Creation of Nation-States
Because of Napoleonic Wars
Inspired by French nationalism
And desire to cultivate local national identity
Based on shared language, custom, religion
Two types of nationalism
Based on shared territory (France, Russia, Spain)
Based on shared identity (Germans, Italians, Bohemians)
Italy in the 19th century was divided
Inspired by other independence movements in Hungary, Ireland, Switzerland
Created the nationalistic "Young Italy" movement.
Johann Gottfied von Herder
Fostered price in German heritage
By championing the idea of the German Volk ("people")
Believed German spirit (Volkgeist or "people's spirit) could be found in songs, stories, poems
Jakob and Wilhelm Grimm
Collected stories from different German-speaking villages
Later compiled as "Grimm's Fairy Tales"
Hansel and Gretel, Cinderella etc.
German Confederation was created by Congress of Vienna (led by Metternich)
1862 Prussian King Wilhelm II (Hohenzollern family) appointed Otto von Bismarck as prime minister
Bismarck believed in Realpolitik (realistic politics)
And idea that "blood and iron" would decide the question of German nationalism.
Bismarck reformed and expanded the Prussian army.
Austro-Prussian War (1866)
Prussian army defeated Austrians in Seven Weeks War
Bismarck united the northern Germans in the Northern German Confederation
Franco-Prussia War (1871)
Prussia defeated France in Franco-Prussian War
And unified the rest of the German States
The country was renamed the Deutsches Reich (German Empire)
At the Hall of Mirrors in Versailles at the end of Franco-Prussian war in 1871
Wilhelm was proclaimed Kaiser Wilhelm (Emperor Wilhelm)
Jews were seen as foreigners in all countries
Jews in eastern Europe
In 1880s, Jews were persecuted in Russia in "pogroms"
In the West
Jews appeared to be doing well (like wealthy Rothschild family)
Until a Jewish army officer (Alfred Dreyfus) was wrongfully accused and convicted of spying for the Germans
Led to the "Zionist" movement
Led by Theodore Herzl
Jews met at the First Zionist Congress in Basel, Switzerland in 1897
In pursuit of a homeland in Palestine for Jews.
Jews began moving to Palestine
Israel became an independent country in 1948