• amanda0195

Civil Rights Timeline


1930

  • Nation of Islam (NOI)

  • Founded by Wallace D. Fard Muhammad

  • Goals – to improve the spiritual, mental, social and economic condition of African-Americans in US and all of humanity

  • Critics said it was black supremacist and anti-Semitic

1934


  • NOI

  • Fard disappeared, NOI led by Elijah Muhammad (born Elijah Little)

  • Who established places of worship and school

1941

  • A. Phillip Randolph

  • Threatened to march on Washington

  • Executive Order 8802 – Defense industry

  • Signed by President Franklin D. Roosevelt on June 25, 1941

  • Prohibited racial discrimination in the national defense industry.

  • It was the first federal action, though not a law, to promote equal opportunity and prohibit employment discrimination in the United States.

  • FDR cited the war effort

  • Said "the democratic way of life within the nation can be defended successfully only with the help and support of all groups"

1942

  • The Congress of Racial Equality (CORE)

  • Civil rights organization co-founded by James Farmer

  • One of the "big four" civil rights organizations along with SCLC, SNCC, NAACP

  • Pushed for nonviolence with MLK

  • Initiated and organized 1961 Freedom Rides

  • Double V Campaign

  • Movement for victory over “aggression, slavery and tyranny” both abroad (during World War II) and at home.


1947

  • Indian independence movement led by Mahatma Gandhi inspired non-violent civil disobedience

  • Jackie Robinson

  • First African-American to play in major league baseball

  • Played at 1st base in Brooklyn Dodgers, April 15, 1947

  • Became Rookie of the Year

  • Mendez v. Westminster (California)

  • ​Decided that segregating Mexican American children in public schools violated California law

  • And the equal protection of the law clause of the 14th Amendment.

  • Case didn't reach Supreme Court but inspired LULAC (see Delgado v. Bastrop)

  • ​LULAC: League of United Latin American Citizens

1948

  • Executive Order 9981

  • Truman ending segregation in the military July 26, 1948

  • First African-Americans fight together time in Korea 1950

  • Dixiecrats

  • Political party organized in summer of 1948 by conservative white southern Democrats committed to state’s rights and maintaining segregation.

  • They opposed federal intervention into race relations.

  • Nominated Strom Thurmond of S.C. as presidential candidate in 1948

  • Ran on platform for “complete segregation of the races”

  • Got 2.4% of popular vote, 39 electoral votes

  • Thurmond served 48 years as senator of S.C. (1954-2003)

  • First as Democrat, then, in 1964, as Republican

  • Delgado v. Bastrop (Texas)

  • ​Inspired by Mendez v. Westminster LULAC tried to enroll Latina first-grader Minerva Delgado in an all-white school.

  • Civil rights lawyer Gus Garcia (legal adviser to LULAC and GI Forum) argued case.

  • Texas judge ordered an end to segregated schools in Texas beyond first grade.

  • (First grade still segregate because of language)

  • Precedent to Brown v. Board of Educaation

1954


  • Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka

  • Warren Court

  • Lawyer Thurgood Marshall argued

  • Linda Brown, a black third grader, had to take a bus to her segregated black school: a white school was only a few blocks away.

  • Linda's father along with 12 other plaintiffs backed by the NAACP argued separate facilities for black and white children were intrinsically unequal.

  • Court argued in their favor ending Plessy v. Ferguson (1896, "separate but equal")

  • Massive resistance” and southern manifesto (1956)

  • Unified resistance to Brown v. Board by 100 members of congress led by Sen. Harry Byrd

  • The group denounced the Brown v. Board as clear abuse of judicial power

  • Called for resistance by “any lawful means”

  • Schools in the South were closed rather than allow integration

  • Hernandez v. Texas

  • Mexicans not subject to Jim Crow laws but barred from many public places and juries

  • Pete Hernandez convicted of murder by all-white jury

  • Lawyer Gus Garcia argued to end exclusion of Hispanics from jury service in Texas.

  • Texas court argued since Mexicans were "white" it was a jury of peers.

  • Garcia argued that courthouse had two men's rooms "men" and "colored men/hombres aqui"

  • Warren Court (Supreme Court) in favor of Hernandez

  • Fourteenth Amendment applies to all racial groups


1955

  • (Aug) Emmett Till

  • 14-year old black boy murdered in Mississippi because allegedly whistled at a white woman

  • Was visiting family, kidnapped, beaten, shot and dumped in Tallahatchie River

  • Two white men arrested for the murder and acquitted by an all-white jury.

  • They later boasted about committing the murder in a Look magazine interview

  • Because of this, in November 1955 segregation was prohibited by the Federal Interstate Commerce Commission on interstate trains and buses

  • Montgomery Bus Boycott (Dec. 1, 1955-Dec. 21, 1956)

  • Dec. 1, NAACP member Rosa Parks didn't give up bus seat to white passenger

  • Catalyst for the Montgomery (Alabama) Bus Boycott

  • Martin Luther King elected by Montgomery Improvement Association to lead the boycott.

  • Boycott lasted more than a year until desegregation Dec. 21, 1956.

1956

  • Beginning of year, whites angry about Montgomery Bus Boycott

  • Resulted in bombings of four African-American churches'

  • As well as homes of civil rights leaders (for example, MLK)

1957


  • MLK formed Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC)

  • With Charles Steel and Fred Shuttlesworth

  • King was first president

  • SCLC became a major force in organizing the civil rights movement

  • Based its principles on nonviolence and civil disobedience because MLK believed the civil right movement shouldn't sink to level of racists and hate mongers who opposed them.

  • Civil Right Act 1957

  • Under Eisenhower

  • First civil rights legislation since 1866

  • Although it was whittled down by Southern congressmen, in included some provisions

  • ​Some protection of voting rights

  • Established the Civil Rights Division in the Justice Dept.

  • Empowered federal officials to prosecute people who denied citizens' right to vote

  • Created Civil Rights Commission to investigate allegations of voter infringement

  • Sept. Little Rock Central High School

  • Formerly all-white Central High School

  • Nine black students (Little Rock Nine) were blocked from entering the school on the orders of Arkansas Governor Orval Faubus

  • Faubus sent Arkansas National Guard to prevent entry

  • President Eisenhower sent federal troops and the National Guard to intervene on behalf of the students.

1959

  • MLK arrested

  • Arrested for trespassing when went to Rich’s a whites-only restaurant.

  • Because he was on probation for driving without Georgia license (had Alabama license) MLK was sentenced by Dekalb County judge to 4 months in prison where he was to do hard labor.

  • JFK phones Coretta King for encouragement

  • Robert Kennedy convinces Dekalb county judge to release him on bail.

  • Convinces many African-Americans to support Democratic politicians

1960


  • (Feb. 1) Greensboro, N.C. – sit-in at Woolworth lunch counter

  • Four black students sat at segregated

  • Woolworth’s lunch counter.

  • Refused service but allowed to stay

  • Triggered other peaceful protests throughout Deep South

  • Six months later, original four were served lunch at same counter.

  • Student effective in integrating parks, swimming pools, theaters, libraries and other public facilities

  • Sit-ins inspired SNCC (Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee)

  • Founded by Ella Baker (an administrator with SCLC)

  • To facilitate sit ins

  • SNCC later grew into a more radical organization

  • Especially under leadership of Stokely Carmichael (1966-1967)

  • (Nov. 20) JFK elected president.

  • (Dec.) Boynton v. Virginia

  • Boynton, a black student, sat at white counter in restaurant in interstate bus station.

  • Lawyer for Boynton: Thurgood Marshall (1st black Supreme Court Justice in 1967)

  • Judges decided that since it was an interstate bus station, the restaurant had to be integrated because of the interstate commerce act.

  • Led to Freedom Rides (to test ruling).

1961

  • Freedom Rides by CORE

  • Student volunteers took bus trips through the South to test out new laws that prohibit segregation in interstate travel facilities (see Boynton v. Virginia)

  • Several “freedom riders” attacked by angry mobs along the way.

  • Sponsored by CORE and SNCC, involved more than 1,000 black and white volunteers

  • Led to desegregation of interstate transportation in US

1962

  • Oct. 1, James Meredith - first black student to enroll at the University of Mississippi.

  • When he arrived, entrance was blocked

  • Violence and riots prompted Attn Gen. Robert Kenndy to send 5,000 federal troops

1963


  • (Apr.)“Letter from Birmingham Jail

  • MLK arrested and jailed during anti-segregation protests in Birmingham Alabama

  • Wrote letter arguing that individuals have a moral duty to disobey unjust laws.

  • Transcript

  • (May) - Hoses in Birmingham

  • During civil rights protests in Birmingham Alabama, Commissioner of Public Safety Eugene “Bull” Connor used fire hoses and police dogs on black demonstrators

  • Images of brutality televised and widely publicized – instrumental in gaining sympathy for civil rights movement around the world.

  • (Jun) NAACP field sec., Medgar Evers, murdered outside his home

  • Byron de la Beckwith was tried twice in 1964, both trials resulted in hung juries

  • 30 years later Beckwith was convicted for murdering Evers

  • Aug. 28, March on Washington

  • 250,00 blacks and whites

  • Organized by A. Philip Randolph and Bayard Rustin

  • Alliance of civil rights, labor and religious organization

  • Congregating at the Lincoln Memorial

  • “Jobs and freedom”

  • “I have a dream” speech by MLK​ - Transcript

  • (Sep) Four young girls attending Sunday school killed when a bomb explodes at the 16th St. Baptist Church, a popular location for civil rights meetings.

  • Riots erupted in Birmingham, leading to the deaths of two more black youths.

  • (Nov. 22) ​John F. Kennedy killed by Lee Harvey Oswald

  • ​He was succeeded by his Vice President, Lyndon B. Johnson


Clip from movie "Selma" representing literacy laws.

1964

  • 24th Amendment

  • Abolished poll tax in federal elections

  • Which originally had been instituted in 11 southern states after Reconstruction to make it difficult for poor blacks to vote

  • (Mar.) Malcolm X left Nation of Islam

  • After performing Hajj

  • Freedom Summer 1964

  • Massive voter registration drive in Mississippi – singing “we shall overcome”

  • (Jun. 10) Freedom Summer murders (Mississippi Burning Murders)

  • Three civil rights, CORE workers (2 white/1 black) tried to register black voters

  • Pulled over for speeding, jailed for a few hours, let go

  • After they were freed, they were abducted by 18 KKK and local sheriff and killed.

  • All-white jury would not convict the murderers

  • Caused an outrage (Mississippi burning)

  • CORE and SNCC tried to unseat all-white Mississippi govt.

  • (July 2) Civil Rights Act 1964

  • Prohibits discrimination of all kinds based on race, color, religion or national origin.

  • And provided federal government with powers to enforce desegregation

  • Prohibited racial discrimination:

  • In institutions like hospitals and schools

  • And privately owned public accommodates such as restaurants, hotels, and theaters.

  • Banned discrimination on the grounds of sex

  • Section VII (Employment)

  • No discrimination because of race, color, religion, sex or national origin in work

  • Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC)

  • ​Set up to prevent unlawful employment practices.

  • Opposed by the "Southern Bloc" (18 southern senators like Strom Thurmond)

1965

  • (Feb) Malcolm X killed

  • Former member of Nation of Islam, founder of Organization of Afro-American Unity

  • Assailants believed to be members of Nation of Islam, which Malcolm had recently abandoned in favor of orthodox Islam

  • (Mar) Selma, Alabama

  • Blacks 50% but only 1% of voters

  • Blacks began march to Montgomery in support of voting rights

  • They were stopped at Pettus Bridge by a police blockade

  • Fifty marchers hospitalized after police used tear gas, whips and clubs against them

  • Incident dubbed “Bloody Sunday” by the media

  • March considered catalyst for pushing through the Voting Rights Act five months later

  • (Aug.10) Voting rights Act 1965

  • Outlawed literacy tests and other voter requirements

  • Sent federal voter registrars into several states.

  • 100 years after end of Civil War

  • Made it easier for Southern blacks to register to vote

  • (Aug. 11-16) Watts riots (Los Angeles, California)

  • ​Black motorist on parole for robbery (Marquette Frye) pulled over for reckless driving

  • Argument broke out

  • Led to false rumors that police hurt a pregnant woman.

  • Incident followed by six days of looting and arson ("Burn, Baby, Burn")

  • 4,000 National guards ended riot, 34 deaths, $40 million property damage.

  • (Sept. 24, 1965) – Affirmative Action

  • Johnson issued Executive Order 11246

  • Based on belief that civil rights laws alone not enough to remedy discrimination

  • Required government contractors to “take affirmative action” toward prospective minority employees in all aspects and employment

1966


  • Black Panthers

  • Founded by Huey Newton and Bobby Seale – carry guns

1967

  • April “Black Power

  • Coined by SNCC leader Stokely Carmichael in speech in Seattle

  • Defined as assertion of black pride and “the coming together of black people to fight for their liberation by any means necessary”

  • Radicalization alarmed many

  • June Loving v. Virginia

  • Supreme Court rules interracial marriage okay

  • 16 states that still banned interracial marriage forced to revise their laws

  • Summer riots ("Long, hot summer of 1967")

  • 159 riots across the US

  • Atlanta, Boston, Cincinnati, Buffalo, Tampa, Birmingham, Chicago, NYC, etc.

  • Worst riots in Newark, NJ and Detroit (12th St. Riot)

  • 83 dead, $100 million damage

  • Johnson established 11-member Kerner Commission to investigate

  • Warned: "Our nation is moving toward two societies, one black, one white -- separate and unequal"

  • Conclusion: Cause was white racism and de facto segregation

  • Recommendation: Provide fair employment and desegregated housing for "Negro ghetto population"

  • Johnson ignored recommendatios

  • July Race riots (Detroit)

  • Bloodiest of race riots in "Long hot summer of 1967"

1968


  • (Apr. 4) MLK shot

  • Aged 39, killed as he stands on balcony outside his hotel room

  • Escaped convict and committed racist James Earl Ray convicted

  • (Apr. 11) Civil Rights Act 1968

  • Signed by Johnson

  • Prohibited discrimination in the sale, rental and financing of housing (see Levittowns)

  • (Jun. 6) Robert Kennedy killed by Sirhan Sirhan

1971

  • Swann v. Charlotte-Mecklenburg Board of Education

  • Upholds busing as a legitimate means for achieving integration of public schools.

  • Although largely unwelcome and violently opposed

  • Court-ordered busing plans in cities, Charlotte, Boston, Denver – continue until late 1990s

1978

  • Regions of UC v. Bakke

  • Case:

  • Allan Bakke, white, applied to admission to UC Med. School at Davis (California)

  • He was rejected twice because

  • School had reserved 16 out of 100 places for "qualified" minorities (Affirmative Action)

  • Bakke's qualifications exceeded minority students who were admitted

  • He sued for "reverse discrimination"

  • Conclusion:

  • Court ordered the medical school to admit Bakke

  • Said rigid racial quotas violated Equal Protection Clause of the 14th Amendment

  • But use of race as one of several admission criteria was allowed.

1988

  • Civil Rights Restoration Act

  • Overriding Reagan’s veto

  • Expanded the reach of non-discrimination laws within private institutions receiving federal funds

2013

  • (Jul. 13) Black Lives Matter movement founded.

  • After George Zimmerman was acquitted in shooting death of African American teen, Trayvon Martin.

2014

  • (Aug.) First wave of protests in Ferguson, Missouri

  • Began after fatal shooting of black man, Michael Brown, by white officer.

CIVIL RIGHTS ACTS

  • Civil Rights Act 1866

  • Passed over President Andrew Johnson's veto.

  • Declared all people born in the US were now citizens regardless of race, color or previous condition. (They could sue, inherit, buy property etc.)

  • Prohibited discrimination in housing

  • KKK undermined the act and no federal enforcement

  • Civil Right Act 1875 (AKA Enforcement or Force Act)

  • Introduced by Radical Republican senator, Charles Sumner.

  • Guaranteed all citizens, regardless of color, access to schools, theaters, churches, cemeteries, accommodations

  • Supreme Court declared the law unconstitutional in 1883 - the 14th Amendment granted Congress the right to regulate the behavior of states, not individuals.

  • Couldn't bar anyone from jury service on account of race.

  • Civil Right Act 1957

  • Under Eisenhower, after Brown v. Board of Education and "Massive Resistance"

  • By 1957 only 20% of African-Americans registered to vote (poll taxes, literacy tests)

  • Dem. Senator Strom Thurmond (SC) tried to stop it from becoming law through 24 hour filibuster

  • Banned interfering with rights of people to vote for President and Congress

  • Allowed federal officials to prosecute people who denied citizens right to vote

  • Established a Commission on Civil Rights, an Asst. Attorney General for Civil Rights and Civil Rights Division in the Justice Dept.

  • Civil Rights Act 1960

  • ​Established federal inspection of local voter registration polls

  • Penalties for anyone who obstructed someone's attempt to register to vote

  • Civil Rights Act 1964

  • Proposed by Kennedy in 1963 (filibuster opposition in Senate), then LBJ in 1964

  • ​Outlawed discrimination based on race, color, religion, sex or national origin

  • Outlawed unequal application of voter registration requirements

  • Outlawed racial segregation in schools, jobs and public accommodations

  • Power to enforce the act was weak

  • Voting Rights Act 1965

  • Signed into law by Lyndon B. Johnson

  • Prohibited racial discrimination in voting

  • Civil Rights Act 1968

  • ​Passed during King assassination riots by LBJ

  • Title VIII is known as the Fair Housing Act

  • Provided equal housing opportunities regardless of race, religion or national origin (1974 added gender and 1988 protected people with disabilities)

  • Also protect Native American tribes

  • Rider made it felony to travel in interstate commerce with intent to incite a riot.

  • Equal Employment Opportunity Act 1972

  • Established by Title VII of the Civil Rights Act 1964

  • Americans with Disabilities Act 1990

  • Protect people with disabilities including Down Syndrome, autism, paraplegics etc.

  • Doesn't force an employer to employ a worker if it causes "undue hardship" to the business.

  • Civil Rights Act 1991

  • ​Provided right to trial by jury on discrimination claims

  • Allowed for possibility of emotional distress damages

AP QUESTIONS ON CIVIL RIGHTS

LEQs

  • Analyze the extent to which TWO of the following transformed American society in the 1960s and 1970s. (2005)

  • The Civil Rights movement

  • The antiwar movement

  • The women's movement

  • "Between 1960 and 1975, there was great progress in the struggle for political and social equality." Assess the validity of this statement with respect to TWO of the following groups during that period. (2004)

  • African Americans

  • Asian Americans

  • Latinos

  • Native Americans

  • Women

  • While the United States appeared to be dominated by consensus and conformity in the 1950s, some Americans reacted against the status quo. Analyze the critiques of United States society made by TWO of the following. (2006)

  • Youth

  • Civil Rights Activists

  • Intellectuals

  • African American leaders have responded to racial discrimination in the United States in a variety of ways. Compare and contrast the goals and strategies of African American leaders in the 1890s-1920s with the goals and strategies of African American leaders in the 1950s-1960s. (2011)

DBQs

  • In what ways did the administration of President Lyndon B. Johnson respond to the political, economic, and social problems of the United States? Ass the effectiveness of these responses. (2007 B)


0 views0 comments

Recent Posts

See All