20th Century - World
WORLD WAR I
BETWEEN THE WARS
AGE OF ANXIETY
U.S. and Americans suffering from malaise and disillusion
In the beginning --> enthusiasm for splendid adventure
A Farewell to Arms (1929) by Ernest Hemingway
All Quiet on the Western Front (1929) by Erich Maria REmarque
Images of meaningless death and suffering
The Decline of the West -- Oswald Spengler
Proposed that all societies pass through life cycle of growth and decay like living organisms.
A Study of History by Arnold Toynbee
12-volumes, to discover how sociteites develop thorugh time
Analyzed 26 societies
Attacks on progress
Science and technology (poison gas, explosives etc.) caused death and misery.
EXPANSION OF FRANCHISE
After WWI most European nations granted vote to women
Many intellectuals worried about the "rule of inferiors"
"Revolt of the Masses" (1930) by Jose Ortega y Gasset
Warned readers about the masses who were going to destroy achievements of Western society
Theory of relativity (1905)
Showed that there was no single spatial and chronological framework in the universe.
No longer made sense to speak of space and time as absolutes
Space and time are relative to the person measuring them.
"About the Quantum-Theoretical Reinterpretation of Kinetic and Mechanical Relationships"
Established the "uncertainty principle"
Said it's impossible to specify the position and velocity of a subatomic particle simultaneously.
Scientists cannot observe the behavior of electrons objectively because the act of observation interferes with them.
Philosophically violated the fundamental law of cause and effect.
And destroyed the idea of objectivity.
Sigmund Freud (Dr. from Vienna)
Focused on psychological rather than physiological explanations of mental disorders
Identified conscious and unconscious roots of behavior (Id, ego, superego)
Believed dreams held key to human psyche.
Used free association to guide him through the interpretation of dreams
Idea that male children have erotic attachment to mother and hostility to father (and opposition for girls
Psychoanalysis = key to understanding all human behavior
WORLD WAR II (1939-1945)
LEADING TO WORLD WAR II
Anger over WWI Peace Treaties
Nations wanted to "revise" the settlement (revisionist powers)
Italy - unhappy about not getting Italia Irredenta
Germany - unhappy about reparations, demilitarization and War Guilt
Japan - wanted to include a provision that recognized racial equality
Japan's in China
Japan conquered Manchuria 1931-1932
First step toward expansionism and aggression.
1933 League of Nations condemned actions
Japan withdrew from League
Japan became ultra-nationalist and pro-military
Marco Polo Bridge (Jul. 1937)
Chinese and Japanese troops fight
Japanese took Beinign then south to Shanghai and Nanjing (1937)
Rape of Nanjing
Brutal warfare against civilians (7,000 women raped, 100s, of 1000s murdered)
Bombing on Shanghai - 10s of 1000s died.
Natinalists (Guomindang) and communists agreed on a "united front"
Standing army 1.7 million.
Communist guerrilla warfare in north (= loyalty of Chiense peasants)
But Japanese had naval and air superiority
BEGINNING OF WORLD WAR II
END OF WORLD WAR II