• amanda0195

1450-1750


EXPLORATION

Non-Europeans

  • Ming explored Indian Ocean 1405-1433 but halted voyages and destroyed ships.

  • Zheng He

  • Then Muslims, Indians, Malays etc.

  • Asian goods to Europe

  • Pepper, ginger, cloves, nutmeg

  • Ottomans took Constantinople 1453 (end of Byzantine Empire)

Technology

  • Acquisition of technology from China and Muslim world helped Europeans expand seagoing capabilities

  • Sternpost rudder, triangular lateen sails, magnetic compass, astrolabe.

Portugal

  • Early leader

  • Sugar plantations on islands in Atlantic off coast of Africa

  • Prince Henry the Navigator

  • Responsible for the early days of Portuguese Empire and age of Discoveries

  • Third son of King John I of Portugal, founder of the Aviz dynasty

  • Encouraged father to conquer Ceuta (Muslim port o N. African coast)

  • Intrigued by Christian legend of Prester John

  • Legendary Christian patriarch and king said to rule over a Christian nation lost amidst Muslims and pagans in the Orient.

  • Descendant of Three Magi

  • Patron of Portuguese exploration

  • Sponsored voyages down coast of Africa (as far as Guinea)

  • Once believed to have had a school of navigation

  • He did employ some cartographers to chart the coast of Mauritania after the voyages he sent there, but no center of navigation science.

  • First voyages

  • Bartolomeu Dias (Portugal) 1488, around Cape of Good Hope

  • Appointed by King John to find route to India and find lands ruled by Prester John.

  • Columbus (Spain) 1492, to Bahamas, Caribbean

  • Vasco da Gama (Portugal) 1497, to Calicut in India (later Goa established)

  • Magellan (Spain) 1519-1522, to Philippines, circumnavigated globe

Spain

  • Marriage of Ferdinand and Isabella ("Catholic Monarchs")

  • Financed Christopher Columbus 1492

  • Landed in Hispaniola, Taino Indians

  • Explorers:

  • Amerigo Vespucci: Map "America"

  • Vasco Nunez de Balboa

  • Juan Ponce de Leon

  • Francisco Vazquez de Coronado

  • Hernando de Soto

  • Conquistadors

  • Hernan Cortes -- Aztecs

  • Francisco Pizarro -- Incas

  • Missionary

  • Bartolome de Las Casas

Economics

  • Goal of exploration not to conquer but control trade

  • Wanted to force merchant ships to trade in fortified trading sites and pay duties for privilege

  • By mid 1500s Portugal had 50 trading posts, after that power declined

  • English and Dutch: joint stock companies (rather than crown)

Columbian exchange

  • From Old World: smallpox, wheat, sugarcane, cotton, horses, cattle, pigs, sheep, chickens

  • From New World: Maize, potatoes, beans, tomatoes, peanuts avocados, tobacco

Silver

  • Most abundant Americans precious metal

  • Stimulated a truly global trade network

  • Areas rich in silver

  • Mexico

  • And Potosi mines in Andes

  • Employed large numbers of indigenous laborers

  • Driven by China’s desire for silver

  • Powered Spanish economy and stimulated world economy

  • Used to trade for silk, porcelain in Asia

  • Financed Spain’s powerful army and bureaucracy

Sugar

  • Complex production of land, labor, buildings, animals, capital and technical skills

  • Required heavy labor (for planting, harvesting) and specialized skills (sugar-making process)

  • Because smallpox wiped out so many natives, imported Africans became the main labor force

  • Worked under harsh conditions.

  • Sugar plantations were proto-factories

  • Financed and organized to create a single product in complex manufacturing proces in one area.

OTTOMAN, SAFAVID, MUGHAL

STATE BUILDING (1300s to 1923)

OTTOMAN EMPIRE

  • Started as seminomadic Turks who migrated to Anatolia in 13th c.

  • As Mongol’s power declined in Middle East, Ottomans replaced them as the dominant influence.

  • Military might and gunpowder weapons

  • Drove Ottomans to power.

  • Janissaries

  • Elite fighting force of slave troops, Christian boys, led the military powerhouse.

  • 1453 captured Constantinople and ended long life of Byzantine Empire (Mehmed II)

  • By 1566 ruled all of former eastern Roman Empire

  • Social and political

  • Granted great independence to the military aristocracy to which it owed its success.

  • These nobles, granted conquered lands, eventually came to threaten the sultan’s power

  • The Janissaries, (14th – 19th c.) infantry made up largely of onquered peoels, formed the new military core of the empire

  • POLITICS

  • Under sultans such as Mehmed II and Suleyman

  • Tightly centralized absolute monarchy ruled

  • Early sultans ruled directly, as poltical and military leaders

  • Viziers

  • Later, sultans rule through their viziers (CHANGE) and through manipulation of the powerful groups within the empire.

  • As empire grew and the sultans became surrounded by ritual and luxury, the power of the viziers grew.

  • Rulers

  • Mehmed II

  • Rebuilt and improved Constantinople.

  • Suleyman

  • Suleymaniya mosque built at the apex of Ottoman culture 1th c.

  • City restored to its position at the point of commercial exhcnage between east and west.

  • Merchant and artistans

  • Were again central to the city’s culture

  • Turkish language

  • Became the official language of court and literature.

  • Islamic religious scholars and legal experts

  • Served administrative functions

  • As empire more wealthy

  • Sultans grew more distant and removed from running of the government

  • Vizier

  • Headed the bureaucracy

  • Often had more control and power than the sultan

  • Political succession

  • Serious problem as succeeding sultans often have brothers executed to eliminate any challenge to their authority.

  • Capital – Istanbul

  • Hagia Sophia became mosque

  • aqueducts, marketplace, rest houses, religious schools, hospitals

  • large merchant and artisan class conducted business

  • Commercial exchanges and handicraft production were closely regulated by the government.

  • Sultan’s harem (private domain) influential

  • Concubines, female relatives lived there, accorded status when they had sons.

  • Members of harem – all very close to the sultan and wielded a lot of political power – often slave origin and non-Muslim (enslavement of Muslims forbidden)

  • Trained in Quran, sewing, music.

  • Sultan’s mother was sultan valide (queen mother) served as advisor to the throne, administered imperial household and engaged in diplomatic relations.

  • Empire reached peak in mid 1600s

  • Decline

  • Effectiveness of administration declined and plagued by corruption

  • Corruption among officials resulted

  • Successor to the throne often lived sheltered lives and unequipped to rule

  • Because of competition.

  • As European military and naval technology outpaced theirs, the Ottomans ill-equipped to effectively compete

  • As conquests ended, some of dynamism lost.

  • Too large to maintain

  • Oversight of vast empire hampered by poor communication

  • Economically

  • As Portuguese rounded Africa, they were able to bypass Ottoman control of the spice trade

  • Silver from Latin America led to crippling inflation in the Ottoman Empire

SAFAVIDS

  • Champions of Islam – embraced Shi’ism

  • Struggles with Ottomans intensified by religious conflict.

  • Shi’a followers called the Red Heads.

  • Ismail named shah in 1501 – ed to war with Ottomans

  • Great Safavid defeat at Chaldiran in 1514 didn’t end their power but stopped the spread of their emipire and Shi’ism.

  • Shah Abbas the Great

  • Brought the empire to its apogee.

  • Built up slave regiments (like Ottomans COMP)

  • Safavid ruers were of Turkic background like Ottomans COMP)

  • But adopted Perian as the court language (CONTRAST)

  • Worldly power buttressed by claims to be imams – successors of Ali (COMP)

  • Used mullahs to add religious support for their rule.

  • Abbas was major patron of craft and trade revival as well as arts

  • Capital Isfahan – court dominated city ife. Maginificent mosques and royal tombs n city.

  • COMPARE – Safavids shared cultural traits with Ottomans

  • Nobiilty grew in power

  • Exploitation of peasants increased.

  • Shahs and sultans were important patrons of the arts and crafts.

  • Women

  • limited in both public roles and even in creative pursuits allowed to them in other cultures.

  • Women of Turkic and Mongol backgrounds lost ground as their cultures were changed by contact with Arabic and Persian traditions.

  • At courts in both empires, women could wield great power, though indirtly.

  • Women could retain some control over inherited property

  • Decline

  • Despite Abbas’s achievements his empire was short-lived

  • Weak successors easily manipulated,

  • 1722 Nadir Khan Ashar usurped the throne inaugurating a period of unending conflict.

MUGHAL INDIA (1523-mid 1700s)

  • Decentralized history of regional kingdoms

  • Babur (Babar)

  • interrupted by conquest of Babur and establishment of the Mughal empire

  • Babur, a descendant of Turkic nomads, began his conquest of India in 1526

  • COMPARE showed same leadership ability and cultivation of arts as Shah Abbas I and Sultan Mehmed II.

  • His main goal of reclaiming his kingdom in central Asia was never achieved, but he managed to win much of northern India.

  • Humayan – Babur’s son – abe successor

  • Akbar

  • Babur’s grandson (a minor at his succession)

  • Strong military commander

  • Interested in uniting his empire

  • Created new religion called “Divine Faith” 1582 Din-I-Ilahicombining elements of Islam and Hinduism

  • purpose – to promote religious unity – although also legitimized the ruler as head of state and head of religion

  • Patronized arts and very interested in religious discussion

  • Initiated policy of cooperation with Hindu rulers and Hindu population by encouraging intermarriage

  • Abolished jizya

  • promoted Hindus to high-ranking government jobs

  • Comparison:

  • Like Ottomans and Safavids

  • He granted lands to his noble, yet left many Hindu rulers in place

  • Social reforms

  • Outlawed sati and tried to easE the seclusion of women

  • Changed marriage customs to protect women

  • Improved plight of urban poor

  • Fell behind in the sciences

  • Exports of textile industry

  • Jahangir and Shah Jahan

  • Also great patrons of the arts (CONT)

  • Many of India’s finaest monuments date from their reign.

  • Mughal architecture blended Persian and Indain traditions.

  • But did little to buid on his achievements

  • Under Mughals India fell behind in sciences

  • Although exports of the textile industry remained important.

  • Jahangir and Shah Jahan were much more devoted to pleasure than Akbar (CHANGE)

  • Jahangir

  • Wife Nur Jahan took power her husband neglected

  • Her influence brought able men to court and was used to help charities

  • Shah Jahan

  • His wife Mumtaz Mahal

  • Smaller role than Nur Jahan

  • But tomb Taj Mahal is grandest in India

  • Other Indian women

  • Reforms did little to improve thei status.

  • Art

  • Painting workshops expanded, leading to creation of 1000s of exquisite miniatures.

  • Mughal architecture blended Persian and Hindu traditions by using Islamic domes, arches and minarets along with Hindu ornamentation.

  • Most famous: Taj Mahal, which Emperor Shah Jahan built as tomb for late wife.

  • Aurangzeb

  • Shah Jahan’s son

  • Seized throne with a neglected and corrupt bureaucracy

  • Pushed to extend Muslim control to the whole of India

  • Able ruler

  • Sought to rid India of all Hindu influences (bringing back jizya) and to purify India’s Islam

  • Attack on position of Hindus more disruptive – overturned Akbar’s attempt to bring peace.

  • His many wars drained the treasury, and peasant uprisings and revolts by both Muslim and Hindu princes weakened the empire.

  • Although Mughal empire was large at his death, it was weakened by rivalries.

  • Marrata risings

  • Emergence of new sects added to the strain.

  • Attacks on the Sikhs turned the Din-i-Ilahi sect from its original goal of blending Hindu and Muslim traditions, to a rigidly Hindu, anti-Muslim religion.

  • Trade

  • India became a major overseas destination for European traders who demanded cotton.

  • With a weakened empire, those traders were able to increase their influence

COMPARISON

  • Ottoman, Safavid, Mughal

  • Common roots – all three emerged from groups of Turkic steppe nomads

  • All carved out areas formerly controlled by Mongols through military might

  • To consolidate their control ther new lands, the ruler f each awarded lands to their followers

  • From the latter, a new landed, military aristocracy arose in all there areas

  • Differences

  • Differences in areas they conquered

  • Attitudes of the conquerors towards other religions

  • Abilities of successive rulers

EUROPE

RENAISSANCE

  • Crusades had brought Europe in contact with Arab culture

  • Renaissance (Beg. 1400s)

  • Italy

  • Petrarch – first European to typify the new spirit of Renaissance

  • Italian Renaissance began 1300s, took shape 1400s.

  • Humanism

  • Looked to ancient Greece and Rome for inspiration.

  • Focus on human artistic and intellectual endeavor

  • Northern Renaissance

  • Also spurred by merchant wealth

  • Focused on perfection of man in Christian context

  • Shakespeare and Rabelais

TECHNOLOGY

  • Technology

  • Printing press in 1400s

GEOGRAPHY

  • Italy

  • Da Vinci, Michelangelo etc

  • Renaissance man

  • Italy middle between Europe and Middle East

  • Medici rich as merchants

  • city-states, kingdoms

  • German lands divided into 100s of small kingdoms

  • Nominally ruled over by the Holy Roman Emperor (Charles V of Spain, staunch Catgolic)

  • Germans resented having to support both an “emperor” who was not German and the Church.

  • Sided with Luther – Protestants.

PROTESTANT REFORMATION

  • Martin Luther, 95 Theses on Wittenberg Church 1517

  • Against corruption in Roman Catholic Church (Indulgences)

  • Lack of piety of priesthood (Pope Leo)

  • Reformers promoted public education (Luther translating Bible, Calvinists)

  • Changing role of family (Luther married nun)

  • Thirty Years War (1618-1648)

  • Catholics v. Protestants

  • Devastated German lands.

  • Sovereignty of the state became model for future nation-state relations.

  • Protestant Reformation spread

  • To Netherlands, Switzerland (Calvin), Scandinavia, France (Hugeunots),

  • England – Henry VIII – created Church of England.

  • Counterreformation

  • Catholic Church reforms itself – Council of Trent

  • Jesuits/Loyola (spread religion and educ. internationally), Baroque Art

  • Persecution of Witches

  • Fueled by fear and hatred by dispossessed poor.

SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION (17th, 18th c.)

  • Copernicus -- Rediscovered heliocentrism revolutionizing the western view of the cosmos.

  • Kepler’s planetary observations (elliptical orbit)

  • Galileo used telescope

  • Descartes and Newton = scientific approach to knowledge.

  • Deism

ENLIGHTENMENT (Beg. 1700s)

  • Centered in France (philosophes)

  • John Locke (Br.)

  • Thought all men born with natural rights and should be free

  • Also “tabula rasa” – everything could be known through the sense with use of reason.

  • Voltaire (Fr)

  • Freedom of speech, against organized church (“ecrasez l’infame”)

  • Montesquieu (Fr)

  • Separation of powers (Executive, Legislative, Judicial)

  • Different types of government for different types of regions (ex. Republic in small city-states)

EUROPEAN POLITICS

  • Absolutism

  • Led by France, monarchy entered new phase: absolutism.

  • Larger bureaucracies and elaborate court ritual raised monarchs to new heights

  • C. European monarchs followed French model, their power strengthened by defeat of the Turks.

  • Sovereignty

  • Ideas of sovereignty of the people developed (see Locke)

  • Britain and Netherlands – representative law-making bodies limited power of monarchs.

  • Nation-state

  • All European countries ha commonalities as nation-states

  • People bound by common culture, within clearly defined boundaries, at odds with other nation-states

  • By 1750

  • Political forms crystallize

  • Enlightened despotism – Prussia of Frederick the Great

  • Enlightenment thinkers set out to fix the world.

  • Salons, coffeehouses, promoting growth of scholarly journals.

  • Consumer demand for imported products

  • Agriculture developed with improved drainage and importation of New World crops

  • Manufacturing, fueled by capitalism and employing large number of works, increasingly dove economy

PORTUGAL

  • Exploration (see above)

  • Henry the Navigator (financed navigation)

  • Bartholomeu Dias (sailed around Cape of Good Hope)

  • Vasco Da Gama (sailed to India)

SPAIN

  • Marriage of Ferdinand II of Aragon and Isabella of Castile 1469

  • Catholic Monarchs

  • Reconquista

  • Take back Granada – last Muslim territory

  • Spanish Inquisition

  • Non-Christians (Jews and Muslims) expelled

  • “Converts” on trial (auto-da-fe), tortured, killed

  • Columbus 1792

  • Spanish conquistadors to Americas, followed by Spanish crown

  • New Spain (Mexico) and New Castile (Peru)

  • Each governed by a viceroy who was responsible to the Spanish king

  • 1494 Treaty of Tordesillas

  • Divided America in half (Sp. In W., Port. In E)

  • Social result

  • Multicultural and ethnically mixed population

  • Majority of migrants were men

  • Peninsulares, Creoles, mestizos, mulattoes and zambos (Native American and African)

  • Empire thrived with silver mining, farming, stock raising, craft production

  • Haciendas (large estates)

  • served initially by labor acquired through encomienda system

  • which gave settlers right to demand labor from native peoples

  • At urging of Catholic priests (like De Las Casas)

  • Who saw encomienda as hindering their conversion attempts

  • This system was replaced with repartimiento system

  • Which compelled native communities to supply laborers

  • but only for limited periods of time and for a fair wage.

  • Mita System

  • As the plantation system grew in Americas

  • so did use of African slave labor

  • Missionaries

  • Hoped to spread Christian faith to the natives

  • Many did adopt Christianity but blended it with own traditions

  • Columbian Exchange

RUSSIAN EMPIRE (1480-1917)

  • After 100s of years under Mongol tributary rule, Russia emerged as empire of its own

  • Removal of the Mongol yoke (mid 15th c. )

  • Grand Duchy (1283-1547)

  • Initial Westward Expansion 1480s

  • Ivan III

  • Grand prince of Moscow

  • Stopped paying tribute to Mongols

  • In 1480 began building an empire for himself

  • Established a strong central govt. ruled by an absolute monarch (czar) who was also head of the Russian Orthodox Church.

  • Czar also received authority from God.

  • Influence of Mongols

  • Didn’t’ change Russian culture but caused Russia to stagnate

  • Tsars began process of reviving and recreating Russian culture

  • Largely by tying its past to that of Byzantine Emprie.

  • Expansion

  • Russian independence meant territorial expansion.

  • Cossacks, peasant-adventurers, were used to settle the newly taken lands.

  • The lands, in turn, could be used to buy the loyalty of the boyars.

  • Russian expansion put an end to the periodic emergence of nomadic peoples from central Asia

  • Tsars began policy of contact with the West, commercially and culturally.

  • Ivan the Terrible (r. 1533-1584) (Rurik Dynasty)

  • Grand Prince of Moscow 1533-1547, Tsar of all Russias 1547-death in 1584)

  • Conquests

  • Khanates of Kazan, Astakhan and Siberia

  • = multiethnic and multi religious state

  • Transformed Russia from a medieval state to an empire

  • (first ruler to be crowned as Tsar of all the Russias)

  • Was intelligent and devout

  • But also prone to rages and mental illness

  • Killed his heir leaving throne to younger, weaker son (Feodor)

  • Duties to minister Boris Godunov

  • Time of Troubles

  • Between death of last Russian Tsar of Rurik Dynasty (Feodor Ivanovich) in 1598

  • And establishment of Romanov Dynasty in 1613

  • In 1601-1603 Russia suffered famine that killed 1/3 of pupation (about 2 million)

  • Russia occupied by Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth

  • Civil uprisings, usurpers, imposters

  • After a reign of terror by Ivan the Terrible and Time of Troubles

  • Romanov family to power

  • Ruled next 300 years

  • Peter the Great (1682-1725)

  • fascinated with Western technology

  • Instituted policy of forced and rapid modernization.

  • Cultural changes

  • Russian noble dress and manners – resented by many.

  • Established industries based on the most advanced science and technology

  • Not interested in representative government

  • Instead reformed the midair with professional soldiers and began to construct a navy

  • Obsession with “everything western”

  • symbolized by insistence that all Russian men wear western clothes and shave bears

  • St. Petersburg = “window to the West.”

  • Great Northern War with Sweden

  • Catherine the Great (r. 1762-1796)

  • Longest-ruling female leader of Russia

  • Took over in coup after assassination of her husband Peter III at the end of the Seven Years’ War

  • Continued many of Peter the Great’s policies

  • Russia’s “Golden Age”

  • Russia revitalize, growing larger and stronger than ever, became one of great powers of Europe

  • Restricted freedom of peasants and intellectual wanting further reforms.

  • Relied on favorites (Orlov and Potemkin)

  • Expansion

  • South: Crimean Khanate crushed after victory over Ottoman Empire in Russo-Turkish Wars

  • Partition of Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth

  • Ruled by Catherine’s former lover, king Stanislaw August Poniatowsky

  • Russian Empire got largest share

  • Russia began to colonize Alaska

  • Modernization

  • Catherine admired Peter the Great – set out to modernize

  • But military conscription and economy continued to depend on serfdom

  • Increasing demands of the state and private landowners led to increased levels of reliance on serfs

  • Reason for several rebellions, including the large-scale Pugachev’s Rebellion of Cossacks and peasants

  • Cossacks are East Slavic people from Ukraine a

  • Nobles

  • Manifesto on Freedom of the Nobility issued by Peter III

  • Confirmed by Catherine

  • Nobles freed from compulsory military or state service

  • Russian nobles had a more important role than their western counterparts

  • Who, by this time, were largely ornamental.

  • Enlightened despot

  • Corresponded with Voltaire

  • First higher education for women in Europe

  • Fur trade with N. America

  • Russian serfdom

  • After Mongol rule many free peasants fell into great debt, were forced to become serfs on large estates

  • Russian govt. encouraged the process beginning in 1500s because it was way to satisfy the nobility and to regulate the peasants at the same time.

  • As new territories added to empire, serfdom extended as well

  • 1649, an act proclaimed that serfs were born into their status

  • and could not escape it.

  • Serfs could be bought or sold, gambled away, punished

  • Whole villages could be sold to supply manufacturing labor – but not literally slaves

  • Serfs who were illiterate and poor had to pay high taxes and owed extensive labor service to their landlords in form of agriculture, mining or manufacturing.

  • Position of serfs declined in 1600s and 1700s satisfying the nobility (who managed this agrarian population for the tsars).

  • Serfdom resembled slavery

  • Peasant society largely self-governed

  • Status declined throughout 18th century.

  • Agricultural practices saw little improvement

  • Peasant rebellions brutally repressed (Pugachev)

  • Merchant class small

ASIA

ASIAN TRADING WORLD

  • Asian trading network linked Pacific and Indian oceans in three commercial zones

  • Arab zone:

  • Red Sea and Persian Gulf

  • Glass and textiles from Middle East

  • Indian zone:

  • Cotton textiles

  • China zone

  • Paper, porcelain and silks

  • Spices still dominated the trade

  • From Ceylon and Indonesia.

  • Coastal routes preferred

  • When Portuguese arrived

  • No central power controlled trade

  • Military power rarely used

  • Portugues changed the rules.

  • Lacking goods desired in east, Portuguese resorted to force to obtain spices they came for.

  • Da Gama in 1502 used advantage to capture ports

  • To fortify their grwoign network, they took Goa and Ormuz.

  • Portuguese aimed to establish a system in which they would control all traffic in the Indian Ocean.

  • Portuguese never able to extend the monopoly they desired, even by using the most brutal measures.

  • Dutch and English

  • Arrived in 1600s

  • Dutch early lead

  • Built port of Batavia on Java – well positioned for the spice trade

  • Dutch trading empire followed same lines as Portugues, yet Dutch eventually turned to peaceful cooperation (COMP AND CCOT)

  • In general Euroepans remained on coastlines

  • With a few exceptions like Dutch control north of Java installing coffee planations

  • Spanish

  • Conquest of Philippines in 1500s starting with Luzon and the nearby islands

  • Failed to take Mindanao and the northern islands.

  • Tribute system established

  • Leaving local rulers in place

  • Christianity

  • Converting Asians to Christianity was made difficult by the secure position of Islam in many areas

  • Francis Xavier, a Jesuit missionary, made headway in converting low-cast Hindus.

  • Robert di Nobili learned Sanskrit to help convert high-caste Indians – but little success.

  • Spanish work in the Philippines led to more converts.

  • Christianity there, however, was Filipino blend of traditional and Christian beliefs.

  • CONT – Great continuity of customs and religious practices in the Philippines mitigated the impact of Christianity.

CHINA

  • Ming (1368-1644)

  • Founded by Zhu Yuanzhang, of peasant stock

  • Influenced by time spent in a Buddhist monarstery, he led a rebel group and defeated the Mongol ruler

  • Claimed title of Hongwu emperor in 1368 and began purge of Mongol influences

  • Ming reestablished and extended the examination system

  • Hongwu

  • cleaned up corruption at court.

  • Also tried to rid the palace of intrigues of royal wies and eunuchs.

  • Programs included public works, improving agricultureal irrigation, encoruaign farming on abandoned lands.

  • Increasing power of landlords greatly lessened the impact of these improvements.

  • This gentry class created its own cutlrue

  • To justify it inceasing power.

  • Women and children

  • Under Ming emperors the low place of women and the young was intensified.

  • Economy

  • Agricutlural expansion and imports from Spanish and Portugeuse stimulated an economic boom

  • Miaze, sweet potatoes and peanuts were imported and became staples

  • High demand for Chiense goods

  • Meant influx of Aemrican silver

  • Foreign traders allowed only on Macao and Canton

  • Chinese merchants fared well.

  • In imitation of gentry, merchants invested in land.

  • Culture

  • Fine arts flourished as well

  • Mainly along traditional lines

  • Novel achieved its lasic form

  • Zheng he

  • Under Emperor Yongle

  • Admiral Zheng he led seven expeditions to the west.

  • Size and scope demonstrated the Chinese capacity to undertake global expansion.

  • Yet Chinese retreated, instead closing off more firmly than ever

  • Missionaries to China

  • Matteo Ricci and Alan Schall chose to convert the country from the top down

  • But met with little success.

  • End

  • Ming court weakened by corruption and rulers distance themselves from the people

  • Public works lapsed

  • Disaffected farmers turned to banditry

  • Rebellion brought Ming dynasty down in 1644, when the last emperor hanged himself to avoid capture.

  • Qing Dynasty (1644-1911)

  • 1640s Ming dynasty had declined and taken over by peasant army.

  • But nomadic people from north east, the Manchu, which had aided the peasant army

  • Soon ousted the peasant army

  • And took over as the Qing dynasty

  • China under foreigners for the second time

  • Manchus mimicked Chinese culture generations before

  • unlike Mongols

  • bolstered many aspects of Chinese govt.

  • to include using Confucian civil service exam system

  • Like Mongols

  • Manchu wanted to preserve their own ethic and cultural identity

  • So forbade intermarriage between Manchu and Han Chinese

  • Forbade Chinese from travelling to Manchuria and from learning their language

  • forced Chitins men to wear their hair in a braid called a queue as sign of submission.

JAPAN

Japan: Tokugawa Shogunate (1600-1867)

  • After period of civil war and disorder

  • Series of military rulers brought an end ot daimyo warare in Japan

  • Nobunaga

  • Used European firearms to depose the Ashikaga shogun in 1513

  • Toyotomi Hideyoshi

  • Pursued his predecessor’s killers

  • Ambitious and able, Hideyoshi undertook conquest of Korea, but failed

  • Tokugawa Ieyasu established Tokugawa Shogunate in 1600

  • Ruled from Edo.

  • Tokugawa shoguns ended daimyo warfare.

  • He wanted to stabilize the region and prevent civil war.

  • Did this by increasing his control over the daimyos

  • Insisting that they spend every other year at the capital (Edo, now Tokyo) so that he could keep an eye on them.

  • Relations with outside world closely controlled

  • Japanese forbidden from going abroad and from constructing large ships

  • Europeans expelled from Japan

  • Foreign merchants not allowed to trade in Japanese ports (except small number of Chinese and Dutch ships at Nagasaki)

  • Despite restriction, economy grew

  • As agricultural production increased and population grew

  • IN more peacful times

  • Samurai became government administrators

  • Christianity

  • Had made some important inroads in Japan by 1580 (150,000 Japanese Christians) converts

  • But government ended these missions

  • And went as far as trying and executing the missionaries who did not leave.

  • Nobunaga patronized Christian missionaries hoping to lessen the power of militant Buddhist orders.

  • However under Hideyoshi, Christians came to be seen as a threat.

  • Hideyoshi expelled the Christian missionaries and then persecuted their converts

  • Ieyasu went further

  • Attempting to rid the islands of all Europeans

  • By mid 1th c. European contact limited to Dutch trade on Deshima island

  • In this climate, the School of National Learning focused on the uniqueness of Japanese history and culture.

  • Dutch merchants

  • continued to be the principal source of information about Europe

  • keeping Japanese up-to-date with important scientific and technological developments.

ATLANTIC SLAVE TRADE

  • Migration of 12- 15 million Africans to New World

  • Age of Exploration and Columbian Exchange

  • Portuguese le the way

  • Established factories to facilitate trade

  • Trading fortresses and compounds with resident merchants to assure secure landing places and commerce

  • El Mina in West Africa, being the most important trading factory

  • More interested in trade than conquest

  • So generally peaceful relations with African rulers

  • Portuguese down coast and founded Luanda, later expanded to colony of Angola

  • Luanda = Portuguese factory est. 1520s south of Kongo, became basis for Portuguese colony of Angola

  • Sought conversion

  • Greatest success was Nzinga Mvemba – ruler of Kongo.

  • 1507 to 1543, converted to Christianity and took title Alfonso I

  • Under Portuguese influence attempted to Christinaize all of kingdom.

  • Competition with other nations.

  • Portugal controlled traffic for much of history of slave trade.

  • From 1630 onward (CHANGE) competition increased

  • Dutch seized El Mina in 1637.

  • British Royal African Company

  • Chartered by English govt. 1672 to conduct its merchats’ trade on the Atlantic coast of Affrica

  • Then French

  • Trans-Atlantic slave trade

  • Portuguese trade in salves developed slowly

  • Only one of many commodities.

  • Slavery in Europe (except for Iberia) had disappeared

  • Development of sugar plantations raised need for slave labor.

  • High mortality – on board and plantations – with low birth rates kept demand high.

  • Brazil received about 42% of the slaves.

  • Trade initially in Africans from Senegambia, then from modern Zaire and Angola

  • Then from Dahomey and Benin.

  • Mostly men

  • Trans-Saharan slave trade

  • Mostly in women – for concubines in Islamic lands (COMP) v. trans-Atlantic trade in men

  • How slaves acquired

  • Tribes took prisoners from neighboring tribes and enslave them

  • Purchases of slaves made through local rulers

  • Also sporadic raids.

  • Value of slave

  • Based on Indies Piece – price of an adult male slave

  • African law didn’t recognize private property

  • So land did not equal wealth

  • Only human labor = wealth

  • Spread of Islam

  • Created new trade routes across Northern Africa to Middle East

  • By time Europeans in Sub-Saharan Africa, slave traffic had been well-established for 500 years.

  • Portuguese

  • off coast of Africa in 1500s

  • Once took Brazil, brought plantations there.

  • Slave trade had become trans-oceanic

  • Middle Passage

  • 4-6 weeks

  • Triangular trade

  • European manufactured goods (firearms esp.) for slaves

  • Slaves to Caribbean and America

  • American products to Europe

  • Effect on Africa

  • Some benefited economically

  • Population losses (esp. men)

  • Firearms led to increased political conflict

  • Christianity created synthesis (brought by slaves to New World)

  • Effect on America

  • Demographic changes (diseases killing Indians, Africans and Europeans in)

  • Cash crops (sugar, tobacco, cotton or coffee)

  • Encomienda System

  • Early Spanish settlers needed labor

  • Encomienda system gave them right to demand labor in mines and fields of natives

  • Laborers worked hard and punished severely

  • Haciendas – Large estates

  • Natives abused

  • People like de Las Casas

  • Sp. Replaced encomienda with repartimiento system

  • Natives supplied labor for Spanish mines and farms

  • But limited work time and compensated with wages

  • Many groups had to send laborers to work on state projects.

  • Peru mita system mobilized 1000s of natives to work in silver mines

  • paid wages but abused

AFRICA

  • Slavery

  • African traditions of slavery deeply engrained in system and social hierarchy

  • Condition of salves varied greatly

  • Concubines = polygamy in Islam

  • In Islam enslavement of Muslims forbidden

  • Changes because of slavery

  • Endemic wafare typified much of Sub-Saharan Africa (with exptio f Songhay)

  • One of the results was constant supply of slave.

  • As Europeans settled aong coast, they provoked shift in pwer relations of states in interior.

  • Ghana and Songhay able to make sues of their position as intermeiares in commerce.

  • Asante

  • African kingdom on Gold Coast that expanded rapidly after 1800

  • Asante participated in Atlantic economy, trading gold, slaves and ivory

  • Resisted British imperial ambitions for quarter century before eign absorbed into Britain.

  • Osei Tutu

  • Unified the Akan clans, taking the title asantahene or supreme ruler.

  • For nearly two centuries (1650-1820) Asante ruled along the Gold coast.

  • Dahomey

  • Agaja - King of Dahomey

  • Made use of European firearms to establish an empire.

  • Dahomey - W. African empire 17th c to 1894, profited from slave trade expanded inward and captured slaves

  • Controlled slave trade in its region.

  • Dahomey remained independent, unified state longer than most of its neighbors.

  • Politics

  • Political experiementation included increasingly powerful monarchs and monarchs lilmtied by governing councils

  • Culture

  • Arts continued to thrive – often led by artisan guild.

  • Demand for African crafts to suit Euroepan tastes increased Africa’s cotact iwht other world areas

  • Swahili east coast

  • Still formed part of the Indian Ocean trading area

  • Brought ivory, gold and slaves from interior of continent.

  • Clove planatioans using African slaves developed on Zanzibar and other islands

  • Interior of Africa

  • Less well understood

  • Movements o Nilotic groups including the Luo people led to network of dynasties in east central Africa

  • Kingdom of Bunyoro was one of the most prominent in the 1500s and1600s.

  • Islamization

  • Following the breakup of Songhay, too on more dynamic, even militant phase

  • Ususman Dan Fodio – a Muslim scholar of the Fulani peole so fhte Sudan

  • Was inspired by Suficism

  • Under his leadership, the Fulani took over several Hausa states, crating the Sokoto k kingdom.

  • Fulani rebelled against the Germans in German East Africa in 1890s

  • Expansion of Fulani had impact on west African interior.

  • Slavery in Sudan expanded as result of wars and of European pressures

  • South Africa

  • Initially little influence by slave trade

  • Bantu migrations into area changed its economy

  • Earlier dominated by Khoiikhoi and San hunters and sheepherders

  • Bantu peoples n souther Arica organized into small chiefdoms.

  • Their expansion further south borugh them into contact with Dutch settlers.

  • Moving inland from the Cape Colony in search of land to farm

  • Under British control from 1815

  • The colony;s expansion led to warare with the Bantu

  • Boer Great Trek

  • Coincided with upheavals among the Bantu peoples

  • Shaka, chief of Zulu from 1818.

  • Ruthless leadership crated a powerful Zulu state that survived his death

  • Shaka’s work was part of the mfecane.

  • Mfecane = wars of 19th c. in southern Africa

  • Created by Zulu expansion under Shaka

  • Revolutionized political organization of southern AFrica

  • Swazi (Bantu language related to Zulu) and Lesotho (landlocked constitutional monarchy) emerged at the same time

  • Resisting Zulu expansion

  • All of southern Africa involved in the turmoil of the mfecane.

  • African diaspora

  • Foreign products brought in to Africa

  • Hierarchy

  • Saltwater slaves – newly arrived

  • Creole slaves – American boarn descendants of salt-water salves.

  • Creole could gain more skilled work in better conditions

  • Stood better chance of being manumitted.

  • Slave communities

  • Sometimes divided along lines similar to those in Africa

  • Grew until 80% of colonial populations.

  • North American slave poujaltion had higher birthrate and less need of newly-enlaved Africasn

  • Thus more cut off from Africa than slave in other areas.

  • Culture

  • Aricans in slavery maintained as much of their culture as was possible, depending in part on whether they foud themselves with other slaves from their native region.

  • Africans converted to Chrsitianity

  • But their religiou traditions, obeah ( African religious ideas and practices in Englaish and French Caribbean islands) survived.

  • Obeah/Obi/Obea – term used in West Indies to reer to folk magic, sorcery and religious practices deveoed among West Arican slaves, specifivcally of Igbo origin.

  • Similar to other Afro-American religions like Palo, Bodou, Santeria and Hoodoo

  • Brazil and Haiti

  • African religion survived intact

  • Candomle (Brazil), Vodun (Haiti)

  • Resistance to slavery

  • Alsoways present but Suriname. rarely successful.

  • Palmares, a community of fugitive slaves in Brazil, was expesion

  • Also Maroons of Jamaica and

  • Abolition from outside Africa (William Wilberforce).

  • British stopped the slave trade in 1807

  • Slavery finally abolished in Americas when Brazil stopped practice in 1888

  • European influence in Africa

  • Europeans provided weapons which led to disruption of existing power structure.

  • European goods and currency exchanged for slaves, made impact on economy.

  • Greatest impact, demand for slaves.

  • Although Africans often enslaved as result of internal wars, the high European demand for slaves for the New World led to massive exportation of Africans. – exacerbated internal tensions – did not cause them.

  • SONGHAY (West Africa) (1464-1591)

  • In 1400s West African state of Songhay emerged to take power over weakened Mali Empire

  • Leader Sunni Ali, consolidated empire

  • By appointing governors to oversee the provinces

  • building a hierarchically commanded army

  • and creating an imperial navy to patrol the Niger River

  • Lucrative Trans-Saharan trade flowed through city of Gao,

  • Brought textiles and metal

  • In exchange for gold and slaves

  • All Songhay emperors were Muslims

  • Who supported mosques, schools and the Islamic university of Timbuktu.

  • Still even though Islam served as the cultural foundation of the empire and a key element in establishing cooperation with Muslim merchants

  • Traditional religious beliefs not abandoned.

  • Decline

  • As Europeans were making inroads into Africa

  • Songhay Empire began to lose control of its many subject peoples.

  • Defeated by the Moroccans in 1591

  • KONGO (1300s to 1600s)

  • Emerged as centralized state 14th c. along west coast of central Africa

  • Powerful king ruled and officials oversaw military, judicial and financial affairs

  • 1482 small Portuguese fleet arrived

  • initiated commercial relations

  • within a few years, Portuguese had developed a close political and diplomatic relationship with the king

  • they provided him military force, which supported both of their interests

  • King also converted to Christianity

  • To improve commercial and diplomatic relations

  • King Affonso I was a devout Roman Catholic and attempted to convert all of this subjects to Christianity

  • Relationship between Portugal and Kongo

  • seemed like one in which participants were equal

  • interaction brought wealth and foreign recognition to Kongo,

  • but eventually led to its decline

  • Portuguese

  • Brought textiles, weapons and craftsmen to Kongo

  • They wanted gold, silver, and ivory

  • Especially wanted slaves

  • In exchange for weapons, they began slave raids

  • with cooperation of local leaders

  • These dealings undermined the king’s authority

  • Kongo was defeated in war with Portuguese in 1665

  • Never regained former power

LATIN AMERICA

  • Iberian culture to Latin America

  • Christian reconquest of Iberian peninisula shaped monarchies of Spain and Port.

  • Aragon + Castile emerged as militantly Christian state. (pers. of Jews and Muslims)

  • Iberian traditions transferred to conquered lands

  • Slaveholding

  • Patriarchal family

  • Centralized colonial governments

  • Dependent on professional bureaucrats and the clergy

  • Encomiendas = grants of Indian workers given to settlers

  • Encomenderos control of Caribbean islands

  • (Hispaniola 1493, Puerto Rico 1508, Cuba 1511.

  • Colonial urban design

  • Political institutions such as governors.

  • By 1520s, shift to ranching and sugar plantations – devastating results.

  • Conquest

  • Hernan Cortes took Tenochtitlan killed Moctezuma II.

  • Spanish New Spain took place of Aztec confederacy.

  • Francisco Pizarro

  • Conquered Inca, capital Cuzco fell 1533.

  • Pedro de Valdivia founded city of Santiago, Chile in 1541

  • Francisco Vasquez de Coronado led expedition to southwest US

  • Reasons

  • Hoped to become wealthy

  • How?

  • Superior military technology, disease, and existing division within the native empires.

  • Criticism

  • Bartolome de las Casas – outspoken critic of abuses.

  • Labor

  • Decline in population of American people, remaining natives more vulnerable

  • Enslavement of Indians generally stopped by about 1550

  • Forced labor common

  • Political reasons, the practice of granting encomiendas stopped by 1620s

  • Practice of mita, forced labor in Peru, used Indians for mining and other state projects.

  • Continuities

  • Indigenous culture continued

  • Economics

  • Mining most important colonial enterprise

  • Looted gold from first decades of conquest followed by newly-mined gold and silver

  • Mexico and Peru held greatest stores of silver

  • Potosi in modern Bolivia and Zacatecas

  • Mexico mining communities developed

  • Modernization of silver extraction using mercury from Huancavelica increased silver exports.

  • Mining le to growth of other domestic industries such as cloth manufacture.

  • Agriculture

  • (CONT) Indian traditional agriculture continue

  • (CHANGE) Crops such as sugar gown for export on Haciendas (rural estates)

  • Industry

  • Industries like woolen cloth production made colonies more self-sufficient (but mining dominated the economy)

  • Trade

  • Spanish had monopoly on trade

  • All trade passed through Seville with its consulado or merchant guild.

  • Spain kept other nations out of its commercial sphere with galleons and use of fortified ports such as Havana.

  • In spite of great wealth flowing into Spain, much of it flowed out to the rest of Europe.

  • Revenue from taxation was greater (1/5 to Spanish crown)

  • Spanish government

  • Spain ruled empire with use of letrados , lawyers.

  • Colonial law was recodified in 1681 as the Recopilacion

  • Council of the Indies governed the colonies from Spain through two viceroys

  • Domains divided into 10 judiciaries each: the audiencias.

  • Catholic Church was major component of rule.

  • Religious orders responsile for conversion and education and sometimes protection of natives.

  • European culture and thought imported and disseminated largely through the church

  • Even offices of the Inquisition were established.

  • Brazil

  • Portuguese 1st reached S. America in 1500 but territory ignored for decades

  • Portuguese nobles granted captaincies – nearly autonomous domains.

  • Followed by Jesuits and series of coastal settlements grew up.

  • Sugar cane was by far greatest commondity

  • Demanded large amounts of capital and labor

  • Model plantation colony

  • Society

  • White planters at top to slaves on bottom.

  • Massive importation of slaves led to their making up half the population.

  • Govt.

  • Governor-genral represented Portuguese rule

  • Colonial changes?

  • Its dependence on Portugal was great and the colony was slow to develop its own cultural life.

  • European plticial developments echoed in the colonies.

  • Paulistas

  • Portugal’s hold on brazil extended when Paulistas explored interior

  • Gold strikes in region of Minas Gerais led to gold rush.

  • By mid 18th c. Brazil was the world’s greatest gold producer

  • Mining led to more development of interior and destruction of more native populations.

  • Rio de Janeiro became colony’s capital.

  • Competition

  • Treaty of Tordesillas 1494 (Portugal and Spain)

  • Caste system

  • Miscegenation = mestizos

  • Sociedad de castas = society of castes

  • Used race, wealth, occupation and place of birth to determine a person’s place in society.

  • Legal restrictions applied to different groups.

  • Top, peninsulares, then creoles.

  • Changes

  • Reforms: from Englightenment, amigos del pais met in Spain to discuss reform.

  • Spain’s hold on colonies threatened by piracy and competition of other European nations.

  • War of Spanish Succession (1700-1714 – Charles II) resolved by Treaty of Utrecht in 1713

  • Opened Spanish trading empire to France and England

  • Charles III (Bourbon)

  • Revived Spanish control of colonies

  • Sought to make colonial structure more effective (CONT)

  • Jose de Galvez became minister of Indies

  • Created system of intendants that made administration more effective

  • Loss of Florida (French and Indian War) and Havanda

  • Led Spain to strengthen the colonial milita.

  • Grants of monopolies increased governemnt’s control over key commodities.

  • Trade opened to other nations, leading to boom in some areas

  • Like Buenos Aires ranching industry.

  • But some areas economic decline

  • Reforms led to dissatisfaction – creoles lost place in govt.

  • Brazil changes under Marquis of Pombol

  • Followed English model of mercantilism.

  • Encouraged mixed marriages

  • Revenue lost due to declining gold production.

  • Population growth

  • = exploitation of new areas and higher volume of exports to Europe.

  • Revolts

  • Comunero Revolt of 181 nearly ended colonial rule in New Granada

  • Native rising of Tupac Amaru in Peru took 3 years to suppress.

  • Brazil had no major revolts.

  • Deep divisions in colonial society made unified protest unlikely

  • COMPARISONS

  • Economics

  • Spanish Latin America – mining

  • Brazil – sugar, then gold strikes

  • Slavery

  • Died out in Medieval Europe, survived in Iberia, exported to New World

ENVIRONMENT

  • Columbian exchange

  • New foods – potato, to Europe

  • Landscapes destroyed to build plantations for cash crops (sugarcane, coffee)

  • Degradation of topsoil and loss of vegetative cover encouraged flooding and mudslides.

  • Diseases

  • smallpox, measles etc.

  • 90% mortality rate

  • Little Ice Age

  • Several 100 year period of cooling and warming trends

  • From 15th c. to mid 18th c.

  • as temperatures fell, growing seasons shortened and some types of crops (part. Grains in north) failed completely

  • Freezing of rivers and harbors – allowed armies to cross normally barriers to their movement.

  • Tokugawa laws restricted timbering operations and plant new trees when old ones cut

  • Louis XIV’s forestry program to manage France’s timber resources.