1162 -- Temujin (Genghis Khan) born.
1206-1227 -- Reign of Genghis Khan
1211-1234 -- Conquest of northern China (Jin Dynasty)
1219-1221 -- Conquest of Persia
1227 -- Mongol leaders return to Mongolia to attend kuriltai to elect next khan.
1229 -- Ogedei elected Great Khan
1229-1234 - Ogedei attcked northern China.
1235-1238 - Ogedei constructed Mongol capital city at Karakhorum
1236 -- Mongols invaded Korea and begin war against southern China (Song)
1237 - 1241 -- Conquest of Russia (Kievan Rus)
1241 -- Ogedei died, son Guyuk, elected Great Khan
1248 -- Guyuk died
1251 -- Mongke elected Great Khan, sends brothers Hulagu to Mid East, Kubilai to China
1258 -- Capture of Baghdad, Abbasi Caliphate fell
1259 -- Mongols invaded Syria, Mongke dies
1260 -- Mongols defeated by Egyptian Mamelukes
1260 -- Civil war between Genghis Khan's grandsons (Arig Boke, Kubilai Khan)
1262 -- Golden Horde (Russia) and Ilkhanate (Persia) went to war
1264 -- Kubilai Khan became Great Khan
1271 -- Yuan Dynasty established
1274 -- First unsuccessful invasion of Japan.
1276 -- Song Dynasty fell
1281 -- Second unsuccessful invasion of Japan
1288 -- Third unuccessful invasion of Vietnam.
1294 -- Kubilai Khan died
1303 -- Mamelukes defeated Mongols
1315 -- Golden Horde became Muslim.
1335 -- Ilkhanate dissolved
1368 -- Ming Dynasty overthrew Yuan = End of Mongol Empire
Pastoral nomadic group
Moved regularly looking for pastures for animals.
From central Asian steppes
Lives revolved around their sheep, goat and yaks
Used for food, clothing, shelter
Camels used for transporation
Horses used for mobility (drank mare's milk or kumis)
Lived in yurts/gers (tents)
Organized around bloodlines
When warfare threatened, tribes joined together to form confederations.
Although men were tribal leaders
Women had right to speak in tribal councils
Alliances with other pastoral groups
Elimination of rivals (even within own family)
GENGHIS KHAN (CHINGISS KHAN) (1162-1227)
Born "Temujin" into noble family
Prominent warrior who forced an alliance among several Mongol
But poisoned when Temujin was 10, destroying the alliance
Left Temujin and family living in poverty
Rivals stole the family's animals and tried to get rid of Temujin as a threat to their ambitions.
Temujin mastered steppe diplomacy
In early 1200s Temujin made alliance with powerful Mongol clan leader
1206 at kuriltai (meeting of Mongol chieftains
Temujin given Genghis Khan (Chinggis Khan) or "great khan"
Elected the khagan (supreme ruler) of Mongol tribes
Unified several Mongol tribes
Broke individual clan loyalties
Constructed new military units with allegiance to him as leader
Ruled over 1/2 million Mongols and 1-2 million over nomads.
Led the Mongol invasion of China in 1234
MONGOL MILITARY FORCES
Used short bow - fired from their horses.
Very accurate, could kill 656 feet away
Catapults, gunpowder, bronze cannons, flaming and exploding arrows, battering rams
All men, 15-70, had to serve
Each rewarded with captured goods
Divided into fighting units called tumens.
Each with 10,000 warriors.
Each tumen was divided into units of 1000, 100 and 10 warriors.
Also divided into heavy cavalry (carried lances, wore metal armor) and light cavalry (bow and arrow, leather helmets)
Scouting parties went ahead of armies, used signal fires, flags.
Immediate execution for traitors and warriors who deserted
But generosity for brave enemies
Unparalleled horsemanship made them very mobile in war
Carried their own houses
Drank horse blood (without killing the horse)
Traveled more than 60 miles a day.
"Submit and live, resist and die"
Towns that fought.
People slaughtered or sold into slavery.
Homes, palaces, mosques, temples etc. turned to rubble.
Towns that surrendered
Spared violence but required to pay tribute
Sometimes pretended they were defeated
Retreated, drawing opposing forces out, then attacked them again.
After they conquered area
Mongols were tolerant and peaceful leaders in conquered areas
Brought peace to much of Asia (Pax Mongolica)
Usually spared lives of artisans and scholars (who they employed as advisers)
Open to new ideas, wanted to learn.
WHY MONGOLS LEFT MONGOLIA
They were nomads so tradition of moving a lot
Sharp decline in temperature
May have caused less and shorter grass for horses and animals
May have forced Mongols to trade or raid settled societies
GENGHIS KHAN EXPANSION
China (Jin Empire) 1215
Mongols attacked and destroyed present-day Beijing
Used siege weapons (battering rams, catapults, explosive balls etc.)
But couldn't take China
Then to Bukhara, Samarkand, Herat (in Central Asia)
Centers of rich Muslim civilizations
Massacred or enslaved populations
Crossed Caspian Sea
Raided south Russia (attacked Novgorod)
Russians called Mongols "Tartars"
Because struck so much fear that Russians called them "Tartars" (people from hell)
From Greek Tartarus
Batu (Genghis's grandson)
completed subjugation of Russia after 1238
SPLIT OF MONGOL EMPIRES
Genghis Khan's died in 1227
When he was about to conquer China
The empire was divided among his three sons and grandsons
MONGOLS AND RUSSIA
Mongols under Batu Khan (Genghis Khan's grandson) invaded Kievan Rus 1223-1240
Only successful winter invasion in Russian history.
Mongols fought better in snow.
Cities that resisted were massacred or enslaved.
Kiev - once prosperous city in Kievan Rus (882-1240)
Burned to the ground.
Didn't occupy Russia
Mongols prized steppes of Black Sea as prime pasture land for their horses
Didn't like Russian forests
Maintained pastoral way of life.
From base in steppes
Mongols went on exploratory expeditions to Poland, Hungary and eastern Germany (1241)
And raided Russia - exacting tribute from Russian cities and agricultural area
Created tribute system called Golden Horde.
All Rus principalities forced to submit to Mongol rule.
But kept a large number of local rulers intact.
No direct dealing with inhabitants.
Census, taxes and tributes collected by local princes.
MONGOLS TO EUROPE
After conquest of Russia, Mongols tried to conquer Europe
Tried to invade Hungary in 1240 and raid Eastern Europe
Invasions stopped because of death of Ogedei Khan in 1241
Third son of Genghis Khan, second Great Khan
Mongols had to go back to Karakorum in Mongolia to decide succession
Proposed conquest of Europe never materialized
INFLUENCE ON RUSSIA
Peasants gave up their lands and crops to the aristocracy in exchange for protection from the Mongols
Rise of Grand Duchy of Moscow 1283-1547
Benefited financially as tribute collector for the Mongols
When neighboring towns failed to make tribute payments, princes of Moscow added their territory to the principality of Moscow
Moscow became the seat of Orthodox leaders who brought wealth and religious legitimacy.
Mongols were Muslim and encouraged conversion but didn't force it
Orthodox Church strengthened
Because created sense of Russian identity
And soothed people after invasion
Metropolitan became head of Orthodox Church
Art - iconography and fresco painting
Division of East Slavic people
Russia, Ukraine, Belarus
Mongol rule kept Russia culturally isolated from Western European.
Meant Russia safe from invasion
But fell behind - didn't enjoy same trends (like Renaissance)
Isolation denied Russia opportunities to establish commercial contacts with West
Mongol words and names entered Russian language
IVAN I (r. 1325-1340)
After the prince of Tver joined a rebellion against the Mongols in 1327
Rival, prince Ivan I of Moscow, joined Mongols, crushed Tver, devastated his lands.
Ivan granted title of Grand Prince by the Mongols
He became chief intermediary between Mongol overlords and Rus lands
While Mongols raided other areas of Rus
They respected the lands controlled by their principal collaborator
Attracted nobles and their servants
Who sought to settle in the relatively secure and peaceful Moscow lands.
Mongols continued to rule Crimea until late 18th c.
MONGOLS IN THE MIDDLE EAST - ILKHANATE
From north of Caspian Sea
Seljuk Turks had taken over Baghdad in 1055
They adopted Persian culture and language
Made Abbasid Caliph a state figurehead, kept Caliphate
Grandson of Genghis Khan
Destroyed Baghdad in 1258
Persia under Mongols known as the Ilkhanate
800,000 people slaughtered in Baghdad
Including Abbasid caliph
Hulagu imprisoned Caliph Al-Musta'sim to starve him
Then wrapped him in a blanket and trampled him to death
Ended 500-year dynasty and ended Caliphate
Seljuk Turks defeated by Mongols in 1242
Some had fled to Anatolia (present-day Turkey)
Disunity in Anatolia until the rise of Osman
Who created Ottoman Turks in 1299 (See map below)
Mongol threat to the Islamic world ended in 1260
At hands of Mamelukes ("slaves") of Egypt
Led by Baibars
Conversion to Islam
Mongols in Middle East employed local bureaucrats in the government
And converted to Islam by 1295
Permitted to rule
As long as they paid tax and kept order
CHAGATAI HORDE (1227-1369)
After death of Mongke Khan
Chagatai became completely independent
Invasion of northwestern India (1299-1308)
Defeated by the Sultans of Delhi
Collapsed 1369 when defeated by Tamerlane
Forced to be his vassal
CHINESE YUAN DYNASTY (1260-1368)
Kubilai Khan (1215-1294)
Grandson of Genghis Khan
Assumed title of Great Khan
Turned attention to remnants of Song Empire
By 1279 Kublai Khan controlled most of China
Called the Yuan Dynasty
First time China under foreign rule
Fixed and regular tax payment system
Strong central government (present-day Beijing)
Capital -- Dadu
Kubilai Khan fascinated with Chinese civilization.
Surrounded himself with Chinese advisers,
Buddhists, Daoists, Confucians in the court
Introduced Chinese rituals, classical music in court
Used Chinese calendar
Offered sacrifices to ancestors at a special temple.
But maintained some Mongol traditions
Kept Mongol religious ceremonies
Set up Mongol tent encampment in capital
Didn't use civil service exams
Scholar gentry lost their status
Separated Mongols and Chinese
Foreigners, not Chinese, were employed in bureaucracy
Mongols on top of hierarchy
Central Asian nomadic and Muslim allies below
First two groups had highest offices in bureacracy.
Then southern Chinese
Chinese ran bureaucracy at regional and local levels
But couldn't exercise power at the top.
Their activities monitored by Mongol functionaries.
Chinese subject to different laws
And separated from the Mongols
Chinese forbidden to learn Mongol written language
Language of official records under Yuan Dynasty
Intermarriage between Mongols and Chinese was outlawed
And Chinese allowed to hold position in local and regional governments
Kubilai's wife Chabi
Convinced Kubilai not to treat Song royal family badly
Mongol women enjoyed more freedom than Chinese women
allowed to move about more freely in public
Mongols didn't adopt Chinese practice of
Though Mongols not directly involved in trade, they welcomed merchants and foreigners.
Mongols created horse relay system connecting Dadu to Vienna (1,400 postal stations)
Pax Mongolica brought peace to regions along the Silk Road (at its height)
Chinese paper money used in many parts of the empire
Merchants converted their foreign currency to paper money when they crossed into China
Marco Polo visited Kubilai Khan with his father and uncle
After death of Kublai Khan
Leadership weak and ineffectual
Rivalry among successors of the great Khan
Vast domain divided among various generals
Most of Mongol territory reconquered by other armies
Banditry, famine, peasant rebellion in last years
Until they were overthrown by a Chinese peasant.
Founded Ming Dynasty 1368
Emperor Hongwu worked to eliminate all evidence of Mongol rule
Revived Confucian education system and civil service exam
Centrall authroity tightened
Relied on mandarins (powerful class of officials) to implement policies on local level.
Rebuilt irrigation systems = increased agricultural production.
Timur-e Lang ("Timur the Lame")
Married to daughter of Chagatai Khan (son of Genghis Khan)
Born in Uzbekistan
Wanted to restore Mongol Empire
Soldier in Chagatai Khanate
Rose up the ranks
Replaced Chagatai Khan at his capital in Samarkand.
Conquered Iran, Mesopotamia, Armenia, Georgia
Fought and weakened the Khanate of the Golden Horde
Invaded India, captured Delhi and massacred inhabitants
Took Syria from Mamelukes
Defeated Ottoman sultan, Bayazid I
Notorious for cruelty in war, built pyramids from severed skulls
But loved scholarship and the arts
Samarkand (in Uzbekistan) became center of culture
Timurid Dynasty ruled in Transoxiana and Iran until early 16th c.
Descendant of Tamerlane (father's side) and Genghis Khan (mother's side)
Rose to power in Kabul (Afghanistan)
Founded Mughal Dynasty of India 1526
Akbar the Great
Patron of the arts
Had Sanskrit works translated into Persian and back
Created religion called Divine Faith
Combined Islam and Hinduism (syncretism)
to promote religious unity
and legitimize the ruler as head of state and head of religion.
Abolished jizya (non-Muslim tax)
Promoted Hindus to high-ranking government jobs.
Built Taj Mahal as tomb for his wife.
Architecture blended Persian and Hindu traditions: Islamic domes, arches, minarets, Hindu ornamentation.
Aurangzeb (r. 1548-1707)
Shah Jahan's son
Extended Muslim control to whole of India
Wanted to rid India of Hindu influences
Brought back jizya
Many wars drained treasury
Peasant uprising and revolts by Muslim and Hindu princes.
Weakened empire - left it vulnerable to European traders