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Mongols


TIMELINE

1162 -- Temujin (Genghis Khan) born.

1206-1227 -- Reign of Genghis Khan

1211-1234 -- Conquest of northern China (Jin Dynasty)

1219-1221 -- Conquest of Persia

1227 -- Mongol leaders return to Mongolia to attend kuriltai to elect next khan.

1229 -- Ogedei elected Great Khan

1229-1234 - Ogedei attcked northern China.

1235-1238 - Ogedei constructed Mongol capital city at Karakhorum

1236 -- Mongols invaded Korea and begin war against southern China (Song)

1237 - 1241 -- Conquest of Russia (Kievan Rus)

1241 -- Ogedei died, son Guyuk, elected Great Khan

1248 -- Guyuk died

1251 -- Mongke elected Great Khan, sends brothers Hulagu to Mid East, Kubilai to China

1258 -- Capture of Baghdad, Abbasi Caliphate fell

1259 -- Mongols invaded Syria, Mongke dies

1260 -- Mongols defeated by Egyptian Mamelukes

1260 -- Civil war between Genghis Khan's grandsons (Arig Boke, Kubilai Khan)

1262 -- Golden Horde (Russia) and Ilkhanate (Persia) went to war

1264 -- Kubilai Khan became Great Khan

1271 -- Yuan Dynasty established

1274 -- First unsuccessful invasion of Japan.

1276 -- Song Dynasty fell

1281 -- Second unsuccessful invasion of Japan

1288 -- Third unuccessful invasion of Vietnam.

1294 -- Kubilai Khan died

1303 -- Mamelukes defeated Mongols

1315 -- Golden Horde became Muslim.

1335 -- Ilkhanate dissolved

1368 -- Ming Dynasty overthrew Yuan = End of Mongol Empire

MONGOL LIFESTYLE


  • Pastoral nomadic group

  • Moved regularly looking for pastures for animals.

  • From central Asian steppes

  • Animals

  • Lives revolved around their sheep, goat and yaks

  • Used for food, clothing, shelter

  • Camels used for transporation

  • Horses used for mobility (drank mare's milk or kumis)

  • Lived in yurts/gers (tents)

  • Organization

  • Clan-based society

  • Organized around bloodlines

  • When warfare threatened, tribes joined together to form confederations.

  • Women

  • Although men were tribal leaders

  • Women had right to speak in tribal councils

STEPPE DIPLOMACY

  • Alliances with other pastoral groups

  • Elimination of rivals (even within own family)

GENGHIS KHAN (CHINGISS KHAN) (1162-1227)


  • Born "Temujin" into noble family

  • Father

  • Prominent warrior who forced an alliance among several Mongol

  • But poisoned when Temujin was 10, destroying the alliance

  • Left Temujin and family living in poverty

  • Rivals stole the family's animals and tried to get rid of Temujin as a threat to their ambitions.

  • Temujin mastered steppe diplomacy

  • In early 1200s Temujin made alliance with powerful Mongol clan leader

  • 1206 at kuriltai (meeting of Mongol chieftains

  • Temujin given Genghis Khan (Chinggis Khan) or "great khan"

  • Elected the khagan (supreme ruler) of Mongol tribes

  • Unified several Mongol tribes

  • Broke individual clan loyalties

  • Constructed new military units with allegiance to him as leader

  • Ruled over 1/2 million Mongols and 1-2 million over nomads.

  • Led the Mongol invasion of China in 1234

MONGOL MILITARY FORCES


  • Weapons

  • Used short bow - fired from their horses.

  • Very accurate, could kill 656 feet away

  • Chinese influence

  • Catapults, gunpowder, bronze cannons, flaming and exploding arrows, battering rams

  • Armies

  • All men, 15-70, had to serve

  • Each rewarded with captured goods

  • Divided into fighting units called tumens.

  • Each with 10,000 warriors.

  • Each tumen was divided into units of 1000, 100 and 10 warriors.

  • Also divided into heavy cavalry (carried lances, wore metal armor) and light cavalry (bow and arrow, leather helmets)

  • Scouting parties went ahead of armies, used signal fires, flags.

  • Messengers

  • Formal code

  • Immediate execution for traitors and warriors who deserted

  • But generosity for brave enemies

  • Mobility

  • Unparalleled horsemanship made them very mobile in war

  • Carried their own houses

  • Drank horse blood (without killing the horse)

  • Traveled more than 60 miles a day.

  • Military strategy

  • Psychological warfare

  • "Submit and live, resist and die"

  • Towns that fought.

  • People slaughtered or sold into slavery.

  • Homes, palaces, mosques, temples etc. turned to rubble.

  • Towns that surrendered

  • Spared violence but required to pay tribute

  • Sometimes pretended they were defeated

  • Retreated, drawing opposing forces out, then attacked them again.

  • After they conquered area

  • Mongols were tolerant and peaceful leaders in conquered areas

  • Brought peace to much of Asia (Pax Mongolica)

  • Usually spared lives of artisans and scholars (who they employed as advisers)

  • Open to new ideas, wanted to learn.

WHY MONGOLS LEFT MONGOLIA

  • They were nomads so tradition of moving a lot

  • Sharp decline in temperature

  • May have caused less and shorter grass for horses and animals

  • May have forced Mongols to trade or raid settled societies

GENGHIS KHAN EXPANSION

  • China (Jin Empire) 1215

  • Mongols attacked and destroyed present-day Beijing

  • Used siege weapons (battering rams, catapults, explosive balls etc.)

  • But couldn't take China

  • Then to Bukhara, Samarkand, Herat (in Central Asia)

  • Centers of rich Muslim civilizations

  • Massacred or enslaved populations

  • Russia 1222

  • Crossed Caspian Sea

  • Raided south Russia (attacked Novgorod)

  • Russians called Mongols "Tartars"

  • Because struck so much fear that Russians called them "Tartars" (people from hell)

  • From Greek Tartarus

  • Batu (Genghis's grandson)

  • completed subjugation of Russia after 1238


SPLIT OF MONGOL EMPIRES

  • Genghis Khan's died in 1227

  • When he was about to conquer China

  • The empire was divided among his three sons and grandsons


MONGOLS AND RUSSIA

GOLDEN HORDE

  • Mongols under Batu Khan (Genghis Khan's grandson) invaded Kievan Rus 1223-1240

  • Only successful winter invasion in Russian history.

  • Mongols fought better in snow.

  • Cities that resisted were massacred or enslaved.

  • Kiev - once prosperous city in Kievan Rus (882-1240)

  • Burned to the ground.

  • Didn't occupy Russia

  • Mongols prized steppes of Black Sea as prime pasture land for their horses

  • Didn't like Russian forests

  • Maintained pastoral way of life.

  • From base in steppes

  • Mongols went on exploratory expeditions to Poland, Hungary and eastern Germany (1241)

  • And raided Russia - exacting tribute from Russian cities and agricultural area

  • Created tribute system called Golden Horde.

  • All Rus principalities forced to submit to Mongol rule.

  • But kept a large number of local rulers intact.

  • ​No direct dealing with inhabitants.

  • Census, taxes and tributes collected by local princes.

MONGOLS TO EUROPE

  • After conquest of Russia, Mongols tried to conquer Europe

  • Tried to invade Hungary in 1240 and raid Eastern Europe

  • Invasions stopped because of death of Ogedei Khan in 1241

  • Third son of Genghis Khan, second Great Khan

  • Mongols had to go back to Karakorum in Mongolia to decide succession

  • Proposed conquest of Europe never materialized

INFLUENCE ON RUSSIA

  • Serfdom created

  • Peasants gave up their lands and crops to the aristocracy in exchange for protection from the Mongols

  • Rise of Grand Duchy of Moscow 1283-1547

  • Kiev destroyed

  • Benefited financially as tribute collector for the Mongols

  • When neighboring towns failed to make tribute payments, princes of Moscow added their territory to the principality of Moscow

  • Moscow became the seat of Orthodox leaders who brought wealth and religious legitimacy.

  • Church

  • Mongols were Muslim and encouraged conversion but didn't force it

  • Orthodox Church strengthened

  • Because created sense of Russian identity

  • And soothed people after invasion

  • Metropolitan became head of Orthodox Church

  • Art - iconography and fresco painting

  • Division of East Slavic people

  • Russia, Ukraine, Belarus

  • Isolation

  • Mongol rule kept Russia culturally isolated from Western European.

  • Meant Russia safe from invasion

  • But fell behind - didn't enjoy same trends (like Renaissance)

  • Isolation denied Russia opportunities to establish commercial contacts with West

  • Language

  • Mongol words and names entered Russian language

IVAN I (r. 1325-1340)

  • After the prince of Tver joined a rebellion against the Mongols in 1327

  • Rival, prince Ivan I of Moscow, joined Mongols, crushed Tver, devastated his lands.

  • Ivan granted title of Grand Prince by the Mongols

  • He became chief intermediary between Mongol overlords and Rus lands

  • While Mongols raided other areas of Rus

  • They respected the lands controlled by their principal collaborator

  • Attracted nobles and their servants

  • Who sought to settle in the relatively secure and peaceful Moscow lands.

  • Mongols continued to rule Crimea until late 18th c.

MONGOLS IN THE MIDDLE EAST - ILKHANATE


  • Seljuk Turks

  • From north of Caspian Sea

  • Seljuk Turks had taken over Baghdad in 1055

  • They adopted Persian culture and language

  • Made Abbasid Caliph a state figurehead, kept Caliphate

  • Hulagu Khan

  • Grandson of Genghis Khan

  • Destroyed Baghdad in 1258

  • Persia under Mongols known as the Ilkhanate

  • Abbasids

  • 800,000 people slaughtered in Baghdad

  • Including Abbasid caliph

  • Hulagu imprisoned Caliph Al-Musta'sim to starve him

  • Then wrapped him in a blanket and trampled him to death

  • Ended 500-year dynasty and ended Caliphate

  • Ottomans

  • Seljuk Turks defeated by Mongols in 1242

  • Some had fled to Anatolia (present-day Turkey)

  • Disunity in Anatolia until the rise of Osman

  • Who created Ottoman Turks in 1299 (See map below)

  • Mamelukes

  • Mongol threat to the Islamic world ended in 1260

  • At hands of Mamelukes ("slaves") of Egypt

  • ​Led by Baibars

  • Conversion to Islam

  • Mongols in Middle East employed local bureaucrats in the government

  • And converted to Islam by 1295

  • Local rulers

  • Permitted to rule

  • As long as they paid tax and kept order


CHAGATAI HORDE (1227-1369)

  • After death of Mongke Khan

  • Chagatai became completely independent

  • Invasion of northwestern India (1299-1308)

  • Defeated by the Sultans of Delhi

  • Collapsed 1369 when defeated by Tamerlane

  • Forced to be his vassal

CHINESE YUAN DYNASTY (1260-1368)


  • Kubilai Khan (1215-1294)

  • Grandson of Genghis Khan

  • Assumed title of Great Khan

  • Turned attention to remnants of Song Empire

  • By 1279 Kublai Khan controlled most of China

  • Called the Yuan Dynasty

  • First time China under foreign rule

  • Yuan Dynasty

  • Chinese-style dynasty

  • Fixed and regular tax payment system

  • Strong central government (present-day Beijing)

  • Capital -- Dadu

  • Kubilai Khan fascinated with Chinese civilization.

  • ​Surrounded himself with Chinese advisers,

  • Buddhists, Daoists, Confucians in the court

  • Introduced Chinese rituals, classical music in court

  • Used Chinese calendar

  • Offered sacrifices to ancestors at a special temple.

  • But maintained some Mongol traditions

  • Kept Mongol religious ceremonies

  • Set up Mongol tent encampment in capital

  • Didn't use civil service exams

  • Scholar gentry lost their status

  • No footbinding

  • Separated Mongols and Chinese

  • Bureaucracy

  • Foreigners, not Chinese, were employed in bureaucracy

  • Social structure

  • Mongols on top of hierarchy

  • Central Asian nomadic and Muslim allies below

  • First two groups had highest offices in bureacracy.

  • Northern Chinese

  • Then southern Chinese

  • Chinese ran bureaucracy at regional and local levels

  • But couldn't exercise power at the top.

  • Their activities monitored by Mongol functionaries.

  • Chinese subject to different laws

  • And separated from the Mongols

  • Chinese forbidden to learn Mongol written language

  • Language of official records under Yuan Dynasty

  • Intermarriage between Mongols and Chinese was outlawed

  • But

  • Religious toleration

  • And Chinese allowed to hold position in local and regional governments

  • Women

  • Kubilai's wife Chabi

  • ​Kubilai's confidant

  • Convinced Kubilai not to treat Song royal family badly

  • Promoted Buddhism

  • Mongol women enjoyed more freedom than Chinese women

  • allowed to move about more freely in public

  • Mongols didn't adopt Chinese practice of

  • Merchants

  • Though Mongols not directly involved in trade, they welcomed merchants and foreigners.

  • Mongols created horse relay system connecting Dadu to Vienna (1,400 postal stations)

  • Pax Mongolica brought peace to regions along the Silk Road (at its height)

  • Chinese paper money used in many parts of the empire

  • Merchants converted their foreign currency to paper money when they crossed into China

  • Marco Polo visited Kubilai Khan with his father and uncle

  • Decline

  • After death of Kublai Khan

  • Leadership weak and ineffectual

  • Rivalry among successors of the great Khan

  • Vast domain divided among various generals

  • By 1350

  • Most of Mongol territory reconquered by other armies

  • Banditry, famine, peasant rebellion in last years

  • Until they were overthrown by a Chinese peasant.

  • Founded Ming Dynasty 1368

  • Ming

  • Emperor Hongwu worked to eliminate all evidence of Mongol rule

  • Revived Confucian education system and civil service exam

  • Centrall authroity tightened

  • Relied on mandarins (powerful class of officials) to implement policies on local level.

  • Rebuilt irrigation systems = increased agricultural production.

TAMERLANE (1336-1405)


  • Timur-e Lang ("Timur the Lame")

  • Married to daughter of Chagatai Khan (son of Genghis Khan)

  • Born in Uzbekistan

  • Muslim

  • Wanted to restore Mongol Empire

  • Soldier in Chagatai Khanate

  • Rose up the ranks

  • 1363 rebelled.

  • Replaced Chagatai Khan at his capital in Samarkand.

  • Conquests

  • By 1394

  • Conquered Iran, Mesopotamia, Armenia, Georgia

  • 1389-95

  • Fought and weakened the Khanate of the Golden Horde

  • 1398

  • Invaded India, captured Delhi and massacred inhabitants

  • 1401

  • Took Syria from Mamelukes

  • 1402

  • Defeated Ottoman sultan, Bayazid I

  • Cruelty

  • Notorious for cruelty in war, built pyramids from severed skulls

  • But loved scholarship and the arts

  • Samarkand (in Uzbekistan) became center of culture

  • Died 1405

  • Timurid Dynasty ruled in Transoxiana and Iran until early 16th c.


MUGHALS (1526–1540)

  • Babur

  • Descendant of Tamerlane (father's side) and Genghis Khan (mother's side)

  • Rose to power in Kabul (Afghanistan)

  • Built army

  • Founded Mughal Dynasty of India 1526

  • Akbar the Great

  • Babur's grandson

  • Patron of the arts

  • Literature

  • Had Sanskrit works translated into Persian and back

  • Created religion called Divine Faith

  • Combined Islam and Hinduism (syncretism)

  • to promote religious unity

  • and legitimize the ruler as head of state and head of religion.

  • Abolished jizya (non-Muslim tax)

  • Promoted Hindus to high-ranking government jobs.

  • Shah Jahan

  • Built Taj Mahal as tomb for his wife.

  • Architecture blended Persian and Hindu traditions: Islamic domes, arches, minarets, Hindu ornamentation.

  • Aurangzeb (r. 1548-1707)

  • Shah Jahan's son

  • Extended Muslim control to whole of India

  • Wanted to rid India of Hindu influences

  • Brought back jizya

  • Many wars drained treasury

  • Peasant uprising and revolts by Muslim and Hindu princes.

  • Weakened empire - left it vulnerable to European traders


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