• amanda0195

History of the Hebrews


BIBLICAL

  • Abraham moves to Israel

  • Covenant with God, circumcision

  • Wife Sarai (mother of Isaac)

  • Sarai's servant Hagar (mother of Ishmael)

  • Isaac has two sons

  • Esau and Jacob

  • Jacob is renamed "Israel"

  • Jacob/Israel has 12 sons

  • Who become the patriarchs of the 12 tribes

  • Joseph, one of Israel's sons, is sold to merchants going to Egypt

  • He helps the Egyptian king by predicting a famine will take place

  • Egypt stockpiles food

  • When the famine hits, Joseph's brother's come to Egypt to buy food

  • At first, they don't recognize their brother who is now working in the Pharaoh's court and speaks perfect Egyptian

  • Joseph forgives them and they all move to Egypt

  • Eventually the Hebrews are enslaved (because of the fear of their growing numbers)

  • Decree issued by Pharaoh when a rumor circulates that one of the Hebrews will rule as a king

  • All newborn Hebrew children must be killed.

  • Hebrew's are saved when God instructs them to mark their doors with animal blood so that the Egyptian soldiers will pass by their homes

  • Moses

  • Child is saved by his mother when she puts him in a basket and sets him down the river

  • Pharaoh's daughter finds him and raises him in the royal household

  • Moses discovers his roots as a Hebrew, determines to free his brethren from captivity

  • God helps Moses convince the Pharaoh to let the Hebrews go by sending down a number of plagues (locusts, darkness, frogs etc.)

  • Hebrews escape by traveling across the Sinai for 40 years (a generation)

  • With God's help, Moses parts the Red (Reed) Sea allowing Hebrews to cross (the water closes in again on the pursuing Egyptian soldiers)

  • En route, Moses receives commandments from God

  • Places the tablets (along with a pot of manna and Aaron's rod) in the Ark of the Covenant which is carried by the Hebrews back to Israel

  • Israel

  • Hebrew return to Israel (possibly around 1440 BC) and fight Philistines


HEBREWS IN ISRAEL


  • 1025 BC -- the Hebrews choose Saul to unite the Hebrew tribes so that can better defeat the Philistines

  • 1010 BC -- Saul is succeeded by King David

  • Who establishes the city of Jerusalem as a place to build a Temple for the Ark of the Covenant

  • 970-931 BC -- David's son, Solomon, becomes king

  • Solomon builds the first Temple in Jerusalem

  • But angers the ten tribes in the North


SPLIT

  • 931 BC the Hebrew tribes split: Kingdom of Israel (10 tribes capital at Samaria) in the north Kingdom of Judah in the south

  • 740 B.C. - c. 711 B.C.

  • Ten tribes in the Kingdom of Israel are conquered by the Neo-Assyrians

  • The tribes are forcibly scattered to other parts of the Neo-Assyrian Empire

  • Become known as the "Ten Lost Tribes"

BABYLONIAN CAPTIVITY


  • 586 Jerusalem falls to the Neo-Babylonian king Nebuchanezzar

  • Solomon's Temple is destroyed

  • Hebrews from Kingdom of Judah (now known as "Jews") are forced to migrate to Babylon -- this time, though, as a group

  • Changes to the Jewish traditions

  • Promise to return to Israel

  • God is more abstract and is considered the God of all people (not just Jews)

  • Torah is compiled (in order to understand why God forsook te Hebrew People)

  • 539 BC Cyrus the Great conquers the Neo-Babylonians

  • Permits all imprisoned groups to be set free

  • Jews (Hebrews) return to Israel and rebuild the Temple with Cyrus's blessing and aid.


SECOND TEMPLE PERIOD

  • 332 B.C.E. Alexander the Great conquers Phoenicia and Gaza

HELLENISM

  • Seleucids and Ptolemies fight over control of the Levant

  • Under Ptolemies, Hebrews were permitted to practice their religion freely

  • Under Seleucus, Hebrews must engage in Greek customs, stop performing Jewish rituals (like circumcision) compete in the Gymnasium naked and worship Greek gods in the Temple.

  • Maccabeean (Hasmonean) Revolt 167-161 BC against the Hellenistic Seleucids

  • Led by Judah Maccabee

  • Victory over the Greeks, Hebrews try to re-sanctify the Temple Mount

  • Hannukah story: After victory over the Seleucids, the Hebrews set out find only enough annointing oil for one night but the supply miraculously lasts for eight days.

  • Hasmonean dynasty rules until the Romans conquer the region

ROMANS

  • 63 B.C.E Roman general Pompey lays siege to the temple


JESUS IS CRUCIFIED

  • C. 26-36 C.E. Jesus is pursued by Romans

FALL OF JERUSALEM AND THE TEMPLE

  • Jews revolt against Romans (66-70 CE)

  • Revolt ends with the destruction of the Second Temple and the fall of Jerusalem

  • More than a million Jews killed by Romans

BAR KOCHBA REVOLT

  • 131-136 Roman Emperor Hadrian takes over

  • Renames Jerusalem "Aelia Capitolina" and Judea becomes Syria Palestina.

  • Forbids circumcision

  • Bar Kochba

  • Leads the biggest Jewish rebellion against Romans

  • In reaction

  • Jews are all kicked out of Jerusalem

  • They can only visit on Tisha B'av


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