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Period 1 - 8000 BCE - 600 BCE


BIG THEMES

  • Paleolithic --> Neolithic (farming 8,000 BC)

  • First Civilizations (Mesopotamia, Egypt, Indus Valley)

MOST IMPORTANT EVENTS

  • Sumerians in Mesopotamia (5000 BC-1750 BC)

  • Hammurabi Code 1772

  • Egypt unified 3118 BC

  • Egyptian Kingdoms (Old, Middle, New)

  • Akhenaten (1353-1336 BC)

  • Bronze Age (3000 BC)

  • Minoans (Crete) (2000 - 1450 BC)

  • Olmec (1400-400 BC)

  • Bantu Migrations in Africa (2000 BC)

  • Aryan (Indo-European) migrations (1750-1000 BC)

  • China

  • Shang (1700-1046 BC)

  • Zhou (1045-256 BC)

  • Phoenicians (1550-300 BC)

  • Hebrews in Israel (1025 BC-931 BC: King Saul, David, Solomon)​

  • Zoroastrianism (founded ca. 1000 BC)

TIMELINE

5000 BC - 1750 BC Sumerian Civilization in Tigris-Euphrates Valley.

Govt: Priest-kings, advised by elected General Assembly, separate city-states

Religion; Ziggurats

4500 -- Sumerians build 1st Temple, City of Uruk founded, cuneiform

3118 BC - King Menes unites Upper and Lower Egypt

2560 BC 
Building of the Great Pyramid at Giza (Old Kingdom) 



2500-1750 BC– Harappan Civilization (Indus Valley)

Mohenjodaro and Harappa, undeciphered writing

2150-1400 BC -- Epic of Gilgamesh written

2000 BC – Bantu speaking people begin to migrate southwards

2000-1450 BC - Minoan Civilization

Crete, labyrinth, bulls, frescoes, navy, Thera Volcano, overtaken by Mycenaeans

1772 BC -- Code of Hammurabi written

1750 -- Elamite invasion of Amorites ending Sumerian Civilization

1700 BC – Kingdom of Kush south of Egypt

1600 - 1046 BC -- Shang Dynasty China

Oracle Bones divination, Chinese writing, bronze, jade, silk, Yellow River valley, ancestor worship, used chariots, warrior aristocracy, center of the world/"Middle Kingdom," rulers were religious and political authority, sacrifices

1550 - 300 BC -- Phoenicians

Sea traders from Tyre and Byblos (present-day Lebanon), made purple dye and other luxury Items, developed Phonetic alphabet used by Arabs, Hebrews, Greeks, Romans etc. moved to Carthage after Lebanon was taken over by Persians, Lost Punic-Wars to Romans

c. 1500 - 1000 BC -- Aryan migration (Indo-Europeans)

Brought Sanskrit, Rig Veda, caste, cow veneration to India and Indo-European languages to Iran, Hittites, Europe

1400-1200 BC -- Olmec

"Olmec" is Nahuatl word for "rubber people." Based in San Lorenzo and La Venta (Guatemala, Mesoamerica), La Venta Great Pyramid, colossal heads, jade, bloodletting and human sacrifice, long count calendar and zero, ballgames

1353-1336 BC – Reign of Akhenaten (wife Nefertiti), Aten worship, Amarna

1332 BC-1323 BC – Tutankhamen (Back to Amun worship, tomb found)

1279 – 1213 BC – Ramses the Great

Led expeditions to Levant, tomb Valley of Kings, Abu Simbel 1255 BC, Tomb to wife Nefertari with Book of Dead, Osiris, Anubis, erased Amarna Period from history, campaigns in Nubia, Battle of Kadesh against Hittites

1120 BC - Enuma Elish (Sumerian creation story) written

1045-256 BC -- Zhou

Mandate of Heaven, Declined by 800 BC, 600 BC used iron weapons, feudalism, Late Zhou/Warring States 480-221 BC

1025 BC - 1st Hebrew King Saul in Israel after return from Egypt (Exodus)

1010 - 970 BC - Hebrew King David (defeated Philistines, founded Jerusalem for Hebrews)

1000 BC -- Zoroastrianism

Date not known, Zoroaster is Prophet, popular in Iran 600 BC to 650 CE (Darius the Great), Ahura Mazda is "good/wise god" who created world, represented by fire, Ahriman is "bad god," good v. evil, Avestas and Gathas, split into Parsis (India) and Iranians, Nowruz (New Year)

970 - 931 BC - Hebrew King Solomon

Built First Temple in Jerusalem, taxes caused split of 12 Tribes)

900 BC – Brahmanism (reincarnation, dharma, karma, four varnas)

776 BC 
First Olympiad in Greece.



753 BC
 -- Foundation of Rome.


722 BC -- Neo-Assyrians conquer Kingdom of Israel, Twelve Lost Tribes


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