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World War II (1939-1945)- World


TIMELINE

1918

  • WWI Ends

1919

  • League of Nations founded (Apr. 28)

  • Treaty of Versailles is signed (Jun. 28)

1921

  • Adolf Hitler becomes head of National Socialist (Nazi) Party

1923

  • Hitler's Beer Hall Putsch

1925

  • Hitler publishes "Mein Kampf"

1926

  • Germany is admitted to League of Nations

1929

  • US Sock Market crashes

1931

  • Japan invades Manchuria

1932

  • Franklin Roosevelt (FDR) is elected President of the US

1933

  • Hitler becomes Chancellor of Germany (Jan. 30)

  • German Reichstag fire (Feb. 27)

  • Enabling Act gives Hitler dictatorial power (Mar. 23)

  • Germany quits League of Nations (Oct. 14)

1934

  • Nazi "Night of Long Knives"

1935

  • Nuremberg Laws passed (German Jews stripped of citizenship)

1936

  • Germany occupies Rhineland (Mar. 7)

  • Italy takes Ethiopia (May 9)

  • Civil war in Spain (Jul. 18)

  • Germany and Italy sign Rome-Berlin Treaty - "Axis"

  • Germany and Japan sign Anti-Comintern Pact

1937

  • Stalin purges Red Army (Jun. 11)

  • Japan invades China - begins WWII in Pacific (Jul. 7)

  • Rape of Nanjing

1938

  • German and Austria join in Anschluss (Mar. 12)

  • Munich Agreement (Germ., Italy, GB, Fr) Czech gives up Sudetenland (Sep. 30)

  • Kristallnacht (Night of Broken Glass) (Nov. 9/10)

1939

  • Germany occupies Czech lands in violation of Munich

  • Italy invades and annexes Albania

  • Germany and USSR sign nonaggression agreement (Aug. 23)

  • Germany invades Poland (Sep. 1) - begins WWII in Europe

  • USSR invades Poland from east

  • Poland surrenders, Poland divided (Germany/USSR)

  • USSR invades Finland (Winter War) (Nov. 30)

  • USSR expelled from League of Nations (Dec. 14)

1940

  • Germany invades Denmark, Norway (Apr. 9)

  • Germany invades Fr., Belg, Lux, Netherlands (May 10)

  • Winston Churchill becomes British Prime Minister (May 10)

  • Fall of France (May 10-Jun 25) (north is German, south is Vichy)

  • Marshal Petain becomes French Prime Minister (Vichy)

  • Dunkirk evacuations begin (May 27-Jun 4)

  • Battle of Britain begins (Jul. 10)

  • USSR occupies Baltic States (Jul. 23)

  • Italians invade British Egypt from Italian Libya

  • Germany, Italy and Japan sign Tripartite Pact (Sep. 27)

1941

  • Germans send Afrika Korps (Rommel) to North Africa to help Italians (Feb. 14)

  • Roosevelt signs Lend-Lease (Mar. 11)

  • Germany, Italy, Hungary, Bulgaria invade Yugoslavia and Greece

  • Operation Barbarossa/Germany attacks USSR (Jun. 22)

  • FDR announces oil embargo against Japan (Aug. 1)

  • Roosevelt and Churchill announce Atlantic Charter (Aug. 14)

  • First gas chambers used at Auschwitz (Sep. 3)

  • Japan bombs Pearl Harbor (Dec. 7)

  • US and Britain declare war on Japan (Dec. 8)

  • Hitler declares war on US (Dec. 11)

1942

  • US begins internment of Japanese (Apr.)

  • Japan occupies Philippines, French Indochina and Br. Singapore

  • British bomb Germany (Koln)

  • US Victory at Midway

  • US begins island-hopping towards Australia at Guadalcanal

  • British defeat Germans and Italians at El Alamein (Egypt) (Jul)

  • Battle of Stalingrad begins (Sep)

  • US forces land in Algeria and Morocco

1943

  • Germans surrender at Stalingrad (Feb. 2)

  • Axis surrender to Allies ending North Africa campaign

  • US and Br. land on Sicily - begin Italy campaign (Jul. 9/10)

  • Mussolini is deposed by Fascist Grand Council

  • Germans establish puppet Fascist regime under Mussolini

  • Tehran Conference (Nov. 28)

1944

  • Allies take back Italy

  • D-Day --> Allied invasion at Normandy

1945

  • Soviets capture Berlin

  • FDR dies (Apr. 12)

  • Hitler commits suicide (Apr. 30)

  • Germans surrender

  • V-E (Victory in Europe) Day (May. 8)

  • Germany and Berlin are divided (Jun. 5)

  • Atomic bombing of Hiroshima (Aug. 6)

  • Soviets declare war on Japan and invade Manchuria (Aug. 8)

  • Atomic bombing of Nagasaki (Aug. 9)

  • Japan surrenders (Sep. 2)

  • United Nations is created (Oct. 24)

  • Nuremberg war crimes trials begin (Nov. 20)

LEADING TO WORLD WAR II

Anger over WWI Peace Treaties

  • Nations wanted to "revise" the settlement (revisionist powers)

  • Italy - unhappy about not getting Italia Irredenta

  • Germany - unhappy about reparations, demilitarization and War Guilt

  • Japan - wanted to include a provision that recognized racial equality

ASIA

Japan

  • Militarists seize power in 1931

  • Japan conquered Manchuria (Puyi) 1931-1932

  • First step toward expansionism and aggression.

  • 1933 League of Nations condemned actions

  • Japan withdrew from League of Nations 1933

  • Renounced Five-Power Naval Treaty 1934

  • Japan became ultra-nationalist and pro-military

  • Marco Polo Bridge (Jul. 1937)

  • Chinese and Japanese troops fight

  • Japanese took Beinign then south to Shanghai and Nanjing (1937)

  • Rape of Nanjing

  • Brutal warfare against civilians (7,000 women raped, 100s, of 1000s murdered)

  • Bombing on Shanghai - 10s of 1000s died.

  • Chinese resistance

  • Nationalists (Guomindang) and communists agreed on a "united front"

  • Standing army 1.7 million.

  • Communist guerrilla warfare in north (= loyalty of Chinese peasants)

  • But Japanese had naval and air superiority

EUROPE

ITALY

  • Fascist Party of Mussolini

  • Benito Mussolini was socialists who fought in WWI

  • hanged his mind and organized National Fascist Party from unemployed veterans who were disappointed with outcome of war.

  • (Fascists from Roman prowess, unity, justice)

  • Italy Invaded Ethiopia 1935

  • ​Using excessive force

  • Withdrew from League of Nations 1937

  • Conquering Albania 1939

SPAIN

  • Spanish Civil War (1936-39)

  • Military revolt against the Republican government of Spain

  • Nationalist rebels (led by Francisco Franco)

  • Received aid from Italy and Germany

  • Republicans

  • Got aid from USSR and volunteers fro Europe and US


GERMANY

  • Hitler leader of the National Socialist, Nazi Party

  • Pointed out injustices in Treaty of Versailles

  • Blamed troubles on Jews and other “inferior” races

  • Hitler became chancellor 1933

  • Took Germany out of League of Nations

  • Began to rearm German military (violating Treaty of Versailles

  • Invaded Rhineland March. 1936

  • Area under French control, no resistance

  • Anschluss

  • ​Hitler joined Germany and Austria - in violation of Versailles Treaty

  • Occupied Sudetenland

  • Region of ethnic Germans in western Czechoslovakia.

  • Appeasement (Munich Accords)

  • Allowed annexation of Sudentenland in exchange for Hitler guarantee to halt territorial expansion

  • Chamberlain (Br. PM) boasted “Peace in our time”

  • Nonaggression Pact (Molotov-Ribbentrop)

  • Signed between Germany and Russia (Stalin)

  • Both agreed to divide Poland

  • And take no military action against each other for the next 10 years.

  • Invasion of Poland

  • Br. And Fr. had promised to assist Poland

  • Hitler signed nonaggression with Russia

  • To ensure Russia would not assist Poland

  • Poland invaded Sept. 1, 1939

  • Fr. Br. declare war

WORLD WAR II

WAR IN EUROPE

  • Phony War (ending spring 1940) when Hitler began European military campaign in earnest

  • Blitzkrieg ("lightning war") 1940

  • Germans used Panzer ("armored") columns - fast and mobile - to quickly take Poland

  • Germans occupy Denmark and North, then full-scale attack on western Europe

  • ​Netherlands, Belgium, France (armistice in Jun)

  • Dunkirk – Br. Evacuate troops

  • Fall of France

  • ​France divided in two north was German, South was Vichy

  • ​Vichy government headed by Marshal Petain

  • Fall of France convinced Mussolini that Germans were winning

  • Battle of Britain 1940

  • ​German Luftwaffe

  • Germany broke Nazi-Soviet Pact and invaded Russia

  • Germany joined Allied Powers

  • Most powerful invasion force in history

  • 3.6 million soldiers, 3,700 tanks

  • Within four months, Hitler was deep in Russia

  • Hitler’s greatest blunder. (Two-front war)

  • And Russia had already moved 80% of manufacturing firms to Ural Mountains.

  • ​So Soviet industry outstripped German.

  • And intense Russian winter

  • ​Operation Barbarossa​ Jun. 22, 1941

ASIA

  • Japan encouraged by

  • German victories over Dutch and French in 1940

  • And Great Britain's precarious situation

  • Japanese wanted to project influence in southeast Asia

  • Particularly Dutch East Indies

  • and Britis-controlled Mayala

  • regions with raw mateirals: tiin, rubber, petroleum.

  • When France fell (Vichy govt.)

  • Japan occupied French Indochina

  • US Response

  • Froze Japanese assets in US

  • And imposed compete embargo on oil.

  • supported by GB nations

  • US demanded withdrawal of Japanese forces from China and Southeast Asia

  • and reunciation of Tripartite Pact.

  • Japanese defense minister general Tojo Hideki

  • took office of prime minister

  • prepared for war agaisnt GB and US

  • Pearl Harbor (Dec. 7, 1941)

  • Japan hoped to destroy U.S. naval capacity i Pacific with attack

  • and to clear way for the conquest of osoutheast Asia

  • and creation of a defensive Japanese permiter that would thwart Allies abilityt to strike Japan's homelnd.

  • FDR called it a "day that will live in infamy"

  • More than 350 Japanese bombers, fighters, torpedo planes sruck in two waves


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