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Exploration and Conquest of Americas


BRIEF TIMELINE

  • Ottoman Empire defeats Constantinople (1453)

  • Marriage of Ferdinand and Isabella of Spain (1469)

  • Bartholomeu Dias around Africa (1488)

  • Christopher Columbus to New World (1492)

  • Treaty of Tordesillas (1494)

  • Vasco da Gama to India (1498)

  • Pedro Cabral lands in Brazil (1500)

  • Cortes conquers Aztecs (1519)

  • Magellan lands in Philippines (1521)

  • Pizarro conquers Incas (1532)

  • British colonize Virginia (1607)

  • French establish Quebec City (1608)

BACKGROUND TO EXPLORATION

CHINA

  • Marco Polo inspired Europeans with his tales about China under the Mongols (Yuan Dynasty)

  • After the Mongols were defeated, the Chinese Ming rulers sent Zheng He on a long journey (1405-1433) to demonstrate the Ming dominance.

  • The voyages were swiftly discontinued when Emperor Yongle died.

  • Europeans continued to be interested in Chinese products: porcelain, silk, tea etc.

SPICES

  • Europeans were very interested in spices found in Southeast Asia (pepper, ginger, cloves, nutmeg etc.)

OTTOMAN EMPIRE

  • Conquest of Constantinople from Byzantines in 1453 set off desire to find alternative routes to Asia

TECHNOLOGY

  • Acquisition of technology from China and the Muslim world helped Europeans expand seagoing capabilities

  • Sternpost rudder, triangular lateen sails, magnetic compass, astrolabe etc.

PORTUGAL

PORTUGUESE IN ATLANTIC

  • Portuguese had colonies and sugar plantations on islands in the Atlantic off the coast of Africa

PRINCE HENRY THE NAVIGATOR

  • Responsible for the early days of Portuguese Empire and age of Discoveries

  • Third son of King John I of Portugal, founder of the Aviz dynasty

  • Encouraged father to conquer Ceuta (Muslim port o N. African coast)

  • Intrigued by Christian legend of Prester John

  • Considered a descendant of Three Magi

  • Legendary Christian patriarch and king said to rule over a Christian nation lost amidst Muslims and pagans in the Orient.

  • Prince Henry employed cartographers to chart the coast of Mauritania after the voyages he sent there

  • And sponsored voyages down coast of Africa (as far as Guinea)

BATHOLOMEU DIAS

  • Appointed by King John to find route to India and lands by mythical Christian king, Prester John.

  • First to navigate around Cape of Good Hope in South Africa in 1488

  • He wanted to call it "Cape of Storms"

  • His men mutinied forcing him to return back to Portugal

  • Proved that there was ocean below Africa, therefore, a sea route to Asia that avoided the Ottomans

VASCO DA GAMA

  • Sailed from Portugal to India

  • Landed in Calicut in 1497

GOAL OF PORTUGUESE EXPLORATION

  • Goal was not to conquer but to control trade

  • Wanted to force merchant ships to trade in fortified trading sites and pay duties for the privilege

  • By 1500s, Portuguese had 50 trading posts (then power decined)


SPAIN

BACKGROUND

  • Marriage of Ferdinand and Isabella ("Catholic Monarchs") 1469

  • Reconquista

COLUMBUS

  • Landed in Caribbean

  • Built fort of Santo Domingo (became capital of Spanish Caribbean)

  • Natives: Taino

  • Taino were conscripted to work in goldmines

COLUMBIAN EXCHANGE

From the New World to the Old World

  • Maize (Corn)

  • Potato

  • Tobacco

From the Old World to the New World

  • Diseases

  • Sugar


OTHER SPANISH/PORTUGUESE EXPLORERS

BRIEF

Balboa - Discovered Pacific Ocean (1513)

Ponce de Leon - Fountain of Youth, Florida (1513)

Vespucci -- Name "America" on map (1517)

Magellan -- Circumnavigated globe, Philippines (1521)

De Soto -- Mississippi River (1529)

Coronado -- Grand Canyon (1540)

James Cook -- Australia (1770)

  • VASCO NUNEZ DE BALBOA (1475-1519) (Spanish)

  • First European to see the Pacific Ocean (via Panama) (1513)

  • Claimed Pacific Ocean and all its shores for Spain

  • JUAN PONCE DE LEON (Spanish)

  • While searching for gold, he founded a settlement in Puerto Rico (1508)

  • Searched for "fountain of youth" on island of Bimini in Caribbean.

  • Landed in North America - which he called "Florida" ("flowery) (1513)

  • AMERIGO VESPUCCI (1451-1512) (Italian sailing for Portuguese)

  • Met Columbus - sparked interest in finding passage to Indies

  • 1501 explored coast of Brazil and

  • Italian - first to realize that territory was a "new world"

  • 1517 - German cartographer Waldseemuller

  • Believed Vespucci was the first to make landfall in the new world

  • Created a map labeling New World "America" - the feminine version of name Amerigo.

  • FERDINAND MAGELLAN (1480-1521) (Portuguese sailing for Spanish)

  • Saied around Strait of Magellan (named after him) to the "peaceful sea" (Pacific Ocean)

  • Reached Spice Islands in East Indies in 1521

  • Claimed Philippines for the Spanish

  • Magellan died in Philippines but his crew continued back to Europe

  • First to circumnavigate around the globe.

  • HERNANDO DE SOTO (1500-1542) (Spanish)

  • In 1532 he joined Pizarro in conquest of Peru

  • Discovered road leading to Cuzco

  • Landed in Florida

  • And discovered and explored the Mississippi River in 1539

  • FRANCISCO VAZQUEZ DE CORONADO (1510-1554) (Spanish)

  • Hoped to discover the Cities of Cibola (mythical Seven Cities of Gold)

  • Rumors that people used gold and silver dishes and decorated houses with pearls, emeralds, turquoise and other gems.

  • To Arizona, met and attacked Zuni people

  • First to explore North American Southwest

  • Discovered Colorado River and Grand Canyon (1540)

SPANISH CONQUISTADORS

CONQUEST OF AZTECS IN CENTRAL AMERICA

  • Aztecs

  • Native culture

  • Wealthier and more complex than Taino and other Caribbean societies

  • Hernan Cortes

  • With 450 men he conquered the Aztec Empire (1519-1521)

  • Helped by other tribes in the region who resented the Mexica (Aztecs)

  • Epidemics (esp. smallpox) wiped out natives who had never been exposed to the diseases

CONQUEST OF INCAS IN SOUTH AMERICA

  • Incas (Andes mountains, present-day Peru)

  • Language: Quechua

  • Capital: Cuzco

  • Ruler: Atahuallpa

  • Known for: roads

  • Francisco Pizarro

  • Led a small band of men and toppled Inca Empire (1532-1533)

  • Like Aztecs, locals were weakened by internal problems and epidemics (smallpox)

  • By 1540,the Spanish controlled the entire Inca empire.

TREATY OF TORDESILLAS 1494

  • Divided colonial world between Spanish and Portuguese

  • Portuguese given Brazil

  • Spanish given rest of the New World

COLONIAL GOVERNMENT

(SPANISH AND PORTUGUESE)

PORTUGUESE GOVERNMENT IN BRAZIL

  • Portuguese king granted Brazil to nobles

  • A governor oversaw the grants

  • By mid 16th century, Brazil sugar plantations were main source of wealth for Portuguese

SPANISH GOVERNMENT IN THE NEW WORLD

  • Spanish colonial administration was formalized by 1570

  • Viceroys

  • Administration centers in Mexico and Peru were governed by viceroys

  • Viceroys were reviewed by audencias (courts appointed by the Spanish king)

  • Viceroys had sweeping powers within their jurisdictions.

SOCIAL

(SPANISH/PORTUGUESE COLONIES)

RACIAL HIERARCHY IN THE NEW WORLD

  • Peninsulares

  • Spanish/Portuguese born in Spain/Portugal and living in New World

  • Peninsulares and Creoles (below) owned the land

  • Creolles (or Criollos)

  • Spanish/Portugese born in New World from European parents

  • Mestizos

  • Mix of Spanish/Portuguese and Indians

  • Mulattoes

  • Mix of Africans and Europeans

  • Zambos

  • Mixed African and Indian

ECONOMY

(SPANISH/PORTUGUESE COLONIES)

SPANISH AGRICULTURE IN THE NEW WORLD

  • Large private estates or haciendas produced food

  • Encomiendas

  • Grants by the Spanish Crown to colonists in America

  • Conferring rights to demand tribute (metals, wheat, pork etc.) and forced labor from local inhabitants

  • The grant holder was called the encomendero.

  • In exchange for labor, the encomenderos were supposed to protect the Indians and instruct them in the Christian faith and Spanish language

  • In truth, the natives were subject to hard labor and extreme punishments or death if they esisted

  • Indian slavery, though was forbidden , local Indians as "free vassals of the crown" were permitted to appeal to the Real Audiencias ("royal audiences" - Spanish courts)

  • Because of appeals from people like Bartholomew de las Casas, the abusive encomienda system was replaced by the Repartimientos

  • Repartimientos

  • Replaced the abusive encomienda system according to the New Laws of 1542

  • Natives forced to do unpaid or low-paid labor on Spanish farms or mines for a certain number of weeks or months each year.

SILVER AND GOLD

  • Silver (which was more plentiful than gold) became the basis of Spanish New World wealth

  • Paid for Spanish bureaucracy and military

  • Slowed Spanish develoopment industry since manufactured goods could be bought

  • Conquistadors melted Aztec and Inca gold artifacts into ingots (gold bars)

  • Major silver mining sites: Zacatecas (Mexico) and Potosi (Peru)

  • 1/5th of silver mined went to the Spanish treasury (called the quinto)

  • Silver circulated around Europe and then to Asia

  • Increased trade in luxury goods

  • Spanish galleons sailed from South America to Philipines (capital was Manila)

  • Philippines became a Spanish territory after Magellan landed on the island in 1521

  • Where they traded with the Chinese

  • Chinese demanded silver rather than other goods to exchange for Chinese products

SUGAR IN BRAZIL

  • Portuguese empire in Brazil was dependent on sugar production

  • Engenho = sugar mill (combined agriculture and industry)

  • Sugar plantations were very labor intensive

  • Sugar planters became landed nobility

  • Slavery

  • Sugar caused growth of slavery in Brazil

  • Natives were not natural cultivators and resisted forced labor

  • Portuguese had to import slaves from Africa to do the work after 1530

  • Because of high death rates and low birth ates, more slaves had to be bought in

  • One ton of sugar = one lost life

RELIGION

SPANISH COLONIES

  • One of the primary goals for Spanish colonization was the spread of Catholicism

  • Ferdinand and Isabella (the "Catholic Monarchs") engaged in the Spanish Inquisition

  • To rid Spain of Muslims and Jews

  • In the colonies

  • Missions were erected throughout New Spain to convert and teach the local populations about Christianity.

  • In 1531,

  • The Virgin of Guadalupe became a national symbol

  • COMPARISON

  • Conversion was more successful in Spanish territories than it was in

  • French colonies

  • Where local practices were more tolerated

  • And British colonies

  • Where there was little interest in converting indigenous groups.

RESISTANCE

RESISTANCE TO COLONIZATION and SUBJUGATION


  • Poma de Ayala

  • Quechua nobleman who denounced the treatment of natives in the Andes (Peru) by Spanish.

  • Wrote Nueva Coronica y Buen Gobierno (New Chronicle and Good Government) (1600-1615)

  • Bartolomew de las Casas

  • Spanish missionary

  • Wrote about bad treatment of natives

  • Result: Ending of encomienda system

FRANCE

EXPLORERS AND SETTLERS

  • Giovanni de Verrazano

  • Italian sent by Francis I to explore region between Florida and Newfoundland (1524)

  • To find alternative route to Pacific Ocean

  • Jacques Cartier

  • Sent to explore coast of Newfoundland and St. Lawrence River

  • Founded New France

  • Samuel de Champlain

  • Founded Port Royal (1605)

  • Founded Quebec (1608)

  • Explored the Great Lakes

  • Jean Nicolet

  • Founded Green Bay (one of oldes permanent settlements in America)

  • Rene-Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle

  • Established network of forts form Gulf of Mexico to Great Lakes and St. Lawrence R.

  • Antoine de la Mothe Cadillac

  • Founded Detroit (1701)

  • Jean-Baptiste Le Moye, Sieur de Bienville

  • Founded New Orleans (1718)

  • Pierre Le Moyne d'Iberville

  • Founded Baton Rouge (1719)

ECONOMY

  • French colonists came mostly for fur

  • Native people trapped the furs then traded them to Europeans

  • Caused competition among natives and near extinction of furred animals

SOCIAL

  • Mostly young men (coureurs de bois)

  • Who often married Indian women

  • Children from these unions were called metis.

RELIGION

  • Religious minorities (Protestant Huguenots) were not allowed to settle in New World

  • Catholic Jesuits came to convert natives

BRITAIN

SETTLEMENT

  • VIRGINIA (1607)

  • First settlers in Virginia came to find gold and treasures

  • Mostly men

  • When gold wasn't found, Virginians began growing tobacco

  • Tobacco required land and labor

  • New tobacco plantations affected area environmentally

  • Settlers encroaching on Indian land - caused conflict (ex. Powhatan wars)

  • Labor

  • Indentured servants were used for labor

  • Europeans who agreed to work the land for a number of years (usually seven) in exchange for the price of passage to the New World.

  • After the term was completed they were released with "freedom dues" (land, equipment etc.)

  • Many died before they could become free

  • Eventually (late 17th c.) slaves began to replace indentured servants (more cost effective)

  • NEW ENGLAND (PLYMOUTH, MASSACHUSETTS) (1620, 1630)

  • Came for religious reasons

  • Puritans wanted to create religious communities ("City Upon a Hill") that would serve as models for other Christians

  • Mostly came as families (greater gender balance)

  • Didn't intermarry with Indians

  • Economy not well suited for large plantations

  • New Englanders worked on subsistence farms (growing crops only for themselves or local trade)

  • Or engaged in merchant activity

  • In Rhode Island, merchants became rich from the slave trade

SOUTHERN STATES (CAROLINAS, GEORGIA)

  • Settlers in Southern states grew cash crops like rice and indigo (later cotton) which required slave labor

GOVERNMENT

  • Unlike Iberian (Spanish/Portuguese) and French colonies, the British government didn't control the colonies until the mid 18th century (end of French and Indian War 1763)

JAMES COOK (1728-1779) (British)

  • Explored east Australia in 1770

  • In 1788 England established the first settlement in Australia (a penal colonies, that is, a place to send British prisoners)


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