• Amanda Roraback

Transregional Trade

TRADE ROUTES

IN GENERAL

  • Currency

  • Chinese produced first paper money ("flying money") - Tang standardized the currency

  • What was traded:

  • From China

  • Silk, paper-making, printing, compass, gunpowder, Bubonic plague

  • From India

  • Cotton, sugar, Buddhism, number system (zero)

  • From Vietnam

  • Champa Rice

  • From Rome

  • Glass

INDIAN OCEAN

  • Linked China, India, Southeast Asia, Arabia, East Africa

  • Trade made easier with Dhow ships

  • Favored by Indian, Persian and Arab sailors

  • Could carry 400 tons in 1500

  • Allowed traders to go further out to sea and take advantage of monsoons.

  • Use of emporia and warehouses

  • Because monsoons required traders to stay and wait for currents.

  • Trade periods

  • Hellenic period (after Alexander the Great)

  • Roman period - looking for spices

  • Buddhist period - "Cinnamon Route"

  • Muslim Period after 600 (spices, silk)

  • Islam valued merchants (Prophet Muhammad was a caravan leader)

  • And Muslim cities created demand for luxury goods.

  • Umayyad (661-750)

  • Abbasid (750-1258)

  • Chinese

  • Chinese dynasties emphasized trade and industry along Silk Road & maritime routes

  • Tang (618-907)

  • Song (960-1279)

  • Song rulers created a powerful imperial navy to control piracy on east end of Indian Ocean route.

  • Ming (1405-1433)

  • Yongle Emperor sent Admiral Zheng He on seven expeditions into the Indian Ocean to establish diplomatic relations (not really a commercial venture)

  • Chinese emperors left Indian Ocean merchants alone to manage their own affairs.

  • India (300s BCE - 1279 CE)

  • Chola Empire (Southern India)

  • Great wealth and luxuries (ex. elephants covered with gold cloth and jewels)

  • Southeast Asia

  • Srivijaya Empire (650-1377) (Indonesia)

  • Boomed by taxing trading vessels that moved through the narrow Malacca Straits.

  • Khmer Empire Cambodia (802-1431)

  • Used Mekong River as a highway tying capital Angkor to the Indian Ocean

  • Europeans

  • Portuguese

  • Vasco da Gama 1497 went from Portugal to Calicut, India

  • Portuguese were eager to join Indian Ocean trade because of European demand for Asian luxury goods - but there was no demand for European goods (wool, fur, iron pots)

  • So Portuguese entered as pirates using cannons and seizing port cities., extorting other traders.

  • Dutch

  • 1602 the Dutch East India Company (VOC) entered Indian Ocean and sought a total monopoly on spice trade (nutmeg, mace)

  • British

  • 1680 the British East India Company challenged the VOC for control of trade routes.

  • Europeans turned Indonesia, India, Malaya and rest of SEA into colonies.

  • no more reciprocal trade.

  • Asian empires got poor and collapsed while Europeans thrived.

  • Indian Ocean trade network was crippled.

  • Trade on Indian Ocean was self-governing - merchants made rules, established prices etc. until the Europeans arrived.

SILK ROAD (2nd c. BCE to end of 14th c. CE)

  • Name given by German geographer in 1877 because of Chinese silk

  • Route: From Chang'an (Xi'an) in China to Mediterranean in west

  • Linked China with Roman Empire

  • Began during Han Dynasty (206 BCE - 220 CE)

  • Route expanded from 139 BCE to 129 BCE because of Zhang Qian

  • Imperial envoy to world outside China 2nd c. BCE

  • 1st official diplomat to bring info about world to China under Emperor Wu (Han)

  • Accounts of his travels recorded in "Records of Grand Historian" by Sima Qian in 1st c. BCE

  • Rome-Han trade

  • Relations indirect -- cam through intermediaries (Parthians and Kushans)

  • From Rome: High quality glass, manufactured goods from Alexandria and Syria

  • From China: Porcelain, Silk

  • Silk was so popular in Rome that prohibited - too many sesterces coins lost to China to buy silk.

  • Fall of Han Dynasty (221)

  • Trade along Silk Roads and Indian Ocean declined because of political unrest and instability - travel was riskier.

  • Buddhism

  • Kushan Empire (India) under Kanishka (127-150) Buddhism from India to China

  • ​Fa Xian (399-414), Chinese monk

  • To India via Central Asia to find Buddhist books

  • Visited Buddhist sites (stupas etc.)

  • Inspired other Buddhist monks (like Xuanzang)

  • Tang Dynasty (618-904)

  • Great prosperity

  • Silk Road rose to most flourishing period in history

  • Capital at Chang'an (Xi'an)

  • Buddhism again

  • Xuanzang (602-644), Chinese Buddhist monk, inspired by Fa Xian's visit to India, studied Buddhist sutras

  • An Shi Rebellion (755-762)

  • Caused weakening of Tang dynasty and loss of western regions

  • Resulted in decline of Silk Road traffic

  • Song (960-1279)

  • Mongols

  • 1206-1227 Genghis Khan built Mongol Empire - Silk Road becomes prosperous again

  • Pax Mongolica

  • No more toll-gates, corruption, violence, travel is safer than ever before

  • Yuan Dynasty (1271-1368)

  • Capital in Dadu (Beiing) reinstated Silk Road's vigor

  • Welcomed foreigners like Marco Polo (see below)

  • Tamerlane (1368-1404)

  • Descendent of Genghis Khan

  • Established empire in Samarkand

  • After his empire collapse the road gradually fell into disuse

  • Ming Dynasty

  • Yongle sent Zheng He on voyages 1405-1433

  • Items traded

  • From East

  • Silk, Porcelain

  • Compass (invented in China 221-206 BCE, became common 850-1050)

  • Horses, tea

  • From West

  • Glass, gold, olive oil

  • From Central Asia (to east and west)

  • Dates, almonds, fruit, camels

  • From South Asia (India) (to east and west)

  • Cotton

  • Religion

  • Buddhism from India, esp. under Kushan Empire 30-375

  • Bubonic Plague

  • Began in China

  • To Crimea 1346

  • Then to Europe by Genoese traders from Caffa

  • Killed 30-60% of the population.

TRANS-SAHARAN

  • Salt (from Mediterranean) traded for gold (Sub-Sahara)

  • West African Empires

  • Ghana (800-1000)

  • Mali (1200-1450)

  • Mansa Musa

  • Went on pilgrimage to Mecca in 1324

  • Brought hundreds of camels and caravans bringing gold.

  • Built capital at Timbuktu, Islamic scholars came to teach and study at the university

  • Songhai (1450s -1600)

  • Sonni Ali

  • Trans-Saharan slave trade

  • Smaller than Atlantic slave trade

  • Supplied slaves for personal save army of Moroccan rulers

  • And slaves for sugar plantation labor, servants and artisans

  • Most were women who became concubines

ATLANTIC

  • West Indies

  • Spanish settlers introduced sugar-cane cultivation after 1500

  • After 1600 French and English colonies based on tobacco cultivation

  • Chartered companies

  • And indentured servants for labor

  • Sugar

  • But mid 1600s competition from Virginia tobacco

  • And expulsion of Dutch sugar producers from Brazil

  • Turned production from tobacco to sugar

  • Slaves

  • Shift from indentured servants to slaves

  • Fewer Europeans willing to come

  • Profits from sugar made it easier to buy more expensive slaves.

  • Environment

  • Sugar caused soil exhaustion and deforestation

  • New European and African plants and animals crowded out indigenous species

  • Brazil

  • Portuguese introduce sugar-cane production

  • Dutch West India Co. took control of Brazilian sugar-producing region

  • Improved efficiency

  • Brought slaves from Elmina and Luanda

  • Portuguese reconquered Brazil 1654

  • Dutch brought Brazilian system to French and British Caribbean

MIGRATIONS

MUSLIMS/ARABS (see post)

  • Came from Arabia

  • Spread to Africa, Europe and the Middle East (see map below)

  • Dar al-Islam = Islamic world

  • Spread by conquest, conversions, trade, missionaries

  • Conquest

  • Strong military, in part used slaves

  • Conversion

  • Poor were attracted to Islam because of focus on charity and equality of the umma (Islamic community)

  • Christians and Jews ("People of the Book") were allowed to practice their religions as long as they paid "jizya"

  • Trade

  • Islam's Prophet Muhammad was a trader

  • Arabs traded on the Indian Ocean because Arabia was largely desert.

  • Converts in Africa and Southeast Asia among traders.

  • Missionaries

  • Sufis

  • Brought

  • Language (Arabic) to northern Africa, Middle East (not Persia/Iran)

VIKINGS (800-1100 CE)

  • From northern Europe (Scandinavia: Norway, Denmark, Sweden)

  • Cause of Migration

  • Population growth because of increased agricultural production

  • Search for weaalth through trading an raiding.

  • Good shipbuilding techniques and seafaring skills.

  • Technology

  • Boats - rugged, shallow-draft with sails which allowed them to travel in the ocean and with oars up rivers.

  • Migrants

  • Some were Norse merchants looking for commercial opportunities

  • Some were looking for land to settle and cultivate

  • Some were raiders and plunderers.

  • Most accepted Christianity (Comparison, Mongols adopted local religions like Islam)

  • Consequences

  • Caused feudalism (serfs needing protection worked on land of lords who protected them with knights)

  • Settlements

  • Daneland (Britain)

  • Normandy (Western France)

MAGYARS (800-970 CE)

  • Came to Europe from the east

  • Descendants of nomadic people who had settle in Hungary

  • Expert horsemen

  • Raided settlements in Germany, Italy and southern France

BANTU (1500 BCE to 1000 CE)

  • From Central Africa to south and southeast Africa

  • Brought technology, iron, knowledge of agriculture, animal herding.

  • Brought language

  • Swahili is a Bantu-Arabic language

  • Comparison: Spread of Indo-European languages (Aryan), Latin (Romans), Arabic (Muslims)

PACIFIC

  • People migrated from Southeast Asia to Oceania (Australia, New Zealand, Hawaii) and east Africa (Madagascar)

  • Brought plants (coconuts, bananas)

  • Language (Malay-Polynesian)

TRAVELERS

  • Marco Polo (1260-1295)

  • Traveled along Silk Route with father and uncle (1271-1275)

  • Appointed to high court of Kublai Khan (Yuan Dynasty) from 1275-1292

  • Given a "golden tablet" (VIP passport) allowing him to travel anywhere with free lodging, horses etc.

  • Wrote "The Travels of Marco Polo" in 1298 inspiring Western travelers (like Columbus)

  • Ibn Battuta

  • Muslim traveler from North Africa

  • 1300s began journey to "Dar-al Islam" (Islamic areas) across Afro-Eurasia

  • Journals discussed regions

  • Traveled 75,000 miles

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