Civil Rights Timeline
Nation of Islam (NOI)
Founded by Wallace D. Fard Muhammad
Goals – to improve the spiritual, mental, social and economic condition of African-Americans in US and all of humanity
Critics said it was black supremacist and anti-Semitic
Fard disappeared, NOI led by Elijah Muhammad (born Elijah Little)
Who established places of worship and school
A. Phillip Randolph
Threatened to march on Washington
Executive Order 8802 – Defense industry
Signed by President Franklin D. Roosevelt on June 25, 1941
Prohibited racial discrimination in the national defense industry.
It was the first federal action, though not a law, to promote equal opportunity and prohibit employment discrimination in the United States.
FDR cited the war effort
Said "the democratic way of life within the nation can be defended successfully only with the help and support of all groups"
The Congress of Racial Equality (CORE)
Civil rights organization co-founded by James Farmer
One of the "big four" civil rights organizations along with SCLC, SNCC, NAACP
Pushed for nonviolence with MLK
Initiated and organized 1961 Freedom Rides
Double V Campaign
Movement for victory over “aggression, slavery and tyranny” both abroad (during World War II) and at home.
Indian independence movement led by Mahatma Gandhi inspired non-violent civil disobedience
First African-American to play in major league baseball
Played at 1st base in Brooklyn Dodgers, April 15, 1947
Became Rookie of the Year
Mendez v. Westminster (California)
Decided that segregating Mexican American children in public schools violated California law
And the equal protection of the law clause of the 14th Amendment.
Case didn't reach Supreme Court but inspired LULAC (see Delgado v. Bastrop)
LULAC: League of United Latin American Citizens
Executive Order 9981
Truman ending segregation in the military July 26, 1948
First African-Americans fight together time in Korea 1950
Political party organized in summer of 1948 by conservative white southern Democrats committed to state’s rights and maintaining segregation.
They opposed federal intervention into race relations.
Nominated Strom Thurmond of S.C. as presidential candidate in 1948
Ran on platform for “complete segregation of the races”
Got 2.4% of popular vote, 39 electoral votes
Thurmond served 48 years as senator of S.C. (1954-2003)
First as Democrat, then, in 1964, as Republican
Delgado v. Bastrop (Texas)
Inspired by Mendez v. Westminster LULAC tried to enroll Latina first-grader Minerva Delgado in an all-white school.
Civil rights lawyer Gus Garcia (legal adviser to LULAC and GI Forum) argued case.
Texas judge ordered an end to segregated schools in Texas beyond first grade.
(First grade still segregate because of language)
Precedent to Brown v. Board of Educaation
Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka
Lawyer Thurgood Marshall argued
Linda Brown, a black third grader, had to take a bus to her segregated black school: a white school was only a few blocks away.
Linda's father along with 12 other plaintiffs backed by the NAACP argued separate facilities for black and white children were intrinsically unequal.
Court argued in their favor ending Plessy v. Ferguson (1896, "separate but equal")
“Massive resistance” and southern manifesto (1956)
Unified resistance to Brown v. Board by 100 members of congress led by Sen. Harry Byrd
The group denounced the Brown v. Board as clear abuse of judicial power
Called for resistance by “any lawful means”
Schools in the South were closed rather than allow integration
Hernandez v. Texas
Mexicans not subject to Jim Crow laws but barred from many public places and juries
Pete Hernandez convicted of murder by all-white jury
Lawyer Gus Garcia argued to end exclusion of Hispanics from jury service in Texas.
Texas court argued since Mexicans were "white" it was a jury of peers.
Garcia argued that courthouse had two men's rooms "men" and "colored men/hombres aqui"
Warren Court (Supreme Court) in favor of Hernandez
Fourteenth Amendment applies to all racial groups
(Aug) Emmett Till
14-year old black boy murdered in Mississippi because allegedly whistled at a white woman
Was visiting family, kidnapped, beaten, shot and dumped in Tallahatchie River
Two white men arrested for the murder and acquitted by an all-white jury.
They later boasted about committing the murder in a Look magazine interview
Because of this, in November 1955 segregation was prohibited by the Federal Interstate Commerce Commission on interstate trains and buses
Montgomery Bus Boycott (Dec. 1, 1955-Dec. 21, 1956)
Dec. 1, NAACP member Rosa Parks didn't give up bus seat to white passenger
Catalyst for the Montgomery (Alabama) Bus Boycott
Martin Luther King elected by Montgomery Improvement Association to lead the boycott.
Boycott lasted more than a year until desegregation Dec. 21, 1956.
Beginning of year, whites angry about Montgomery Bus Boycott
Resulted in bombings of four African-American churches'
As well as homes of civil rights leaders (for example, MLK)
MLK formed Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC)
With Charles Steel and Fred Shuttlesworth
King was first president
SCLC became a major force in organizing the civil rights movement
Based its principles on nonviolence and civil disobedience because MLK believed the civil right movement shouldn't sink to level of racists and hate mongers who opposed them.
Civil Right Act 1957
First civil rights legislation since 1866
Although it was whittled down by Southern congressmen, in included some provisions
Some protection of voting rights
Established the Civil Rights Division in the Justice Dept.
Empowered federal officials to prosecute people who denied citizens' right to vote
Created Civil Rights Commission to investigate allegations of voter infringement
Sept. Little Rock Central High School
Formerly all-white Central High School
Nine black students (Little Rock Nine) were blocked from entering the school on the orders of Arkansas Governor Orval Faubus
Faubus sent Arkansas National Guard to prevent entry
President Eisenhower sent federal troops and the National Guard to intervene on behalf of the students.
Arrested for trespassing when went to Rich’s a whites-only restaurant.
Because he was on probation for driving without Georgia license (had Alabama license) MLK was sentenced by Dekalb County judge to 4 months in prison where he was to do hard labor.
JFK phones Coretta King for encouragement
Robert Kennedy convinces Dekalb county judge to release him on bail.
Convinces many African-Americans to support Democratic politicians
(Feb. 1) Greensboro, N.C. – sit-in at Woolworth lunch counter
Four black students sat at segregated
Woolworth’s lunch counter.
Refused service but allowed to stay
Triggered other peaceful protests throughout Deep South
Six months later, original four were served lunch at same counter.
Student effective in integrating parks, swimming pools, theaters, libraries and other public facilities
Sit-ins inspired SNCC (Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee)
Founded by Ella Baker (an administrator with SCLC)
To facilitate sit ins
SNCC later grew into a more radical organization
Especially under leadership of Stokely Carmichael (1966-1967)
(Nov. 20) JFK elected president.
(Dec.) Boynton v. Virginia
Boynton, a black student, sat at white counter in restaurant in interstate bus station.
Lawyer for Boynton: Thurgood Marshall (1st black Supreme Court Justice in 1967)
Judges decided that since it was an interstate bus station, the restaurant had to be integrated because of the interstate commerce act.
Led to Freedom Rides (to test ruling).
Freedom Rides by CORE
Student volunteers took bus trips through the South to test out new laws that prohibit segregation in interstate travel facilities (see Boynton v. Virginia)
Several “freedom riders” attacked by angry mobs along the way.
Sponsored by CORE and SNCC, involved more than 1,000 black and white volunteers
Led to desegregation of interstate transportation in US
Oct. 1, James Meredith - first black student to enroll at the University of Mississippi.
When he arrived, entrance was blocked
Violence and riots prompted Attn Gen. Robert Kenndy to send 5,000 federal troops
(Apr.)“Letter from Birmingham Jail”
MLK arrested and jailed during anti-segregation protests in Birmingham Alabama
Wrote letter arguing that individuals have a moral duty to disobey unjust laws.
(May) - Hoses in Birmingham
During civil rights protests in Birmingham Alabama, Commissioner of Public Safety Eugene “Bull” Connor used fire hoses and police dogs on black demonstrators
Images of brutality televised and widely publicized – instrumental in gaining sympathy for civil rights movement around the world.
(Jun) NAACP field sec., Medgar Evers, murdered outside his home
Byron de la Beckwith was tried twice in 1964, both trials resulted in hung juries
30 years later Beckwith was convicted for murdering Evers
Aug. 28, March on Washington
250,00 blacks and whites
Organized by A. Philip Randolph and Bayard Rustin
Alliance of civil rights, labor and religious organization
Congregating at the Lincoln Memorial
“Jobs and freedom”
“I have a dream” speech by MLK - Transcript
(Sep) Four young girls attending Sunday school killed when a bomb explodes at the 16th St. Baptist Church, a popular location for civil rights meetings.
Riots erupted in Birmingham, leading to the deaths of two more black youths.
(Nov. 22) John F. Kennedy killed by Lee Harvey Oswald
He was succeeded by his Vice President, Lyndon B. Johnson
Clip from movie "Selma" representing literacy laws.
Abolished poll tax in federal elections
Which originally had been instituted in 11 southern states after Reconstruction to make it difficult for poor blacks to vote
(Mar.) Malcolm X left Nation of Islam
After performing Hajj
Freedom Summer 1964
Massive voter registration drive in Mississippi – singing “we shall overcome”
(Jun. 10) Freedom Summer murders (Mississippi Burning Murders)
Three civil rights, CORE workers (2 white/1 black) tried to register black voters
Pulled over for speeding, jailed for a few hours, let go
After they were freed, they were abducted by 18 KKK and local sheriff and killed.
All-white jury would not convict the murderers
Caused an outrage (Mississippi burning)
CORE and SNCC tried to unseat all-white Mississippi govt.
(July 2) Civil Rights Act 1964
Prohibits discrimination of all kinds based on race, color, religion or national origin.
And provided federal government with powers to enforce desegregation
Prohibited racial discrimination:
In institutions like hospitals and schools
And privately owned public accommodates such as restaurants, hotels, and theaters.
Banned discrimination on the grounds of sex
Section VII (Employment)
No discrimination because of race, color, religion, sex or national origin in work
Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC)
Set up to prevent unlawful employment practices.
Opposed by the "Southern Bloc" (18 southern senators like Strom Thurmond)
(Feb) Malcolm X killed
Former member of Nation of Islam, founder of Organization of Afro-American Unity
Assailants believed to be members of Nation of Islam, which Malcolm had recently abandoned in favor of orthodox Islam
(Mar) Selma, Alabama
Blacks 50% but only 1% of voters
Blacks began march to Montgomery in support of voting rights
They were stopped at Pettus Bridge by a police blockade
Fifty marchers hospitalized after police used tear gas, whips and clubs against them
Incident dubbed “Bloody Sunday” by the media
March considered catalyst for pushing through the Voting Rights Act five months later
(Aug.10) Voting rights Act 1965
Outlawed literacy tests and other voter requirements
Sent federal voter registrars into several states.
100 years after end of Civil War
Made it easier for Southern blacks to register to vote
(Aug. 11-16) Watts riots (Los Angeles, California)
Black motorist on parole for robbery (Marquette Frye) pulled over for reckless driving
Argument broke out
Led to false rumors that police hurt a pregnant woman.
Incident followed by six days of looting and arson ("Burn, Baby, Burn")
4,000 National guards ended riot, 34 deaths, $40 million property damage.
(Sept. 24, 1965) – Affirmative Action
Johnson issued Executive Order 11246
Based on belief that civil rights laws alone not enough to remedy discrimination
Required government contractors to “take affirmative action” toward prospective minority employees in all aspects and employment
Founded by Huey Newton and Bobby Seale – carry guns
April “Black Power”
Coined by SNCC leader Stokely Carmichael in speech in Seattle
Defined as assertion of black pride and “the coming together of black people to fight for their liberation by any means necessary”
Radicalization alarmed many
June Loving v. Virginia
Supreme Court rules interracial marriage okay
16 states that still banned interracial marriage forced to revise their laws
Summer riots ("Long, hot summer of 1967")
159 riots across the US
Atlanta, Boston, Cincinnati, Buffalo, Tampa, Birmingham, Chicago, NYC, etc.
Worst riots in Newark, NJ and Detroit (12th St. Riot)
83 dead, $100 million damage
Johnson established 11-member Kerner Commission to investigate
Warned: "Our nation is moving toward two societies, one black, one white -- separate and unequal"
Conclusion: Cause was white racism and de facto segregation
Recommendation: Provide fair employment and desegregated housing for "Negro ghetto population"
Johnson ignored recommendatios
July Race riots (Detroit)
Bloodiest of race riots in "Long hot summer of 1967"
(Apr. 4) MLK shot
Aged 39, killed as he stands on balcony outside his hotel room
Escaped convict and committed racist James Earl Ray convicted
(Apr. 11) Civil Rights Act 1968
Signed by Johnson
Prohibited discrimination in the sale, rental and financing of housing (see Levittowns)
(Jun. 6) Robert Kennedy killed by Sirhan Sirhan
Swann v. Charlotte-Mecklenburg Board of Education
Upholds busing as a legitimate means for achieving integration of public schools.
Although largely unwelcome and violently opposed
Court-ordered busing plans in cities, Charlotte, Boston, Denver – continue until late 1990s
Regions of UC v. Bakke
Allan Bakke, white, applied to admission to UC Med. School at Davis (California)
He was rejected twice because
School had reserved 16 out of 100 places for "qualified" minorities (Affirmative Action)
Bakke's qualifications exceeded minority students who were admitted
He sued for "reverse discrimination"
Court ordered the medical school to admit Bakke
Said rigid racial quotas violated Equal Protection Clause of the 14th Amendment
But use of race as one of several admission criteria was allowed.
Civil Rights Restoration Act
Overriding Reagan’s veto
Expanded the reach of non-discrimination laws within private institutions receiving federal funds
(Jul. 13) Black Lives Matter movement founded.
After George Zimmerman was acquitted in shooting death of African American teen, Trayvon Martin.
(Aug.) First wave of protests in Ferguson, Missouri
Began after fatal shooting of black man, Michael Brown, by white officer.
CIVIL RIGHTS ACTS
Civil Rights Act 1866
Passed over President Andrew Johnson's veto.
Declared all people born in the US were now citizens regardless of race, color or previous condition. (They could sue, inherit, buy property etc.)
Prohibited discrimination in housing
KKK undermined the act and no federal enforcement
Civil Right Act 1875 (AKA Enforcement or Force Act)
Introduced by Radical Republican senator, Charles Sumner.
Guaranteed all citizens, regardless of color, access to schools, theaters, churches, cemeteries, accommodations
Supreme Court declared the law unconstitutional in 1883 - the 14th Amendment granted Congress the right to regulate the behavior of states, not individuals.
Couldn't bar anyone from jury service on account of race.
Civil Right Act 1957
Under Eisenhower, after Brown v. Board of Education and "Massive Resistance"
By 1957 only 20% of African-Americans registered to vote (poll taxes, literacy tests)
Dem. Senator Strom Thurmond (SC) tried to stop it from becoming law through 24 hour filibuster
Banned interfering with rights of people to vote for President and Congress
Allowed federal officials to prosecute people who denied citizens right to vote
Established a Commission on Civil Rights, an Asst. Attorney General for Civil Rights and Civil Rights Division in the Justice Dept.
Civil Rights Act 1960
Established federal inspection of local voter registration polls
Penalties for anyone who obstructed someone's attempt to register to vote
Civil Rights Act 1964
Proposed by Kennedy in 1963 (filibuster opposition in Senate), then LBJ in 1964
Outlawed discrimination based on race, color, religion, sex or national origin
Outlawed unequal application of voter registration requirements
Outlawed racial segregation in schools, jobs and public accommodations
Power to enforce the act was weak
Voting Rights Act 1965
Signed into law by Lyndon B. Johnson
Prohibited racial discrimination in voting
Civil Rights Act 1968
Passed during King assassination riots by LBJ
Title VIII is known as the Fair Housing Act
Provided equal housing opportunities regardless of race, religion or national origin (1974 added gender and 1988 protected people with disabilities)
Also protect Native American tribes
Rider made it felony to travel in interstate commerce with intent to incite a riot.
Equal Employment Opportunity Act 1972
Established by Title VII of the Civil Rights Act 1964
Americans with Disabilities Act 1990
Protect people with disabilities including Down Syndrome, autism, paraplegics etc.
Doesn't force an employer to employ a worker if it causes "undue hardship" to the business.
Civil Rights Act 1991
Provided right to trial by jury on discrimination claims
Allowed for possibility of emotional distress damages
AP QUESTIONS ON CIVIL RIGHTS
Analyze the extent to which TWO of the following transformed American society in the 1960s and 1970s. (2005)
The Civil Rights movement
The antiwar movement
The women's movement
"Between 1960 and 1975, there was great progress in the struggle for political and social equality." Assess the validity of this statement with respect to TWO of the following groups during that period. (2004)
While the United States appeared to be dominated by consensus and conformity in the 1950s, some Americans reacted against the status quo. Analyze the critiques of United States society made by TWO of the following. (2006)
Civil Rights Activists
African American leaders have responded to racial discrimination in the United States in a variety of ways. Compare and contrast the goals and strategies of African American leaders in the 1890s-1920s with the goals and strategies of African American leaders in the 1950s-1960s. (2011)
In what ways did the administration of President Lyndon B. Johnson respond to the political, economic, and social problems of the United States? Ass the effectiveness of these responses. (2007 B)