Benelux: formed by Belgium, Netherlands and Luxembourg
United Nations created.
Five permanent voting members: U.S., U.K., France, China (Taiwan until 1970s) and U.S.S.R.
Written in response to Communist threats in Turkey and Greece
U.S. sent economic aid to Europe (only Western Europe accepted) in order to help and encourage European countries to resist Communism, remain allies of U.S. and recover economically so they could become trading partners with U.S.
Americans urged Europeans to develop a free-trade zone like states in U.S.
Berlin Blockade/Airlift (1948-1949)
East Germans blocked access to West Berlin, US airlifted aid
Encouraged Western nations to create NATO
GATT – General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade
Signatories agreed to reduce tariffs and negotiated during UN Conference on Trade and Employment.
Signed by 23 nations in Geneva (Oct. 1947)
Took effect Jan. 1948
NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization)
Military alliance against Soviet Union
Western European nations, U.S. and Canada
Encourage by Marshall Plan, countries move toward economic integration
French-German Coal and Steel Authority
Removed tariff barriers and managed coal and steel resources regionally
Created by Jean Monnet
By French foreign minister Robert Schuman and Jean Monnet
Proposed creation of European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC)
Members would pool coal and steel production.
Aim was to make war between historic rivals France and Germany “not merely unthinkable, but materially impossible.”
Treaty of Paris: established European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC).
Six countries joined: Fr. Germany, Benelux, Italy.
High Authority to manage the coal and steel industries and the Common Assembly
Precursor to European parliament.
Jean Monnet headed the organization from 1952-1955.
European Economic Community (EEC)/Common Market
Same six nations as ECSC established EEC through Treaty of Rome
Ended tariff barriers, cut restrictions on flow of labor and capital, integrated economics of member nations.
European Community (EC)
EEC combined with other cooperative bodies to form European Community (EC) to work toward greater economic and political integration with hope that organizations would make Europe powerful enough economically and politically to challenge U.S. and U.S.S.R.
Treaty of European Union/Maastricht Treaty
Ratified Dec. 1991 by EC states in Maastricht, Netherlands.
Signed Feb. 1992.
Entered into force Nov. 1993.
Established a European Union (EU) with citizenship given to every citizen of a member state.
All could vote and run for office in the EU country in which they lived, regardless of nationality.
Also created a central banking system and a common currency (the euro).
Countries also had to cooperate on security issues, the environment and social policies.
Introduced as European monetary unit in 1999
Currency notes and coins appeared 2002 and became sole currency of 12 EU member states (not UK, Denmark or Sweden)
Symbol from Greek epsilon