• amanda0195

20th Century - World


WORLD WAR I

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BETWEEN THE WARS

AGE OF ANXIETY

  • Postwar Pessimism

  • U.S. and Americans suffering from malaise and disillusion

  • In the beginning --> enthusiasm for splendid adventure

  • Lost Generation

  • Literature

  • A Farewell to Arms (1929) by Ernest Hemingway

  • All Quiet on the Western Front (1929) by Erich Maria REmarque

  • Images of meaningless death and suffering

  • The Decline of the West -- Oswald Spengler

  • Proposed that all societies pass through life cycle of growth and decay like living organisms.

  • A Study of History by Arnold Toynbee

  • 12-volumes, to discover how sociteites develop thorugh time

  • Analyzed 26 societies

  • Attacks on progress

  • Science and technology (poison gas, explosives etc.) caused death and misery.

EXPANSION OF FRANCHISE

  • After WWI most European nations granted vote to women

  • More democracy

  • Many intellectuals worried about the "rule of inferiors"

  • "Revolt of the Masses" (1930) by Jose Ortega y Gasset

  • Warned readers about the masses who were going to destroy achievements of Western society

PHYSICS

  • Albert Einstein

  • Theory of relativity (1905)

  • Showed that there was no single spatial and chronological framework in the universe.

  • No longer made sense to speak of space and time as absolutes

  • Space and time are relative to the person measuring them.

  • Werner Heisenberg

  • "About the Quantum-Theoretical Reinterpretation of Kinetic and Mechanical Relationships"

  • Established the "uncertainty principle"

  • Said it's impossible to specify the position and velocity of a subatomic particle simultaneously.

  • Scientists cannot observe the behavior of electrons objectively because the act of observation interferes with them.

  • Philosophically violated the fundamental law of cause and effect.

  • And destroyed the idea of objectivity.

PSYCHOLOGY

  • Sigmund Freud (Dr. from Vienna)

  • Focused on psychological rather than physiological explanations of mental disorders

  • Identified conscious and unconscious roots of behavior (Id, ego, superego)

  • Believed dreams held key to human psyche.

  • Used free association to guide him through the interpretation of dreams

  • Oedipus complex

  • Idea that male children have erotic attachment to mother and hostility to father (and opposition for girls

  • Psychoanalysis = key to understanding all human behavior

WORLD WAR II (1939-1945)

LEADING TO WORLD WAR II

Anger over WWI Peace Treaties

  • Nations wanted to "revise" the settlement (revisionist powers)

  • Italy - unhappy about not getting Italia Irredenta

  • Germany - unhappy about reparations, demilitarization and War Guilt

  • Japan - wanted to include a provision that recognized racial equality

ASIA

Japan's in China

  • Japan conquered Manchuria 1931-1932

  • First step toward expansionism and aggression.

  • 1933 League of Nations condemned actions

  • Japan withdrew from League

  • Japan became ultra-nationalist and pro-military

  • Marco Polo Bridge (Jul. 1937)

  • Chinese and Japanese troops fight

  • Japanese took Beinign then south to Shanghai and Nanjing (1937)

  • Rape of Nanjing

  • Brutal warfare against civilians (7,000 women raped, 100s, of 1000s murdered)

  • Bombing on Shanghai - 10s of 1000s died.

  • Chinese resistance

  • Natinalists (Guomindang) and communists agreed on a "united front"

  • Standing army 1.7 million.

  • Communist guerrilla warfare in north (= loyalty of Chiense peasants)

  • But Japanese had naval and air superiority

EUROPE

BEGINNING OF WORLD WAR II

EUROPE

ASIA

END OF WORLD WAR II

DECOLONIZATION

IN

COLD WAR

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