Chitins men to wear their hair in a braid called a queue as sign of submission.
Japan: Tokugawa Shogunate (1600-1867)
After period of civil war and disorder
Series of military rulers brought an end ot daimyo warare in Japan
Used European firearms to depose the Ashikaga shogun in 1513
Pursued his predecessor’s killers
Ambitious and able, Hideyoshi undertook conquest of Korea, but failed
Tokugawa Ieyasu established Tokugawa Shogunate in 1600
Ruled from Edo.
Tokugawa shoguns ended daimyo warfare.
He wanted to stabilize the region and prevent civil war.
Did this by increasing his control over the daimyos
Insisting that they spend every other year at the capital (Edo, now Tokyo) so that he could keep an eye on them.
Relations with outside world closely controlled
Japanese forbidden from going abroad and from constructing large ships
Europeans expelled from Japan
Foreign merchants not allowed to trade in Japanese ports (except small number of Chinese and Dutch ships at Nagasaki)
Despite restriction, economy grew
As agricultural production increased and population grew
IN more peacful times
Samurai became government administrators
Had made some important inroads in Japan by 1580 (150,000 Japanese Christians) converts
But government ended these missions
And went as far as trying and executing the missionaries who did not leave.
Nobunaga patronized Christian missionaries hoping to lessen the power of militant Buddhist orders.
However under Hideyoshi, Christians came to be seen as a threat.
Hideyoshi expelled the Christian missionaries and then persecuted their converts
Ieyasu went further
Attempting to rid the islands of all Europeans
By mid 1th c. European contact limited to Dutch trade on Deshima island
In this climate, the School of National Learning focused on the uniqueness of Japanese history and culture.
continued to be the principal source of information about Europe
keeping Japanese up-to-date with important scientific and technological developments.
ATLANTIC SLAVE TRADE
Migration of 12- 15 million Africans to New World
Age of Exploration and Columbian Exchange
Portuguese le the way
Established factories to facilitate trade
Trading fortresses and compounds with resident merchants to assure secure landing places and commerce
El Mina in West Africa, being the most important trading factory
More interested in trade than conquest
So generally peaceful relations with African rulers
Portuguese down coast and founded Luanda, later expanded to colony of Angola
Luanda = Portuguese factory est. 1520s south of Kongo, became basis for Portuguese colony of Angola
Greatest success was Nzinga Mvemba – ruler of Kongo.
1507 to 1543, converted to Christianity and took title Alfonso I
Under Portuguese influence attempted to Christinaize all of kingdom.
Competition with other nations.
Portugal controlled traffic for much of history of slave trade.
From 1630 onward (CHANGE) competition increased
Dutch seized El Mina in 1637.
British Royal African Company
Chartered by English govt. 1672 to conduct its merchats’ trade on the Atlantic coast of Affrica
Trans-Atlantic slave trade
Portuguese trade in salves developed slowly
Only one of many commodities.
Slavery in Europe (except for Iberia) had disappeared
Development of sugar plantations raised need for slave labor.
High mortality – on board and plantations – with low birth rates kept demand high.
Brazil received about 42% of the slaves.
Trade initially in Africans from Senegambia, then from modern Zaire and Angola
Then from Dahomey and Benin.
Trans-Saharan slave trade
Mostly in women – for concubines in Islamic lands (COMP) v. trans-Atlantic trade in men
How slaves acquired
Tribes took prisoners from neighboring tribes and enslave them
Purchases of slaves made through local rulers
Also sporadic raids.
Value of slave
Based on Indies Piece – price of an adult male slave
African law didn’t recognize private property
So land did not equal wealth
Only human labor = wealth
Spread of Islam
Created new trade routes across Northern Africa to Middle East
By time Europeans in Sub-Saharan Africa, slave traffic had been well-established for 500 years.
off coast of Africa in 1500s
Once took Brazil, brought plantations there.
Slave trade had become trans-oceanic
European manufactured goods (firearms esp.) for slaves
Slaves to Caribbean and America
American products to Europe
Effect on Africa
Some benefited economically
Population losses (esp. men)
Firearms led to increased political conflict
Christianity created synthesis (brought by slaves to New World)
Effect on America
Demographic changes (diseases killing Indians, Africans and Europeans in)
Cash crops (sugar, tobacco, cotton or coffee)
Early Spanish settlers needed labor
Encomienda system gave them right to demand labor in mines and fields of natives
Laborers worked hard and punished severely
Haciendas – Large estates
People like de Las Casas
Sp. Replaced encomienda with repartimiento system
Natives supplied labor for Spanish mines and farms
But limited work time and compensated with wages
Many groups had to send laborers to work on state projects.
Peru mita system mobilized 1000s of natives to work in silver mines
paid wages but abused
African traditions of slavery deeply engrained in system and social hierarchy
Condition of salves varied greatly
Concubines = polygamy in Islam
In Islam enslavement of Muslims forbidden
Changes because of slavery
Endemic wafare typified much of Sub-Saharan Africa (with exptio f Songhay)
One of the results was constant supply of slave.
As Europeans settled aong coast, they provoked shift in pwer relations of states in interior.
Ghana and Songhay able to make sues of their position as intermeiares in commerce.
African kingdom on Gold Coast that expanded rapidly after 1800
Asante participated in Atlantic economy, trading gold, slaves and ivory
Resisted British imperial ambitions for quarter century before eign absorbed into Britain.
Unified the Akan clans, taking the title asantahene or supreme ruler.
For nearly two centuries (1650-1820) Asante ruled along the Gold coast.
Agaja - King of Dahomey
Made use of European firearms to establish an empire.
Dahomey - W. African empire 17th c to 1894, profited from slave trade expanded inward and captured slaves
Controlled slave trade in its region.
Dahomey remained independent, unified state longer than most of its neighbors.
Political experiementation included increasingly powerful monarchs and monarchs lilmtied by governing councils
Arts continued to thrive – often led by artisan guild.
Demand for African crafts to suit Euroepan tastes increased Africa’s cotact iwht other world areas
Swahili east coast
Still formed part of the Indian Ocean trading area
Brought ivory, gold and slaves from interior of continent.
Clove planatioans using African slaves developed on Zanzibar and other islands
Interior of Africa
Less well understood
Movements o Nilotic groups including the Luo people led to network of dynasties in east central Africa
Kingdom of Bunyoro was one of the most prominent in the 1500s and1600s.
Following the breakup of Songhay, too on more dynamic, even militant phase
Ususman Dan Fodio – a Muslim scholar of the Fulani peole so fhte Sudan
Was inspired by Suficism
Under his leadership, the Fulani took over several Hausa states, crating the Sokoto k kingdom.
Fulani rebelled against the Germans in German East Africa in 1890s
Expansion of Fulani had impact on west African interior.
Slavery in Sudan expanded as result of wars and of European pressures
Initially little influence by slave trade
Bantu migrations into area changed its economy
Earlier dominated by Khoiikhoi and San hunters and sheepherders
Bantu peoples n souther Arica organized into small chiefdoms.
Their expansion further south borugh them into contact with Dutch settlers.
Moving inland from the Cape Colony in search of land to farm
Under British control from 1815
The colony;s expansion led to warare with the Bantu
Boer Great Trek
Coincided with upheavals among the Bantu peoples
Shaka, chief of Zulu from 1818.
Ruthless leadership crated a powerful Zulu state that survived his death
Shaka’s work was part of the mfecane.
Mfecane = wars of 19th c. in southern Africa
Created by Zulu expansion under Shaka
Revolutionized political organization of southern AFrica
Swazi (Bantu language related to Zulu) and Lesotho (landlocked constitutional monarchy) emerged at the same time
Resisting Zulu expansion
All of southern Africa involved in the turmoil of the mfecane.
Foreign products brought in to Africa
Saltwater slaves – newly arrived
Creole slaves – American boarn descendants of salt-water salves.
Creole could gain more skilled work in better conditions
Stood better chance of being manumitted.
Sometimes divided along lines similar to those in Africa
Grew until 80% of colonial populations.
North American slave poujaltion had higher birthrate and less need of newly-enlaved Africasn
Thus more cut off from Africa than slave in other areas.
Aricans in slavery maintained as much of their culture as was possible, depending in part on whether they foud themselves with other slaves from their native region.
Africans converted to Chrsitianity
But their religiou traditions, obeah ( African religious ideas and practices in Englaish and French Caribbean islands) survived.
Obeah/Obi/Obea – term used in West Indies to reer to folk magic, sorcery and religious practices deveoed among West Arican slaves, specifivcally of Igbo origin.
Similar to other Afro-American religions like Palo, Bodou, Santeria and Hoodoo
Brazil and Haiti
African religion survived intact
Candomle (Brazil), Vodun (Haiti)
Resistance to slavery
Alsoways present but Suriname. rarely successful.
Palmares, a community of fugitive slaves in Brazil, was expesion
Also Maroons of Jamaica and
Abolition from outside Africa (William Wilberforce).
British stopped the slave trade in 1807
Slavery finally abolished in Americas when Brazil stopped practice in 1888
European influence in Africa
Europeans provided weapons which led to disruption of existing power structure.
European goods and currency exchanged for slaves, made impact on economy.
Greatest impact, demand for slaves.
Although Africans often enslaved as result of internal wars, the high European demand for slaves for the New World led to massive exportation of Africans. – exacerbated internal tensions – did not cause them.
SONGHAY (West Africa) (1464-1591)
In 1400s West African state of Songhay emerged to take power over weakened Mali Empire
Leader Sunni Ali, consolidated empire
By appointing governors to oversee the provinces
building a hierarchically commanded army
and creating an imperial navy to patrol the Niger River
Lucrative Trans-Saharan trade flowed through city of Gao,
Brought textiles and metal
In exchange for gold and slaves
All Songhay emperors were Muslims
Who supported mosques, schools and the Islamic university of Timbuktu.
Still even though Islam served as the cultural foundation of the empire and a key element in establishing cooperation with Muslim merchants
Traditional religious beliefs not abandoned.
As Europeans were making inroads into Africa
Songhay Empire began to lose control of its many subject peoples.
Defeated by the Moroccans in 1591
KONGO (1300s to 1600s)
Emerged as centralized state 14th c. along west coast of central Africa
Powerful king ruled and officials oversaw military, judicial and financial affairs
1482 small Portuguese fleet arrived
initiated commercial relations
within a few years, Portuguese had developed a close political and diplomatic relationship with the king
they provided him military force, which supported both of their interests
King also converted to Christianity
To improve commercial and diplomatic relations
King Affonso I was a devout Roman Catholic and attempted to convert all of this subjects to Christianity
Relationship between Portugal and Kongo
seemed like one in which participants were equal
interaction brought wealth and foreign recognition to Kongo,
but eventually led to its decline
Brought textiles, weapons and craftsmen to Kongo
They wanted gold, silver, and ivory
Especially wanted slaves
In exchange for weapons, they began slave raids
with cooperation of local leaders
These dealings undermined the king’s authority
Kongo was defeated in war with Portuguese in 1665
Never regained former power
Iberian culture to Latin America
Christian reconquest of Iberian peninisula shaped monarchies of Spain and Port.
Aragon + Castile emerged as militantly Christian state. (pers. of Jews and Muslims)
Iberian traditions transferred to conquered lands
Centralized colonial governments
Dependent on professional bureaucrats and the clergy
Encomiendas = grants of Indian workers given to settlers
Encomenderos control of Caribbean islands
(Hispaniola 1493, Puerto Rico 1508, Cuba 1511.
Colonial urban design
Political institutions such as governors.
By 1520s, shift to ranching and sugar plantations – devastating results.
Hernan Cortes took Tenochtitlan killed Moctezuma II.
Spanish New Spain took place of Aztec confederacy.
Conquered Inca, capital Cuzco fell 1533.
Pedro de Valdivia founded city of Santiago, Chile in 1541
Francisco Vasquez de Coronado led expedition to southwest US
Hoped to become wealthy
Superior military technology, disease, and existing division within the native empires.
Bartolome de las Casas – outspoken critic of abuses.
Decline in population of American people, remaining natives more vulnerable
Enslavement of Indians generally stopped by about 1550
Forced labor common
Political reasons, the practice of granting encomiendas stopped by 1620s
Practice of mita, forced labor in Peru, used Indians for mining and other state projects.
Indigenous culture continued
Mining most important colonial enterprise
Looted gold from first decades of conquest followed by newly-mined gold and silver
Mexico and Peru held greatest stores of silver
Potosi in modern Bolivia and Zacatecas
Mexico mining communities developed
Modernization of silver extraction using mercury from Huancavelica increased silver exports.
Mining le to growth of other domestic industries such as cloth manufacture.
(CONT) Indian traditional agriculture continue
(CHANGE) Crops such as sugar gown for export on Haciendas (rural estates)
Industries like woolen cloth production made colonies more self-sufficient (but mining dominated the economy)
Spanish had monopoly on trade
All trade passed through Seville with its consulado or merchant guild.
Spain kept other nations out of its commercial sphere with galleons and use of fortified ports such as Havana.
In spite of great wealth flowing into Spain, much of it flowed out to the rest of Europe.
Revenue from taxation was greater (1/5 to Spanish crown)
Spain ruled empire with use of letrados , lawyers.
Colonial law was recodified in 1681 as the Recopilacion
Council of the Indies governed the colonies from Spain through two viceroys
Domains divided into 10 judiciaries each: the audiencias.
Catholic Church was major component of rule.
Religious orders responsile for conversion and education and sometimes protection of natives.
European culture and thought imported and disseminated largely through the church
Even offices of the Inquisition were established.
Portuguese 1st reached S. America in 1500 but territory ignored for decades
Portuguese nobles granted captaincies – nearly autonomous domains.
Followed by Jesuits and series of coastal settlements grew up.
Sugar cane was by far greatest commondity
Demanded large amounts of capital and labor
Model plantation colony
White planters at top to slaves on bottom.
Massive importation of slaves led to their making up half the population.
Governor-genral represented Portuguese rule
Its dependence on Portugal was great and the colony was slow to develop its own cultural life.
European plticial developments echoed in the colonies.
Portugal’s hold on brazil extended when Paulistas explored interior
Gold strikes in region of Minas Gerais led to gold rush.
By mid 18th c. Brazil was the world’s greatest gold producer
Mining led to more development of interior and destruction of more native populations.
Rio de Janeiro became colony’s capital.
Treaty of Tordesillas 1494 (Portugal and Spain)
Miscegenation = mestizos
Sociedad de castas = society of castes
Used race, wealth, occupation and place of birth to determine a person’s place in society.
Legal restrictions applied to different groups.
Top, peninsulares, then creoles.
Reforms: from Englightenment, amigos del pais met in Spain to discuss reform.
Spain’s hold on colonies threatened by piracy and competition of other European nations.
War of Spanish Succession (1700-1714 – Charles II) resolved by Treaty of Utrecht in 1713
Opened Spanish trading empire to France and England
Charles III (Bourbon)
Revived Spanish control of colonies
Sought to make colonial structure more effective (CONT)
Jose de Galvez became minister of Indies
Created system of intendants that made administration more effective
Loss of Florida (French and Indian War) and Havanda
Led Spain to strengthen the colonial milita.
Grants of monopolies increased governemnt’s control over key commodities.
Trade opened to other nations, leading to boom in some areas
Like Buenos Aires ranching industry.
But some areas economic decline
Reforms led to dissatisfaction – creoles lost place in govt.
Brazil changes under Marquis of Pombol
Followed English model of mercantilism.
Encouraged mixed marriages
Revenue lost due to declining gold production.
= exploitation of new areas and higher volume of exports to Europe.
Comunero Revolt of 181 nearly ended colonial rule in New Granada
Native rising of Tupac Amaru in Peru took 3 years to suppress.
Brazil had no major revolts.
Deep divisions in colonial society made unified protest unlikely
Spanish Latin America – mining
Brazil – sugar, then gold strikes
Died out in Medieval Europe, survived in Iberia, exported to New World
New foods – potato, to Europe
Landscapes destroyed to build plantations for cash crops (sugarcane, coffee)
Degradation of topsoil and loss of vegetative cover encouraged flooding and mudslides.
smallpox, measles etc.
90% mortality rate
Little Ice Age
Several 100 year period of cooling and warming trends
From 15th c. to mid 18th c.
as temperatures fell, growing seasons shortened and some types of crops (part. Grains in north) failed completely
Freezing of rivers and harbors – allowed armies to cross normally barriers to their movement.
Tokugawa laws restricted timbering operations and plant new trees when old ones cut
Louis XIV’s forestry program to manage France’s timber resources.