• amanda0195

LATIN AMERICA


-- Under Construction --

MESOAMERICA

OLMECS


  • KNOWN FOR:

  • First Mesoamerican civilization

  • They were the first to practice ritual bloodletting

  • First to use Long Count calendar

  • First to use concept of zero and vigesimal (base 20) number systm

  • They played early ballgame

  • Name means "rubber" because of the rubber balls they used for games.

  • Colossal Heads

  • YEARS: 1500 BC to 400 BC

  • LOCATION: La Venta and San Lorenzo Tenochtitlan

  • AGRICULTURE:

  • ​Maize, beans, chili, peppers, squash

  • RELIGION:

  • Rulers were linked to Olmec deities which legitimized their rule.

  • Rituals performed by rulers, full-time priests and shamans

  • Feathered serpent deity

  • DOWNFALL:

MAYA

  • KNOWN FOR;

  • YEARS:

  • 2000 BC

  • LOCATION:

  • 2000 BC evidence that they existed in Guatemala- Yucatan of Mexico

  • CAPITAL:

  • Tikal

  • ACCOMPLISHMENTS:

  • Astronomy

  • Recorded movement of mood, planets, sun carefully

  • could predict eclipse and other natural phenomena

  • Math

  • Calendar

  • Calendar 260 days, accurate solar year

  • Writing: Most developed writing system in Americas, hieroglyphic, pictoral and phonetic

  • Urban centers

  • Numerous cities with populations in 10s of 1000s

  • ART and ARCHITECTURE:

  • Impressive architecture (massive pyramids)

  • Temple

  • AGRICULTURE:

  • engineered agriculture

  • terraced irrigation systems, leveled tops

  • Drained swamps, terraced hillsides, flattened ridge tops and wate rmanagment system

  • Peaceful civilization

  • Temple building and intellectual pursuit

  • SOCIAL STRUCTURE:

  • Classes

  • Elite (nobles), priests, merchants, architects, sculptors and labor force

  • Fragmented political system in outlying areas

  • Local lords fought each other

  • Sacrificed prisoners

  • INFLUENCED BY:

  • From Olmecs shared technology of farming, common culture, crops

  • FOREIGN RELATIONS:

  • Trade with Andes

  • DOWNFALL:

  • A century of collapse 840 BC

  • Due to collection of factors

  • Over-popualtion

  • Outstripping of resorues

  • Prolonged drought

  • Warfare

  • Rapid and catastrophic collapse of their civilization

  • GOVERNMENT:

  • Kings and, at times, queens

  • Divine rulers

  • State shamans could talk with supernatural

  • RELIGION:

  • Popol Vuh

  • Male and female gods

  • Human sacrifice

  • COMPARISONS:

  • Competing city-states like Greece (not imperial like Rome, Persia or China)

TOLTECS

  • Known for:

  • Years:

  • Began migrating into the area 8th c. from arid land of northwestern Mexico

  • High point: 950-1150 CE

  • Location:

  • Central Mexico and the Yucatan

  • Perhaps as far north as the American Southwest.

  • Capital:

  • Settled mostly in Tula (30 miles from Mexico City)

  • Place with thin soil and little rainfall.

  • Urban population with about 60,000 people (another 60,000 lived in surrounding area)

  • Capital transformed into a wealthy city.

  • Residents lived in spacious houses made of stone, adobe or mud (sometimes covered packed-earth floors with plaster)

  • Crops

  • ​Maize, beans, peppers, tomatoes, chilies and cotton

  • Industries

  • ​Tula became an important center of weaving, pottery, and obsidian work

  • residents imported large quantities of jade, turquoise, animals skins, exotic bird feathers and other luxury goods from elsewhere in Mesoamerica

  • Foreign relations

  • ​Maintained a large and powerful army that campaigned periodically throughout central mexico

  • Maintained fortresses in northwest to protect their state from invasion by nomadic people.

  • Exacted tribute from subject people

  • Maintained close relations with societies on the Gulf coast as well as with the Maya of Yucatan.

  • Shared numerous rchitectural designs and art motifs with Maya city of Chicen itza 932 miles to the east.

  • Downfall

  • Beginning 1125 the Toltec empire faced serious difficulties as conflicts between the different ethnic groups living at Tula led to civil strife

  • by mid 12th c. large numbers of migrants -- mostly nomadic people form northwestern Mexico- had entered Tula and settled in the surrounding area

  • by 1175 the combination of civil conflict and nomadic incursion had destroyed the Toltec state.

  • fire destroyed much of Tula about the same time.

  • large numbers of people continued to inhabit the region around Tula

  • but by the end of the 12th century, the Toltec no longer dominated Mesoamerica

  • Nomadic invaders destro

MEXICA/AZTECS

LANGUAGE: Nahuatl

TEOTIHUACAN

  • America’s greatest city

  • Planned, enormous and still a mystery

  • 150 BC-650 CE

  • 100,000-200,000 inhabitants in 550 BC

  • Planned, enormous and still a mystery\

  • Huge city north of valley of Mexico

  • Planned from construction –not organically and haphazardly over time

  • Scale ad sophisiction of architecture impressive

  • 150 BC – 650 CE

  • Temple of feathered serpent

  • 200 peopes remains found – sacrificed, hands feet bound

  • 300-600 CE 10,000 miles controlled – tribute

  • Large military took control of region

  • Collapsed 650 CE – mystery

  • Aztecs later named this Teotihuacan – city of gods

SOUTH AMERICA

ANDEAN

Chavín, Moche, Wari and Tiwanaku

MAJOR PERIODS

  • Early Horizon (800-200 BC) – Chavin

  • Early intermediate (200 BC – AD 700) Paracas, Nasca, Moche

  • Middle Horizon (600-1000 CE) – Tiwanaku and Wari

  • Late Horizon: Inca

CHAVIN

  • Northern highlands of Peru

  • Primarily religious cult

  • Temple complexes centered around a village

  • Village be ame major religious center

  • Links to all directions via trade routes.

  • Temple complex centered around a village

  • Between 2000-1000 BC a number of ritual sites and temple ocomplexes developed in A des

  • By 900 BC – Chavin de huantar became a focal point.

  • Village became a major religious center

  • Chavin de Huinta had poulation of 2,000 to 3000 by 750 BC

  • With distinct social hierarchy.

  • Elite lived in stone homes

  • Commoners had adobe homes

  • They built an elaborate and complex temple at this site

  • Links to all directions via trade routes

  • Art shows that temple complex had connections to all direction of high and lowlands

  • Many animals from lowlands represented as gods and sacred figures

Andes

  • Pacific ocean

  • Fish, potatoes

  • Pasture land for llamas

  • Cool and fruit

  • Chavin – 900 BC settled in Andes

  • 750 BC – small town 2-3 thousand people

  • trade both coasts and Amazon

  • Deities

  • Jaguars, crocodiles, snakes

  • Used cactus as hallucinogenic

  • Next few centuries spread across Pru

  • Cultural integration

  • No empire emerged

  • Andes highlands then spread outward

  • Distinctive art styles – particularly in effigy pots

  • Many in feline shapes

  • Chavin de Huantar

  • Important ritual center for Chavin Culture

  • Dating to around 1,500 BC

  • Fasting east between 2 rivers

  • No windows

  • U-shaped stone structure

  • Thought to be used by a sacred few for private, torch-lit cermeonies

MOCHE

  • Coastal (250 miles) civilization in northern Peru

  • History in three periods (100-800 CE)

  • Early Moche (AD 100-300 CE)

  • Middle Moche (AD 300-600 CE)

  • Expansion and florescence

  • Late Moche (AD 500-750 CE)

  • Urban nucleation and collapse

  • Politics and culture

  • Not politically organized or monolithic

  • But group of autonomous political regions with common elite culture

  • Elite class of warrior-priests

  • Religious military elite (very wealthy)

  • Presided over human sacrifices

  • Graves of elites found the period show much material wealth

  • Economy

  • River-fed irrigation (otherwise dry and barren)

  • Grew maize, beans and squash

  • Cotton

  • Guano from coastal islands used as fertilize.

  • Rich fisheries

  • Abundant sardines and other fish = source of food

  • Fine craft skills

  • Sophisticated skills

  • Metal-workers, potters, weavers

  • Art and architecture

  • Huge pyramids made with sun-dried bricks

  • Painted ceramics, gold work

  • Geography

  • Fragile environment.

  • Prone to earthquakes, droughts and floods

  • 13 valleys

  • Collapse

  • By 8th c. Moche civilization had collapsed

  • Some sort of economical crisis in 5th century

  • Prone to earthquakes, droughts and floods

  • Acres of cotton and anchovies from ocean

  • Governed by warrio preists

  • Huge pyramids

  • Sun dried bricks used

  • Artwork suggest large scale sacrifice

  • 8th c. CE

  • civilization no longer exists.

WARI And TIWANAKU

  1. Empires of interior

  2. 400-1000 CE

  3. highand centers with colonies in lowland

  4. Distinctions between two

  5. Yet little conflict

  6. Collapse but basis for late Inca

  7. North and south, two civilizations developed out o ancient settlemetns

  8. Both had large capitals with impressive monumental building

  9. Highland centers

  10. With colonies in lowlands

  11. These states did not control continuous bands of terriotry

  12. Rather, the capital city set up colonies in the westenr and eastern lowlands

  13. Giving them access to distinct economical zones

  14. Distinction between the two yet little conflict

  15. Developed diferent agricultural styles

  16. And state systems

  17. But little conflict along 300 miles shared border

  18. Shared related cultural nad rleigious systems ut spoke distinct language

  19. Collapse

  20. But the basis for later Inca

  21. Broke into smalleR kingdoms

  22. Inca would use their state steam, highways and styles of dress and art when they rose to power in the following centuries.

  23. Wari 400-1000 cE

  24. WAri and Tiwanaku large urban centers

  25. Popualtions in 10s f 1000s

  26. Seafood, chili peppers, maize, cocoa and hallucinogenic plants

  27. Wari

  28. Hillside terracing

  29. Tiwanaku

  30. Raised fields

  31. Inca claimed Tiwnaku as their place of origin

  32. Western Bolivia, S. America

  33. Important precursor to Inca Empire

  34. Ritual and administrative capital of a major state power for 500 years.

  35. Ruins of ancient city –state near lake Titicaca in La Paz

INCA


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