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Creation of Nation-States


NATIONALISM

  • Because of Napoleonic Wars

  • Inspired by French nationalism

  • And desire to cultivate local national identity

  • Based on shared language, custom, religion

  • Two types of nationalism

  • Based on shared territory (France, Russia, Spain)

  • Based on shared identity (Germans, Italians, Bohemians)

INDEPENDENCE MOVEMENTS

Greece

ITALY

  • Italian Nationalism

  • Italy in the 19th century was divided

  • Guiseppe Mazzini

  • Inspired by other independence movements in Hungary, Ireland, Switzerland

  • Created the nationalistic "Young Italy" movement.

GERMANY

Nationalism

  • Johann Gottfied von Herder

  • Fostered price in German heritage

  • By championing the idea of the German Volk ("people")

  • Believed German spirit (Volkgeist or "people's spirit) could be found in songs, stories, poems

  • Grimm brothers

  • Jakob and Wilhelm Grimm

  • Collected stories from different German-speaking villages

  • Later compiled as "Grimm's Fairy Tales"

  • Hansel and Gretel, Cinderella etc.

German Unification

  • German Confederation was created by Congress of Vienna (led by Metternich)

  • 1862 Prussian King Wilhelm II (Hohenzollern family) appointed Otto von Bismarck as prime minister

  • Bismarck believed in Realpolitik (realistic politics)

  • And idea that "blood and iron" would decide the question of German nationalism.

  • Bismarck reformed and expanded the Prussian army.

  • Austro-Prussian War (1866)

  • Prussian army defeated Austrians in Seven Weeks War

  • Bismarck united the northern Germans in the Northern German Confederation

  • Franco-Prussia War (1871)

  • Prussia defeated France in Franco-Prussian War

  • And unified the rest of the German States

  • The country was renamed the Deutsches Reich (German Empire)

  • At the Hall of Mirrors in Versailles at the end of Franco-Prussian war in 1871

  • Wilhelm was proclaimed Kaiser Wilhelm (Emperor Wilhelm)


ANTI-SEMITISM

  • Jews were seen as foreigners in all countries

  • Jews in eastern Europe

  • In 1880s, Jews were persecuted in Russia in "pogroms"

  • In the West

  • Jews appeared to be doing well (like wealthy Rothschild family)

  • Until a Jewish army officer (Alfred Dreyfus) was wrongfully accused and convicted of spying for the Germans

  • Led to the "Zionist" movement

  • Led by Theodore Herzl

  • Jews met at the First Zionist Congress in Basel, Switzerland in 1897

  • In pursuit of a homeland in Palestine for Jews.

  • Jews began moving to Palestine

  • Israel became an independent country in 1948


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