Period of Recovery
Period begins after fall of classical civilizations
Fall of Han and Roman Empire (476)
China and Europe periods of decentralization in their recovery
China eventually reunited as an imperial empire
Roman Empire didn’t successfully reunite – regional kingdoms.
Western Europe and Byzantine Empire
Growth in long-distance trade
Because of improvements in technology.
Silk Road, Indian Ocean, Trans-Saharan trade, Mediterranean Sea
= spread of ideas, religions, technology
Pax Mongolica (peace and order due to vast Mongol empire)
Compass, improved shipbuilding, gunpowder
Bantus, Turks, Mongols, Vikings
Interacted with settled people
Caused major changes throughout world
Movement of Mongols
Altered much of Asia’s political structure for a time
Recovery from that Mongol period introduced political structures which defined many area for centuries.
Islam, Christianity, Buddhism
All preached equality of all believers in eyes of God
Spread of religion
Helped by increase trade
Religion often acted as unifying force
Christianity and Church = centralizing force in Western Europe
Spread of Confucianism and Buddhism solidified cultural identity.
Islam created new cultural world known as dar-as-Islam which transcended political boundaries
Though sometimes religion caused conflict.
Ex. -- Byzantine v. Western Europe (Roman Catholicism
Patriarchy values continued to dominate (Continuity)
Monastic life of Buddhism and Christianity offered alternative path for women.
Adapted and changed to the new conditions of the world
Centralized empires like Byzantine, Arab Caliphates and Tang and Song dynasties
Built on the successful models of past
Western Europe and Japan
Developed political organization that dealt with their unique issues
Bubonic plague (Black Death), spread during this period to the movement of people and increase in interaction.
Rise of Islam
Muhammad, Umayyads, Abbasids
Tang Dynasty (618 -907)
After fall of Han, china returned to regional small kingdoms for 400 years.
581 Sui reunited China