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Roman Empire Chronology


ROMAN REPUBLIC


  • Mythology

  • Romulus and Remus (771 BC)

  • ​Italian myth

  • Twin sons of Rhea Silvia to be killed by being left in a basket, sailed down Tiber River

  • Found by she-wolf, raised

  • Founded area that would be called "Rome" (after Romulus0

  • Aeneus from Troy (by Virgil)

  • ​Aeneus escaped from Troy (13th c. BC)

  • Affair with Queen Dido of Carthage

  • Landed in Rome

  • Story written during Caesar Augustus

  • Rape of the Sabine Women

  • ​In order to populate Rome, women ​​​​​​​​​​were abducted from neighboring regions.


  • Etruscans

  • Monarchy

  • Culture: Women equal, superstitious.

  • Built Rome

  • Etruscan kings overthrown 508 BC

  • Rape of Lucretia by Sextus Tarquinius

  • Father, Tarquinius Superbus, overthrown

  • Republic

  • Two consuls (veto power, 1 year terms)

  • Senate (elects consuls, sit for life)

  • Tribunes (represent plebeians)


  • Expansion

  • 340 Latin states

  • Greek communities in south Italy 267 BC

  • Etruscans defeated 264 BC

  • Struggle of orders 494 BC to 287 BC,

  • Patricians v. Plebeians

  • Council of plebs, tribune

  • Twelve Tables (450 BC)

  • Punic Wars

  • First – Sicily

  • Second – Hannibal, Battle of Cannae, Battle of Zama 202 BC

  • Third – 146 BC Carthage destroyed


  • Greeks taken over 146 BC

  • Decline of Republic 133-31 BC

  • Gracchus Brothers (reforms)

  • Marius (army of landless, loyal to generals)

  • Sulla (marched into Rome with his army)

  • Spartacus – 73 BC

  • Gladiator Revolt

  • Put down by Crassus

  • First Triumvirate (59-53 BC)

  • Crassus, Pompey, Julius Caesar (60 BC)

  • Crassus

  • Rich, defeated Spartacus

  • Pompey

  • Consul 55-54 BC an 52-51 BC

  • Took Syria and Judea

  • Julius Caesar

  • Crossed Rubicon

  • Became “dictator for life”

  • Killed 44 BC ("Beware the ides of March")

  • Second Triumvirate (43 - 33 BC)

  • Caesar Augustus, Mark Antony, Marcus Lepidus

  • Unlike first triumvirate, the second triumvirate was legal and official


  • Octavian (Augustus) (31 BCE – 14 CE)

  • Defeated Antony and Cleopatra at the Battle of Actium 31 BC)

  • “Restoration of the Republic” 27 BC

  • Pax Romana

ROMAN EMPIRE

Early Empire (14-180)

  • Tiberius

  • Established Julio-Claudian dynasty (14-68)

  • Nero (54-68)

  • Persecuted Christians

  • Eliminated people

  • Burned down Rome so that he could rebuild his palace

  • Five Good Emperors (96-180)

  • Trajan

  • Expanded to Dacia, Mesopotamia, Sinai

  • Roman Empire at it's greatest extent (AD 117)

  • Hadrian (117-138)

  • Withdrew from Trajan's territorial gains in Mesopotamia, Assyria, Armenia

  • Invested in stable, defensible borders

  • Built Hadrian's Wall marking northern limit in Britain


  • Caracalla 212

  • Roman citizenship to all

  • Crisis of Third Century (235-284)

  • After assassination of Alexander Severus in 235

  • Empire nearly collapsed

  • Invasions, plague, economic collapse, civil war

  • "Barracks Emperors' -- 20 emperors who rose and fall in 50 years

  • Anarchy


Late Roman Empire (end 3rd, beg. Of 4th c.)

  • Diocletian (284-305)

  • Divided empire into Tetrarchy

  • Constantine (306-337)

  • Reunified Empire

  • Moved capital east to Byzantium/Constantinople

  • Edict of Milan 312 – Christianity tolerated

  • Theodosius 347 -395

  • Christianity official religion

END OF THE ROMAN EMPIRE

  • Visigoths

  • Pushed out by Huns

  • Battle at Adrianople 378

  • Sacked Rome 410

  • Odoacer

  • Deposed last emperor in West in 476

  • Romulus Augustus

  • German “master of soldiers”



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