• amanda0195

1450-1750


EXPLORATION

Non-Europeans

  • Ming explored Indian Ocean 1405-1433 but halted voyages and destroyed ships.

  • Zheng He

  • Then Muslims, Indians, Malays etc.

  • Asian goods to Europe

  • Pepper, ginger, cloves, nutmeg

  • Ottomans took Constantinople 1453 (end of Byzantine Empire)

Technology

  • Acquisition of technology from China and Muslim world helped Europeans expand seagoing capabilities

  • Sternpost rudder, triangular lateen sails, magnetic compass, astrolabe.

Portugal

  • Early leader

  • Sugar plantations on islands in Atlantic off coast of Africa

  • Prince Henry the Navigator

  • Responsible for the early days of Portuguese Empire and age of Discoveries

  • Third son of King John I of Portugal, founder of the Aviz dynasty

  • Encouraged father to conquer Ceuta (Muslim port o N. African coast)

  • Intrigued by Christian legend of Prester John

  • Legendary Christian patriarch and king said to rule over a Christian nation lost amidst Muslims and pagans in the Orient.

  • Descendant of Three Magi

  • Patron of Portuguese exploration

  • Sponsored voyages down coast of Africa (as far as Guinea)

  • Once believed to have had a school of navigation

  • He did employ some cartographers to chart the coast of Mauritania after the voyages he sent there, but no center of navigation science.

  • First voyages

  • Bartolomeu Dias (Portugal) 1488, around Cape of Good Hope

  • Appointed by King John to find route to India and find lands ruled by Prester John.

  • Columbus (Spain) 1492, to Bahamas, Caribbean

  • Vasco da Gama (Portugal) 1497, to Calicut in India (later Goa established)

  • Magellan (Spain) 1519-1522, to Philippines, circumnavigated globe

Spain

  • Marriage of Ferdinand and Isabella ("Catholic Monarchs")

  • Financed Christopher Columbus 1492

  • Landed in Hispaniola, Taino Indians

  • Explorers:

  • Amerigo Vespucci: Map "America"

  • Vasco Nunez de Balboa

  • Juan Ponce de Leon

  • Francisco Vazquez de Coronado

  • Hernando de Soto

  • Conquistadors

  • Hernan Cortes -- Aztecs

  • Francisco Pizarro -- Incas

  • Missionary

  • Bartolome de Las Casas

Economics

  • Goal of exploration not to conquer but control trade

  • Wanted to force merchant ships to trade in fortified trading sites and pay duties for privilege

  • By mid 1500s Portugal had 50 trading posts, after that power declined

  • English and Dutch: joint stock companies (rather than crown)

Columbian exchange

  • From Old World: smallpox, wheat, sugarcane, cotton, horses, cattle, pigs, sheep, chickens

  • From New World: Maize, potatoes, beans, tomatoes, peanuts avocados, tobacco

Silver

  • Most abundant Americans precious metal

  • Stimulated a truly global trade network

  • Areas rich in silver

  • Mexico

  • And Potosi mines in Andes

  • Employed large numbers of indigenous laborers

  • Driven by China’s desire for silver

  • Powered Spanish economy and stimulated world economy

  • Used to trade for silk, porcelain in Asia

  • Financed Spain’s powerful army and bureaucracy

Sugar

  • Complex production of land, labor, buildings, animals, capital and technical skills

  • Required heavy labor (for planting, harvesting) and specialized skills (sugar-making process)

  • Because smallpox wiped out so many natives, imported Africans became the main labor force

  • Worked under harsh conditions.

  • Sugar plantations were proto-factories

  • Financed and organized to create a single product in complex manufacturing proces in one area.

 

OTTOMAN, SAFAVID, MUGHAL

STATE BUILDING (1300s to 1923)

OTTOMAN EMPIRE

  • Started as seminomadic Turks who migrated to Anatolia in 13th c.

  • As Mongol’s power declined in Middle East, Ottomans replaced them as the dominant influence.

  • Military might and gunpowder weapons

  • Drove Ottomans to power.

  • Janissaries

  • Elite fighting force of slave troops, Christian boys, led the military powerhouse.

  • 1453 captured Constantinople and ended long life of Byzantine Empire (Mehmed II)

  • By 1566 ruled all of former eastern Roman Empire

  • Social and political

  • Granted great independence to the military aristocracy to which it owed its success.

  • These nobles, granted conquered lands, eventually came to threaten the sultan’s power

  • The Janissaries, (14th – 19th c.) infantry made up largely of onquered peoels, formed the new military core of the empire

  • POLITICS

  • Under sultans such as Mehmed II and Suleyman

  • Tightly centralized absolute monarchy ruled

  • Early sultans ruled directly, as poltical and military leaders

  • Viziers

  • Later, sultans rule through their viziers (CHANGE) and through manipulation of the powerful groups within the empire.

  • As empire grew and the sultans became surrounded by ritual and luxury, the power of the viziers grew.

  • Rulers

  • Mehmed II

  • Rebuilt and improved Constantinople.

  • Suleyman

  • Suleymaniya mosque built at the apex of Ottoman culture 1th c.

  • City restored to its position at the point of commercial exhcnage between east and west.

  • Merchant and artistans

  • Were again central to the city’s culture

  • Turkish language

  • Became the official language of court and literature.

  • Islamic religious scholars and legal experts

  • Served administrative functions

  • As empire more wealthy

  • Sultans grew more distant and removed from running of the government

  • Vizier

  • Headed the bureaucracy

  • Often had more control and power than the sultan

  • Political succession

  • Serious problem as succeeding sultans often have brothers executed to eliminate any challenge to their authority.

  • Capital – Istanbul

  • Hagia Sophia became mosque

  • aqueducts, marketplace, rest houses, religious schools, hospitals

  • large merchant and artisan class conducted business

  • Commercial exchanges and handicraft production were closely regulated by the government.

  • Sultan’s harem (private domain) influential

  • Concubines, female relatives lived there, accorded status when they had sons.

  • Members of harem – all very close to the sultan and wielded a lot of political power – often slave origin and non-Muslim (enslavement of Muslims forbidden)

  • Trained in Quran, sewing, music.

  • Sultan’s mother was sultan valide (queen mother) served as advisor to the throne, administered imperial household and engaged in diplomatic relations.

  • Empire reached peak in mid 1600s

  • Decline

  • Effectiveness of administration declined and plagued by corruption

  • Corruption among officials resulted

  • Successor to the throne often lived sheltered lives and unequipped to rule

  • Because of competition.

  • As European military and naval technology outpaced theirs, the Ottomans ill-equipped to effectively compete

  • As conquests ended, some of dynamism lost.

  • Too large to maintain

  • Oversight of vast empire hampered by poor communication

  • Economically

  • As Portuguese rounded Africa, they were able to bypass Ottoman control of the spice trade

  • Silver from Latin America led to crippling inflation in the Ottoman Empire

SAFAVIDS

  • Champions of Islam – embraced Shi’ism

  • Struggles with Ottomans intensified by religious conflict.

  • Shi’a followers called the Red Heads.

  • Ismail named shah in 1501 – ed to war with Ottomans

  • Great Safavid defeat at Chaldiran in 1514 didn’t end their power but stopped the spread of their emipire and Shi’ism.

  • Shah Abbas the Great

  • Brought the empire to its apogee.

  • Built up slave regiments (like Ottomans COMP)

  • Safavid ruers were of Turkic background like Ottomans COMP)

  • But adopted Perian as the court language (CONTRAST)

  • Worldly power buttressed by claims to be imams – successors of Ali (COMP)

  • Used mullahs to add religious support for their rule.

  • Abbas was major patron of craft and trade revival as well as arts

  • Capital Isfahan – court dominated city ife. Maginificent mosques and royal tombs n city.

  • COMPARE – Safavids shared cultural traits with Ottomans

  • Nobiilty grew in power

  • Exploitation of peasants increased.

  • Shahs and sultans were important patrons of the arts and crafts.

  • Women

  • limited in both public roles and even in creative pursuits allowed to them in other cultures.

  • Women of Turkic and Mongol backgrounds lost ground as their cultures were changed by contact with Arabic and Persian traditions.

  • At courts in both empires, women could wield great power, though indirtly.

  • Women could retain some control over inherited property

  • Decline

  • Despite Abbas’s achievements his empire was short-lived

  • Weak successors easily manipulated,

  • 1722 Nadir Khan Ashar usurped the throne inaugurating a period of unending conflict.

MUGHAL INDIA (1523-mid 1700s)

  • Decentralized history of regional kingdoms

  • Babur (Babar)

  • interrupted by conquest of Babur and establishment of the Mughal empire

  • Babur, a descendant of Turkic nomads, began his conquest of India in 1526

  • COMPARE showed same leadership ability and cultivation of arts as Shah Abbas I and Sultan Mehmed II.

  • His main goal of reclaiming his kingdom in central Asia was never achieved, but he managed to win much of northern India.

  • Humayan – Babur’s son – abe successor

  • Akbar

  • Babur’s grandson (a minor at his succession)

  • Strong military commander

  • Interested in uniting his empire

  • Created new religion called “Divine Faith” 1582 Din-I-Ilahicombining elements of Islam and Hinduism

  • purpose – to promote religious unity – although also legitimized the ruler as head of state and head of religion

  • Patronized arts and very interested in religious discussion

  • Initiated policy of cooperation with Hindu rulers and Hindu population by encouraging intermarriage

  • Abolished jizya

  • promoted Hindus to high-ranking government jobs

  • Comparison:

  • Like Ottomans and Safavids

  • He granted lands to his noble, yet left many Hindu rulers in place

  • Social reforms

  • Outlawed sati and tried to easE the seclusion of women

  • Changed marriage customs to protect women

  • Improved plight of urban poor

  • Fell behind in the sciences

  • Exports of textile industry

  • Jahangir and Shah Jahan

  • Also great patrons of the arts (CONT)

  • Many of India’s finaest monuments date from their reign.

  • Mughal architecture blended Persian and Indain traditions.

  • But did little to buid on his achievements

  • Under Mughals India fell behind in sciences

  • Although exports of the textile industry remained important.

  • Jahangir and Shah Jahan were much more devoted to pleasure than Akbar (CHANGE)

  • Jahangir

  • Wife Nur Jahan took power her husband neglected

  • Her influence brought able men to court and was used to help charities

  • Shah Jahan

  • His wife Mumtaz Mahal

  • Smaller role than Nur Jahan

  • But tomb Taj Mahal is grandest in India

  • Other Indian women

  • Reforms did little to improve thei status.

  • Art

  • Painting workshops expanded, leading to creation of 1000s of exquisite miniatures.

  • Mughal architecture blended Persian and Hindu traditions by using Islamic domes, arches and minarets along with Hindu ornamentation.

  • Most famous: Taj Mahal, which Emperor Shah Jahan built as tomb for late wife.

  • Aurangzeb

  • Shah Jahan’s son

  • Seized throne with a neglected and corrupt bureaucracy

  • Pushed to extend Muslim control to the whole of India

  • Able ruler

  • Sought to rid India of all Hindu influences (bringing back jizya) and to purify India’s Islam

  • Attack on position of Hindus more disruptive – overturned Akbar’s attempt to bring peace.

  • His many wars drained the treasury, and peasant uprisings and revolts by both Muslim and Hindu princes weakened the empire.

  • Although Mughal empire was large at his death, it was weakened by rivalries.

  • Marrata risings

  • Emergence of new sects added to the strain.

  • Attacks on the Sikhs turned the Din-i-Ilahi sect from its original goal of blending Hindu and Muslim traditions, to a rigidly Hindu, anti-Muslim religion.

  • Trade

  • India became a major overseas destination for European traders who demanded cotton.

  • With a weakened empire, those traders were able to increase their influence

COMPARISON

  • Ottoman, Safavid, Mughal

  • Common roots – all three emerged from groups of Turkic steppe nomads

  • All carved out areas formerly controlled by Mongols through military might

  • To consolidate their control ther new lands, the ruler f each awarded lands to their followers

  • From the latter, a new landed, military aristocracy arose in all there areas

  • Differences

  • Differences in areas they conquered

  • Attitudes of the conquerors towards other religions

  • Abilities of successive rulers

 

EUROPE

RENAISSANCE

  • Crusades had brought Europe in contact with Arab culture

  • Renaissance (Beg. 1400s)

  • Italy

  • Petrarch – first European to typify the new spirit of Renaissance

  • Italian Renaissance began 1300s, took shape 1400s.

  • Humanism

  • Looked to ancient Greece and Rome for inspiration.

  • Focus on human artistic and intellectual endeavor

  • Northern Renaissance

  • Also spurred by merchant wealth

  • Focused on perfection of man in Christian context

  • Shakespeare and Rabelais

TECHNOLOGY

  • Technology

  • Printing press in 1400s

GEOGRAPHY

  • Italy

  • Da Vinci, Michelangelo etc

  • Renaissance man

  • Italy middle between Europe and Middle East

  • Medici rich as merchants

  • city-states, kingdoms

  • German lands divided into 100s of small kingdoms

  • Nominally ruled over by the Holy Roman Emperor (Charles V of Spain, staunch Catgolic)

  • Germans resented having to support both an “emperor” who was not German and the Church.

  • Sided with Luther – Protestants.

PROTESTANT REFORMATION

  • Martin Luther, 95 Theses on Wittenberg Church 1517

  • Against corruption in Roman Catholic Church (Indulgences)

  • Lack of piety of priesthood (Pope Leo)

  • Reformers promoted public education (Luther translating Bible, Calvinists)

  • Changing role of family (Luther married nun)

  • Thirty Years War (1618-1648)

  • Catholics v. Protestants

  • Devastated German lands.

  • Sovereignty of the state became model for future nation-state relations.

  • Protestant Reformation spread

  • To Netherlands, Switzerland (Calvin), Scandinavia, France (Hugeunots),

  • England – Henry VIII – created Church of England.

  • Counterreformation

  • Catholic Church reforms itself – Council of Trent

  • Jesuits/Loyola (spread religion and educ. internationally), Baroque Art

  • Persecution of Witches

  • Fueled by fear and hatred by dispossessed poor.

SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION (17th, 18th c.)

  • Copernicus -- Rediscovered heliocentrism revolutionizing the western view of the cosmos.

  • Kepler’s planetary observations (elliptical orbit)

  • Galileo used telescope

  • Descartes and Newton = scientific approach to knowledge.

  • Deism

ENLIGHTENMENT (Beg. 1700s)

  • Centered in France (philosophes)

  • John Locke (Br.)

  • Thought all men born with natural rights and should be free

  • Also “tabula rasa” – everything could be known through the sense with use of reason.

  • Voltaire (Fr)

  • Freedom of speech, against organized church (“ecrasez l’infame”)

  • Montesquieu (Fr)

  • Separation of powers (Executive, Legislative, Judicial)

  • Different types of government for different types of regions (ex. Republic in small city-states)

EUROPEAN POLITICS

  • Absolutism

  • Led by France, monarchy entered new phase: absolutism.

  • Larger bureaucracies and elaborate court ritual raised monarchs to new heights

  • C. European monarchs followed French model, their power strengthened by defeat of the Turks.

  • Sovereignty

  • Ideas of sovereignty of the people developed (see Locke)

  • Britain and Netherlands – representative law-making bodies limited power of monarchs.

  • Nation-state

  • All European countries ha commonalities as nation-states

  • People bound by common culture, within clearly defined boundaries, at odds with other nation-states

  • By 1750

  • Political forms crystallize

  • Enlightened despotism – Prussia of Frederick the Great

  • Enlightenment thinkers set out to fix the world.

  • Salons, coffeehouses, promoting growth of scholarly journals.

  • Consumer demand for imported products

  • Agriculture developed with improved drainage and importation of New World crops

  • Manufacturing, fueled by capitalism and employing large number of works, increasingly dove economy

PORTUGAL

  • Exploration (see above)

  • Henry the Navigator (financed navigation)

  • Bartholomeu Dias (sailed around Cape of Good Hope)

  • Vasco Da Gama (sailed to India)

SPAIN

  • Marriage of Ferdinand II of Aragon and Isabella of Castile 1469

  • Catholic Monarchs

  • Reconquista

  • Take back Granada – last Muslim territory

  • Spanish Inquisition

  • Non-Christians (Jews and Muslims) expelled

  • “Converts” on trial (auto-da-fe), tortured, killed

  • Columbus 1792

  • Spanish conquistadors to Americas, followed by Spanish crown

  • New Spain (Mexico) and New Castile (Peru)

  • Each governed by a viceroy who was responsible to the Spanish king

  • 1494 Treaty of Tordesillas

  • Divided America in half (Sp. In W., Port. In E)

  • Social result

  • Multicultural and ethnically mixed population

  • Majority of migrants were men

  • Peninsulares, Creoles, mestizos, mulattoes and zambos (Native American and African)

  • Empire thrived with silver mining, farming, stock raising, craft production

  • Haciendas (large estates)

  • served initially by labor acquired through encomienda system

  • which gave settlers right to demand labor from native peoples

  • At urging of Catholic priests (like De Las Casas)

  • Who saw encomienda as hindering their conversion attempts

  • This system was replaced with repartimiento system

  • Which compelled native communities to supply laborers

  • but only for limited periods of time and for a fair wage.

  • Mita System

  • As the plantation system grew in Americas

  • so did use of African slave labor

  • Missionaries

  • Hoped to spread Christian faith to the natives

  • Many did adopt Christianity but blended it with own traditions

  • Columbian Exchange

RUSSIAN EMPIRE (1480-1917)

  • After 100s of years under Mongol tributary rule, Russia emerged as empire of its own

  • Removal of the Mongol yoke (mid 15th c. )

  • Grand Duchy (1283-1547)

  • Initial Westward Expansion 1480s

  • Ivan III

  • Grand prince of Moscow

  • Stopped paying tribute to Mongols

  • In 1480 began building an empire for himself

  • Established a strong central govt. ruled by an absolute monarch (czar) who was also head of the Russian Orthodox Church.

  • Czar also received authority from God.

  • Influence of Mongols

  • Didn’t’ change Russian culture but caused Russia to stagnate

  • Tsars began process of reviving and recreating Russian culture

  • Largely by tying its past to that of Byzantine Emprie.

  • Expansion

  • Russian independence meant territorial expansion.

  • Cossacks, peasant-adventurers, were used to settle the newly taken lands.

  • The lands, in turn, could be used to buy the loyalty of the boyars.

  • Russian expansion put an end to the periodic emergence of nomadic peoples from central Asia

  • Tsars began policy of contact with the West, commercially and culturally.

  • Ivan the Terrible (r. 1533-1584) (Rurik Dynasty)

  • Grand Prince of Moscow 1533-1547, Tsar of all Russias 1547-death in 1584)

  • Conquests

  • Khanates of Kazan, Astakhan and Siberia

  • = multiethnic and multi religious state

  • Transformed Russia from a medieval state to an empire

  • (first ruler to be crowned as Tsar of all the Russias)

  • Was intelligent and devout

  • But also prone to rages and mental illness

  • Killed his heir leaving throne to younger, weaker son (Feodor)

  • Duties to minister Boris Godunov

  • Time of Troubles

  • Between death of last Russian Tsar of Rurik Dynasty (Feodor Ivanovich) in 1598

  • And establishment of Romanov Dynasty in 1613

  • In 1601-1603 Russia suffered famine that killed 1/3 of pupation (about 2 million)

  • Russia occupied by Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth

  • Civil uprisings, usurpers, imposters

  • After a reign of terror by Ivan the Terrible and Time of Troubles

  • Romanov family to power

  • Ruled next 300 years

  • Peter the Great (1682-1725)

  • fascinated with Western technology

  • Instituted policy of forced and rapid modernization.

  • Cultural changes

  • Russian noble dress and manners – resented by many.

  • Established industries based on the most advanced science and technology

  • Not interested in representative government

  • Instead reformed the midair with professional soldiers and began to construct a navy

  • Obsession with “everything western”

  • symbolized by insistence that all Russian men wear western clothes and shave bears

  • St. Petersburg = “window to the West.”

  • Great Northern War with Sweden

  • Catherine the Great (r. 1762-1796)

  • Longest-ruling female leader of Russia

  • Took over in coup after assassination of her husband Peter III at the end of the Seven Years’ War

  • Continued many of Peter the Great’s policies

  • Russia’s “Golden Age”

  • Russia revitalize, growing larger and stronger than ever, became one of great powers of Europe

  • Restricted freedom of peasants and intellectual wanting further reforms.

  • Relied on favorites (Orlov and Potemkin)

  • Expansion

  • South: Crimean Khanate crushed after victory over Ottoman Empire in Russo-Turkish Wars

  • Partition of Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth

  • Ruled by Catherine’s former lover, king Stanislaw August Poniatowsky

  • Russian Empire got largest share

  • Russia began to colonize Alaska

  • Modernization

  • Catherine admired Peter the Great – set out to modernize

  • But military conscription and economy continued to depend on serfdom

  • Increasing demands of the state and private landowners led to increased levels of reliance on serfs

  • Reason for several rebellions, including the large-scale Pugachev’s Rebellion of Cossacks and peasants

  • Cossacks are East Slavic people from Ukraine a

  • Nobles

  • Manifesto on Freedom of the Nobility issued by Peter III

  • Confirmed by Catherine

  • Nobles freed from compulsory military or state service

  • Russian nobles had a more important role than their western counterparts

  • Who, by this time, were largely ornamental.

  • Enlightened despot

  • Corresponded with Voltaire

  • First higher education for women in Europe

  • Fur trade with N. America

  • Russian serfdom

  • After Mongol rule many free peasants fell into great debt, were forced to become serfs on large estates

  • Russian govt. encouraged the process beginning in 1500s because it was way to satisfy the nobility and to regulate the peasants at the same time.

  • As new territories added to empire, serfdom extended as well

  • 1649, an act proclaimed that serfs were born into their status

  • and could not escape it.

  • Serfs could be bought or sold, gambled away, punished

  • Whole villages could be sold to supply manufacturing labor – but not literally slaves

  • Serfs who were illiterate and poor had to pay high taxes and owed extensive labor service to their landlords in form of agriculture, mining or manufacturing.

  • Position of serfs declined in 1600s and 1700s satisfying the nobility (who managed this agrarian population for the tsars).

  • Serfdom resembled slavery

  • Peasant society largely self-governed

  • Status declined throughout 18th century.

  • Agricultural practices saw little improvement

  • Peasant rebellions brutally repressed (Pugachev)

  • Merchant class small

 

ASIA

ASIAN TRADING WORLD

  • Asian trading network linked Pacific and Indian oceans in three commercial zones

  • Arab zone:

  • Red Sea and Persian Gulf

  • Glass and textiles from Middle East

  • Indian zone:

  • Cotton textiles

  • China zone

  • Paper, porcelain and silks

  • Spices still dominated the trade

  • From Ceylon and Indonesia.

  • Coastal routes preferred

  • When Portuguese arrived

  • No central power controlled trade

  • Military power rarely used

  • Portugues changed the rules.

  • Lacking goods desired in east, Portuguese resorted to force to obtain spices they came for.

  • Da Gama in 1502 used advantage to capture ports

  • To fortify their grwoign network, they took Goa and Ormuz.

  • Portuguese aimed to establish a system in which they would control all traffic in the Indian Ocean.

  • Portuguese never able to extend the monopoly they desired, even by using the most brutal measures.

  • Dutch and English

  • Arrived in 1600s

  • Dutch early lead

  • Built port of Batavia on Java – well positioned for the spice trade

  • Dutch trading empire followed same lines as Portugues, yet Dutch eventually turned to peaceful cooperation (COMP AND CCOT)

  • In general Euroepans remained on coastlines

  • With a few exceptions like Dutch control north of Java installing coffee planations

  • Spanish

  • Conquest of Philippines in 1500s starting with Luzon and the nearby islands

  • Failed to take Mindanao and the northern islands.

  • Tribute system established

  • Leaving local rulers in place

  • Christianity

  • Converting Asians to Christianity was made difficult by the secure position of Islam in many areas

  • Francis Xavier, a Jesuit missionary, made headway in converting low-cast Hindus.

  • Robert di Nobili learned Sanskrit to help convert high-caste Indians – but little success.

  • Spanish work in the Philippines led to more converts.

  • Christianity there, however, was Filipino blend of traditional and Christian beliefs.

  • CONT – Great continuity of customs and religious practices in the Philippines mitigated the impact of Christianity.

CHINA

  • Ming (1368-1644)

  • Founded by Zhu Yuanzhang, of peasant stock

  • Influenced by time spent in a Buddhist monarstery, he led a rebel group and defeated the Mongol ruler

  • Claimed title of Hongwu emperor in 1368 and began purge of Mongol influences

  • Ming reestablished and extended the examination system

  • Hongwu

  • cleaned up corruption at court.

  • Also tried to rid the palace of intrigues of royal wies and eunuchs.

  • Programs included public works, improving agricultureal irrigation, encoruaign farming on abandoned lands.

  • Increasing power of landlords greatly lessened the impact of these improvements.

  • This gentry class created its own cutlrue

  • To justify it inceasing power.

  • Women and children

  • Under Ming emperors the low place of women and the young was intensified.

  • Economy

  • Agricutlural expansion and imports from Spanish and Portugeuse stimulated an economic boom

  • Miaze, sweet potatoes and peanuts were imported and became staples

  • High demand for Chiense goods

  • Meant influx of Aemrican silver

  • Foreign traders allowed only on Macao and Canton

  • Chinese merchants fared well.

  • In imitation of gentry, merchants invested in land.

  • Culture

  • Fine arts flourished as well

  • Mainly along traditional lines

  • Novel achieved its lasic form

  • Zheng he

  • Under Emperor Yongle

  • Admiral Zheng he led seven expeditions to the west.

  • Size and scope demonstrated the Chinese capacity to undertake global expansion.

  • Yet Chinese retreated, instead closing off more firmly than ever

  • Missionaries to China

  • Matteo Ricci and Alan Schall chose to convert the country from the top down

  • But met with little success.

  • End

  • Ming court weakened by corruption and rulers distance themselves from the people

  • Public works lapsed

  • Disaffected farmers turned to banditry

  • Rebellion brought Ming dynasty down in 1644, when the last emperor hanged himself to avoid capture.

  • Qing Dynasty (1644-1911)

  • 1640s Ming dynasty had declined and taken over by peasant army.

  • But nomadic people from north east, the Manchu, which had aided the peasant army

  • Soon ousted the peasant army

  • And took over as the Qing dynasty

  • China under foreigners for the second time

  • Manchus mimicked Chinese culture generations before

  • unlike Mongols

  • bolstered many aspects of Chinese govt.

  • to include using Confucian civil service exam system

  • Like Mongols

  • Manchu wanted to preserve their own ethic and cultural identity

  • So forbade intermarriage between Manchu and Han Chinese

  • Forbade Chinese from travelling to Manchuria and from learning their language

  • forced Chitins men to wear their hair in a braid called a queue as sign of submission.

JAPAN

Japan: Tokugawa Shogunate (1600-1867)

  • After period of civil war and disorder

  • Series of military rulers brought an end ot daimyo warare in Japan

  • Nobunaga

  • Used European firearms to depose the Ashikaga shogun in 1513

  • Toyotomi Hideyoshi

  • Pursued his predecessor’s killers

  • Ambitious and able, Hideyoshi undertook conquest of Korea, but failed

  • Tokugawa Ieyasu established Tokugawa Shogunate in 1600

  • Ruled from Edo.

  • Tokugawa shoguns ended daimyo warfare.

  • He wanted to stabilize the region and prevent civil war.

  • Did this by increasing his control over the daimyos

  • Insisting that they spend every other year at the capital (Edo, now Tokyo) so that he could keep an eye on them.

  • Relations with outside world closely controlled

  • Japanese forbidden from going abroad and from constructing large ships

  • Europeans expelled from Japan

  • Foreign merchants not allowed to trade in Japanese ports (except small number of Chinese and Dutch ships at Nagasaki)

  • Despite restriction, economy grew

  • As agricultural production increased and population grew

  • IN more peacful times

  • Samurai became government administrators

  • Christianity

  • Had made some important inroads in Japan by 1580 (150,000 Japanese Christians) converts

  • But government ended these missions

  • And went as far as trying and executing the missionaries who did not leave.

  • Nobunaga patronized Christian missionaries hoping to lessen the power of militant Buddhist orders.

  • However under Hideyoshi, Christians came to be seen as a threat.

  • Hideyoshi expelled the Christian missionaries and then persecuted their converts

  • Ieyasu went further

  • Attempting to rid the islands of all Europeans

  • By mid 1th c. European contact limited to Dutch trade on Deshima island

  • In this climate, the School of National Learning focused on the uniqueness of Japanese history and culture.

  • Dutch merchants

  • continued to be the principal source of information about Europe

  • keeping Japanese up-to-date with important scientific and technological developments.

 

ATLANTIC SLAVE TRADE

  • Migration of 12- 15 million Africans to New World

  • Age of Exploration and Columbian Exchange

  • Portuguese le the way

  • Established factories to facilitate trade

  • Trading fortresses and compounds with resident merchants to assure secure landing places and commerce

  • El Mina in West Africa, being the most important trading factory

  • More interested in trade than conquest

  • So generally peaceful relations with African rulers

  • Portuguese down coast and founded Luanda, later expanded to colony of Angola

  • Luanda = Portuguese factory est. 1520s south of Kongo, became basis for Portuguese colony of Angola

  • Sought conversion

  • Greatest success was Nzinga Mvemba – ruler of Kongo.

  • 1507 to 1543, converted to Christianity and took title Alfonso I

  • Under Portuguese influence attempted to Christinaize all of kingdom.

  • Competition with other nations.

  • Portugal controlled traffic for much of history of slave trade.

  • From 1630 onward (CHANGE) competition increased

  • Dutch seized El Mina in 1637.

  • British Royal African Company

  • Chartered by English govt. 1672 to conduct its merchats’ trade on the Atlantic coast of Affrica

  • Then French

  • Trans-Atlantic slave trade

  • Portuguese trade in salves developed slowly

  • Only one of many commodities.

  • Slavery in Europe (except for Iberia) had disappeared

  • Development of sugar plantations raised need for slave labor.

  • High mortality – on board and plantations – with low birth rates kept demand high.

  • Brazil received about 42% of the slaves.

  • Trade initially in Africans from Senegambia, then from modern Zaire and Angola

  • Then from Dahomey and Benin.

  • Mostly men

  • Trans-Saharan slave trade

  • Mostly in women – for concubines in Islamic lands (COMP) v. trans-Atlantic trade in men

  • How slaves acquired

  • Tribes took prisoners from neighboring tribes and enslave them

  • Purchases of slaves made through local rulers

  • Also sporadic raids.

  • Value of slave

  • Based on Indies Piece – price of an adult male slave

  • African law didn’t recognize private property

  • So land did not equal wealth

  • Only human labor = wealth

  • Spread of Islam

  • Created new trade routes across Northern Africa to Middle East

  • By time Europeans in Sub-Saharan Africa, slave traffic had been well-established for 500 years.

  • Portuguese

  • off coast of Africa in 1500s

  • Once took Brazil, brought plantations there.

  • Slave trade had become trans-oceanic

  • Middle Passage

  • 4-6 weeks

  • Triangular trade

  • European manufactured goods (firearms esp.) for slaves

  • Slaves to Caribbean and America

  • American products to Europe

  • Effect on Africa

  • Some benefited economically

  • Population losses (esp. men)

  • Firearms led to increased political conflict

  • Christianity created synthesis (brought by slaves to New World)

  • Effect on America

  • Demographic changes (diseases killing Indians, Africans and Europeans in)

  • Cash crops (sugar, tobacco, cotton or coffee)

  • Encomienda System

  • Early Spanish settlers needed labor

  • Encomienda system gave them right to demand labor in mines and fields of natives

  • Laborers worked hard and punished severely

  • Haciendas – Large estates

  • Natives abused

  • People like de Las Casas

  • Sp. Replaced encomienda with repartimiento system

  • Natives supplied labor for Spanish mines and farms

  • But limited work time and compensated with wages

  • Many groups had to send laborers to work on state projects.

  • Peru mita system mobilized 1000s of natives to work in silver mines

  • paid wages but abused

 

AFRICA

  • Slavery

  • African traditions of slavery deeply engrained in system and social hierarchy

  • Condition of salves varied greatly

  • Concubines = polygamy in Islam

  • In Islam enslavement of Muslims forbidden

  • Changes because of slavery

  • Endemic wafare typified much of Sub-Saharan Africa (with exptio f Songhay)

  • One of the results was constant supply of slave.

  • As Europeans settled aong coast, they provoked shift in pwer relations of states in interior.

  • Ghana and Songhay able to make sues of their position as intermeiares in commerce.

  • Asante

  • African kingdom on Gold Coast that expanded rapidly after 1800

  • Asante participated in Atlantic economy, trading gold, slaves and ivory

  • Resisted British imperial ambitions for quarter century before eign absorbed into Britain.

  • Osei Tutu

  • Unified the Akan clans, taking the title asantahene or supreme ruler.

  • For nearly two centuries (1650-1820) Asante ruled along the Gold coast.

  • Dahomey

  • Agaja - King of Dahomey

  • Made use of European firearms to establish an empire.

  • Dahomey - W. African empire 17th c to 1894, profited from slave trade expanded inward and captured slaves

  • Controlled slave trade in its region.

  • Dahomey remained independent, unified state longer than most of its neighbors.

  • Politics

  • Political experiementation included increasingly powerful monarchs and monarchs lilmtied by governing councils

  • Culture

  • Arts continued to thrive – often led by artisan guild.

  • Demand for African crafts to suit Euroepan tastes increased Africa’s cotact iwht other world areas

  • Swahili east coast

  • Still formed part of the Indian Ocean trading area

  • Brought ivory, gold and slaves from interior of continent.

  • Clove planatioans using African slaves developed on Zanzibar and other islands

  • Interior of Africa

  • Less well understood

  • Movements o Nilotic groups including the Luo people led to network of dynasties in east central Africa

  • Kingdom of Bunyoro was one of the most prominent in the 1500s and1600s.

  • Islamization

  • Following the breakup of Songhay, too on more dynamic, even militant phase

  • Ususman Dan Fodio – a Muslim scholar of the Fulani peole so fhte Sudan

  • Was inspired by Suficism

  • Under his leadership, the Fulani took over several Hausa states, crating the Sokoto k kingdom.

  • Fulani rebelled against the Germans in German East Africa in 1890s

  • Expansion of Fulani had impact on west African interior.

  • Slavery in Sudan expanded as result of wars and of European pressures

  • South Africa

  • Initially little influence by slave trade

  • Bantu migrations into area changed its economy

  • Earlier dominated by Khoiikhoi and San hunters and sheepherders

  • Bantu peoples n souther Arica organized into small chiefdoms.

  • Their expansion further south borugh them into contact with Dutch settlers.

  • Moving inland from the Cape Colony in search of land to farm

  • Under British control from 1815

  • The colony;s expansion led to warare with the Bantu

  • Boer Great Trek

  • Coincided with upheavals among the Bantu peoples

  • Shaka, chief of Zulu from 1818.

  • Ruthless leadership crated a powerful Zulu state that survived his death

  • Shaka’s work was part of the mfecane.

  • Mfecane = wars of 19th c. in southern Africa

  • Created by Zulu expansion under Shaka

  • Revolutionized political organization of southern AFrica

  • Swazi (Bantu language related to Zulu) and Lesotho (landlocked constitutional monarchy) emerged at the same time

  • Resisting Zulu expansion

  • All of southern Africa involved in the turmoil of the mfecane.

  • African diaspora

  • Foreign products brought in to Africa

  • Hierarchy

  • Saltwater slaves – newly arrived

  • Creole slaves – American boarn descendants of salt-water salves.

  • Creole could gain more skilled work in better conditions

  • Stood better chance of being manumitted.

  • Slave communities

  • Sometimes divided along lines similar to those in Africa

  • Grew until 80% of colonial populations.

  • North American slave poujaltion had higher birthrate and less need of newly-enlaved Africasn

  • Thus more cut off from Africa than slave in other areas.

  • Culture

  • Aricans in slavery maintained as much of their culture as was possible, depending in part on whether they foud themselves with other slaves from their native region.

  • Africans converted to Chrsitianity

  • But their religiou traditions, obeah ( African religious ideas and practices in Englaish and French Caribbean islands) survived.

  • Obeah/Obi/Obea – term used in West Indies to reer to folk magic, sorcery and religious practices deveoed among West Arican slaves, specifivcally of Igbo origin.

  • Similar to other Afro-American religions like Palo, Bodou, Santeria and Hoodoo

  • Brazil and Haiti

  • African religion survived intact

  • Candomle (Brazil), Vodun (Haiti)

  • Resistance to slavery

  • Alsoways present but Suriname. rarely successful.

  • Palmares, a community of fugitive slaves in Brazil, was expesion

  • Also Maroons of Jamaica and

  • Abolition from outside Africa (William Wilberforce).

  • British stopped the slave trade in 1807

  • Slavery finally abolished in Americas when Brazil stopped practice in 1888

  • European influence in Africa

  • Europeans provided weapons which led to disruption of existing power structure.

  • European goods and currency exchanged for slaves, made impact on economy.

  • Greatest impact, demand for slaves.

  • Although Africans often enslaved as result of internal wars, the high European demand for slaves for the New World led to massive exportation of Africans. – exacerbated internal tensions – did not cause them.

  • SONGHAY (West Africa) (1464-1591)

  • In 1400s West African state of Songhay emerged to take power over weakened Mali Empire

  • Leader Sunni Ali, consolidated empire

  • By appointing governors to oversee the provinces

  • building a hierarchically commanded army

  • and creating an imperial navy to patrol the Niger River

  • Lucrative Trans-Saharan trade flowed through city of Gao,

  • Brought textiles and metal

  • In exchange for gold and slaves

  • All Songhay emperors were Muslims

  • Who supported mosques, schools and the Islamic university of Timbuktu.

  • Still even though Islam served as the cultural foundation of the empire and a key element in establishing cooperation with Muslim merchants

  • Traditional religious beliefs not abandoned.

  • Decline

  • As Europeans were making inroads into Africa

  • Songhay Empire began to lose control of its many subject peoples.

  • Defeated by the Moroccans in 1591

  • KONGO (1300s to 1600s)

  • Emerged as centralized state 14th c. along west coast of central Africa

  • Powerful king ruled and officials oversaw military, judicial and financial affairs

  • 1482 small Portuguese fleet arrived

  • initiated commercial relations

  • within a few years, Portuguese had developed a close political and diplomatic relationship with the king

  • they provided him military force, which supported both of their interests

  • King also converted to Christianity

  • To improve commercial and diplomatic relations

  • King Affonso I was a devout Roman Catholic and attempted to convert all of this subjects to Christianity

  • Relationship between Portugal and Kongo

  • seemed like one in which participants were equal

  • interaction brought wealth and foreign recognition to Kongo,

  • but eventually led to its decline

  • Portuguese

  • Brought textiles, weapons and craftsmen to Kongo

  • They wanted gold, silver, and ivory

  • Especially wanted slaves

  • In exchange for weapons, they began slave raids

  • with cooperation of local leaders

  • These dealings undermined the king’s authority

  • Kongo was defeated in war with Portuguese in 1665

  • Never regained former power

 

LATIN AMERICA

  • Iberian culture to Latin America

  • Christian reconquest of Iberian peninisula shaped monarchies of Spain and Port.

  • Aragon + Castile emerged as militantly Christian state. (pers. of Jews and Muslims)

  • Iberian traditions transferred to conquered lands

  • Slaveholding

  • Patriarchal family

  • Centralized colonial governments

  • Dependent on professional bureaucrats and the clergy

  • Encomiendas = grants of Indian workers given to settlers

  • Encomenderos control of Caribbean islands

  • (Hispaniola 1493, Puerto Rico 1508, Cuba 1511.

  • Colonial urban design

  • Political institutions such as governors.

  • By 1520s, shift to ranching and sugar plantations – devastating results.

  • Conquest

  • Hernan Cortes took Tenochtitlan killed Moctezuma II.

  • Spanish New Spain took place of Aztec confederacy.

  • Francisco Pizarro

  • Conquered Inca, capital Cuzco fell 1533.

  • Pedro de Valdivia founded city of Santiago, Chile in 1541

  • Francisco Vasquez de Coronado led expedition to southwest US

  • Reasons

  • Hoped to become wealthy

  • How?

  • Superior military technology, disease, and existing division within the native empires.

  • Criticism

  • Bartolome de las Casas – outspoken critic of abuses.

  • Labor

  • Decline in population of American people, remaining natives more vulnerable

  • Enslavement of Indians generally stopped by about 1550

  • Forced labor common

  • Political reasons, the practice of granting encomiendas stopped by 1620s

  • Practice of mita, forced labor in Peru, used Indians for mining and other state projects.

  • Continuities

  • Indigenous culture continued

  • Economics

  • Mining most important colonial enterprise

  • Looted gold from first decades of conquest followed by newly-mined gold and silver

  • Mexico and Peru held greatest stores of silver

  • Potosi in modern Bolivia and Zacatecas

  • Mexico mining communities developed

  • Modernization of silver extraction using mercury from Huancavelica increased silver exports.

  • Mining le to growth of other domestic industries such as cloth manufacture.

  • Agriculture

  • (CONT) Indian traditional agriculture continue

  • (CHANGE) Crops such as sugar gown for export on Haciendas (rural estates)

  • Industry

  • Industries like woolen cloth production made colonies more self-sufficient (but mining dominated the economy)

  • Trade

  • Spanish had monopoly on trade

  • All trade passed through Seville with its consulado or merchant guild.

  • Spain kept other nations out of its commercial sphere with galleons and use of fortified ports such as Havana.

  • In spite of great wealth flowing into Spain, much of it flowed out to the rest of Europe.

  • Revenue from taxation was greater (1/5 to Spanish crown)

  • Spanish government

  • Spain ruled empire with use of letrados , lawyers.

  • Colonial law was recodified in 1681 as the Recopilacion

  • Council of the Indies governed the colonies from Spain through two viceroys

  • Domains divided into 10 judiciaries each: the audiencias.

  • Catholic Church was major component of rule.

  • Religious orders responsile for conversion and education and sometimes protection of natives.

  • European culture and thought imported and disseminated largely through the church

  • Even offices of the Inquisition were established.

  • Brazil

  • Portuguese 1st reached S. America in 1500 but territory ignored for decades

  • Portuguese nobles granted captaincies – nearly autonomous domains.

  • Followed by Jesuits and series of coastal settlements grew up.

  • Sugar cane was by far greatest commondity

  • Demanded large amounts of capital and labor

  • Model plantation colony

  • Society

  • White planters at top to slaves on bottom.

  • Massive importation of slaves led to their making up half the population.

  • Govt.

  • Governor-genral represented Portuguese rule

  • Colonial changes?

  • Its dependence on Portugal was great and the colony was slow to develop its own cultural life.

  • European plticial developments echoed in the colonies.

  • Paulistas

  • Portugal’s hold on brazil extended when Paulistas explored interior

  • Gold strikes in region of Minas Gerais led to gold rush.

  • By mid 18th c. Brazil was the world’s greatest gold producer

  • Mining led to more development of interior and destruction of more native populations.

  • Rio de Janeiro became colony’s capital.

  • Competition

  • Treaty of Tordesillas 1494 (Portugal and Spain)

  • Caste system

  • Miscegenation = mestizos

  • Sociedad de castas = society of castes

  • Used race, wealth, occupation and place of birth to determine a person’s place in society.

  • Legal restrictions applied to different groups.

  • Top, peninsulares, then creoles.

  • Changes

  • Reforms: from Englightenment, amigos del pais met in Spain to discuss reform.

  • Spain’s hold on colonies threatened by piracy and competition of other European nations.

  • War of Spanish Succession (1700-1714 – Charles II) resolved by Treaty of Utrecht in 1713

  • Opened Spanish trading empire to France and England

  • Charles III (Bourbon)

  • Revived Spanish control of colonies

  • Sought to make colonial structure more effective (CONT)

  • Jose de Galvez became minister of Indies

  • Created system of intendants that made administration more effective

  • Loss of Florida (French and Indian War) and Havanda

  • Led Spain to strengthen the colonial milita.

  • Grants of monopolies increased governemnt’s control over key commodities.

  • Trade opened to other nations, leading to boom in some areas

  • Like Buenos Aires ranching industry.

  • But some areas economic decline

  • Reforms led to dissatisfaction – creoles lost place in govt.

  • Brazil changes under Marquis of Pombol

  • Followed English model of mercantilism.

  • Encouraged mixed marriages

  • Revenue lost due to declining gold production.

  • Population growth

  • = exploitation of new areas and higher volume of exports to Europe.

  • Revolts

  • Comunero Revolt of 181 nearly ended colonial rule in New Granada

  • Native rising of Tupac Amaru in Peru took 3 years to suppress.

  • Brazil had no major revolts.

  • Deep divisions in colonial society made unified protest unlikely

  • COMPARISONS

  • Economics

  • Spanish Latin America – mining

  • Brazil – sugar, then gold strikes

  • Slavery

  • Died out in Medieval Europe, survived in Iberia, exported to New World

 

ENVIRONMENT

  • Columbian exchange

  • New foods – potato, to Europe

  • Landscapes destroyed to build plantations for cash crops (sugarcane, coffee)

  • Degradation of topsoil and loss of vegetative cover encouraged flooding and mudslides.

  • Diseases

  • smallpox, measles etc.

  • 90% mortality rate

  • Little Ice Age

  • Several 100 year period of cooling and warming trends

  • From 15th c. to mid 18th c.

  • as temperatures fell, growing seasons shortened and some types of crops (part. Grains in north) failed completely

  • Freezing of rivers and harbors – allowed armies to cross normally barriers to their movement.

  • Tokugawa laws restricted timbering operations and plant new trees when old ones cut

  • Louis XIV’s forestry program to manage France’s timber resources.


29 views0 comments

Recent Posts

See All

Alien and Sedition Acts Passed by John Adams 1820-1860 Irish immigration Irish potato famine Many were Catholic German immigrants Most to midwest to buy farms in Milwaukee, St. Louis, Cincinnati 1849

1400S 1453 Ottoman Empire takes Constantinople End of Hundred Years War 1469 Isabella and Ferdinand get married uniting Castile and Aragon 1488 Bartholomeu Dias sails around the Cape of Good Hope 1492