• Amanda Roraback

Timeline European History

15th CENTURY

1453

  • Constantinople fell to Ottomans

  • End of Hundred Years War (Charles VII France)

1456

  • First Bible printed by Gutenberg printing press

1460

  • Prince Henry the Navigator (Port.) died

1469

  • Isabella and Ferdinand of Spain married

1486

  • Giovanni Pico della Mirandola published Oration on the Dignity of Man

1488

  • Bartholomew Dias (Port.) sailed around Cape of Good Hope

1492

  • Columbus to the New World

  • Reconquista completed in Spain

  • Spanish Inquisition

  • Death of Lorenzo the Magnificent de Medici

1494

  • Treaty of Tordesillas

  • Vasco da Gama (Port) sailed to India

1498

  • Savonarola expelled Medici from Florence

16th CENTURY

1508

  • Michelangelo began painting Sistine Chapel (until 1512) under Pope Julius II

1509

  • Erasmus wrote Praise of Folly (printed 1511)

  • Henry VIII to power (1509-1547)

1513

  • First version of Machiavelli's The Prince distributed (published 1532)

1516

  • Utopia by Thomas More published in Latin (in English 1551)

  • Concordat of Bologna (French rulers could appoint Fr. bishops)

1517

  • Martin Luther posted 95 Theses on door of Wittenburg

1519

  • Hernan Cortes (Sp.) conquered Aztecs

1520

  • Suleiman the Magnificent to power (Ottoman Empire) (1520-1566)

1521

  • Diet of Worms

1524

  • Peasant's Revolt in Germany (1524-1525)

1525

  • Thomas Munzer (Anabaptist) executed

1527

  • Sacking of Rome by Charles V's soldiers

1528

  • Castiglione published The Courtier

1529

  • First Siege of Vienna by Ottomans

1532

  • Francisco Pizarro conquered Inca in Peru

1534

  • Affair of the Placards (France)

  • Act of Supremacy (Br) - Henry VIII became head of Anglican Church

1536

  • Calvin's Institutes of the Christian Religion published in Latin

1540

  • Jesuits founded by Ignatius Loyola

1543

  • Copernicus published On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Bodies

1545

  • Council of Trent (Counterreformation) (1545-1563)

1547

  • John Knox brought Calvinism to Scotland

  • Edward VI to power in England (1547-1553)

1553

  • "Bloody" Mary to power in England (1553-1558)

1555

  • Peace of Augsburg (cuius regio, eius religion)

1556

  • Charles V abdicates, divides empire (Philip II, Ferdinand)

  • Phillip II to power (1556-1598)

1558

  • Elizebeth I to power (1558-1603)

1567

  • Council of Blood/Council of Troubles, Duke of Alba in Netherlands

1571

  • Battle of Lepanto (Spain and Venice defeated Turks)

1572

  • St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre

1584

  • Death of Ivan the Terrible (Russia) --> Time of Troubles

1588

  • Spanish Armada

1589

  • Henry IV to power in France ("Paris is Worth a Mass")

1598

  • Edict of Nantes (Huguenots in France)

  • Philip II of Spain died

17th CENTURY

1600

  • British East India Company founded (Dec. 31, 1600)

1602

  • Dutch East India Company founded (Mar,. 20, 1602)

1603

  • Elizabeth I (Br) died, James I to power (1603-1625)

1607

  • Jamestown, Virginia founded

1608

  • Quebec founded by French (Jul. 3, 1608)

1609

  • Dutch founded New Amsterdam (present-day New York)

1613

  • Michael Romanov to power (Russia) (1613-1645)

1618

  • Thirty Years War began (1618-1648)

1628

  • Petition of Right signed by Charles I (Br.): Taxes need Parliament, Due Process of law

1632

  • Galileo published Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems (trial 1633)

1640

  • Long Parliament (Br.) (1640-1648)

  • Frederick William, Great Elector to power (Prussia) (1640-1688)

1642

  • English Civil War began (1642-1649)

1643

  • Louis XIV to power (1643-1715)

1648

  • End of Thirty Years War (Peace of Westphalia)

  • Fronde in France (1648-1653)

1649

  • Charles I (Britain) beheaded

  • Commonwealth led by Oliver Cromwell (1649-1653)

1651

  • Thomas Hobbes published Leviathan

  • British pass Navigation Act (Dutch can't carry goods to England)

1653

  • Cromwell became Lord Protector

1660

  • Restoration of Charles II to throne of England (1660-1685)

1682

  • Peter the Great to power (1682-1725)

1685

  • James II to power in Br. (1685-1688)

1687

  • Isaac Newton published Principia

1688

  • Glorious Revolution (Br) (1688-1689) William and Mary

1689

  • John Locke wrote Two Treatises on Government

  • William and Mary signed English Bill of Rights (Dec. 16, 1689)

1690

  • John Locke published An Essay Concerning Human Understanding

18th CENTURY

1700

  • Great Northern War (Russia/Sweden) (1700-1721)

1701

  • War of Spanish Succession (1701-1714)

1713

  • Treaty of Utrecht (End of War of Sp, Succession) Philip V King of Spain

  • Pragmatic Sanction (Charles VI Austria)

  • Frederick William I to power (Prussia) (1713-1740)

1715

  • Louis XV to power in France (1715-1774)

1721

  • Robert Walpole became first PM of Br. (1721-1742) under George I and II

1733

  • John Kay invented flying shuttle

1740

  • Frederick the Great (Prussia) to power (May 1740-Aug, 1786)

  • Maria Theresa (Austria) to power (Oct. 1740- Nov, 1780)

  • War of Austrian Succession (Dec. 1740-1748)

1748

  • Montesquieu published The Spirit of the Laws

  • Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle ended War of Austrian Succession

1750

  • Industrial Revolution

1756

  • Diplomatic Revolution

  • Seven Years War (1756-1763)

1758

  • Voltaire published Candide

1762

  • Catherine the Great (Russia) (1762-1796)

  • Jean-Jacques Rousseau published Emile and The Social Contract

1763

  • Treaty of Paris ended Seven Years War

1769

  • Richard Arkwright invented water frame

  • James Watt patented first steam engine

1772

  • First Partition of Poland (2nd in 1793, 3rd in 1795)

1773

  • Pugachev Rebellion (Russia) (1773-1775)

1774

  • Louis XVI to power in France (1774-1792)

1776

  • Adam Smith published Wealth of Nations

  • Declaration of Independence signed in the United States

1779

  • Samuel Crompton invented spinning mule

1780

  • Joseph II to power in Austria (1780-1790)

1789

  • Start of French Revolution (1789-1799) (Bastille)

1790

  • Civil Constitution of the Clergy (France)

1791

  • Olympe de Gouges composed Declaration of the Rights of Women

  • Legislative Assembly in France

  • Declaration of Pillnitzh (Aug. 1791)

1792

  • Mary Wollstonecraft published A Vindication of the Rights of Women

  • Legislative Assembly declared war against Austria and Prussia

1793

  • Louis XVI guillotined by Jacobins (Fr)

  • Levee en Masse declared by Committee of Public Safety

  • Eli Whitney invented cotton gin

1794

  • Thermidorian Reaction

1795

  • Directory established in France (1795-1799)

1796

  • Edward Jenner first smallpox vaccination

1798

  • Thomas Malthus published Essay on the Principle of Population

1799

  • Napoleon overthrew Directory (Nov. 9, 1799)

  • Combination Acts (1799 and 1800) (Br) prohibited Br. workers from organizing repealed 1824

  • Robert Owen bought New Lanark mill

19th CENTURY

1801

  • Concordat of 1801 (Napoleon) = French peace with Pope

  • Tsar Alexander I to power in Russia (1801-1825)

  • Act of Union - Ireland united with GB

1804

  • Napoleon crowned Emperor (Dec. 2, 1804)

1808

  • Napoleon deposed Spanish Bourbons, put Joseph in power

1814

  • Napoleon abdicated, exiled to Elba (Mar. 1814)

1815

  • Congress of Vienna

  • Louis XVIII (Fr.) to power

  • Napoleon defeated at Battle of Waterloo (Jun. 1815) exiled to St. Helena

1817

  • David Ricardo wrote Iron Iron Law of Wages

1821

  • Beginning of Greek revolt against Ottoman Empire

1824

  • Charles X to power in France (1824-1830)

1825

  • Tsar Alexander I (Russia) died

  • Nicholas I to power in Russia (1825-1855)

  • Decembrist Revolt (Dec. 1825)

1830

  • Revolution of 1830 in France

  • Delacroix painting Liberty Leading the People

  • Louis Philippe (July Monarch) to power (1830-1848)

  • Belgium independent

1832

  • Reform Bill (Br.) ended "rotten" boroughs and doubled vote (1 in 5 men)

1834

  • Zollverein established

1838

  • People's Charter drawn up (Br) asking for universal manhood suffrage, secret ballot etc.

1846

  • Repeal of the Corn Laws

1848

  • Marx and Engels published Communist Manifesto

  • Revolution against Louis Philippe (February 1848) in reaction to closing banquets and Guizot

  • Second Republic in France under Alphonse de Lamartine, National Workshops (Louis Blanc)

  • June Days (June 1848) in reaction to closing Workshops

  • Louis Napoleon elected president of France (Dec. 1848)

  • 1848 Revolutions

  • Seneca Falls Convention in U.S. (Lucretia Mott, Elizabeth Cady Stanton)

1849

  • Gustave Courbet painted Realism painting Burial at Ornans

1851

  • Great Exhibition at Crystal Palace in London

1852

  • Louis Napoleon crowned Emperor Napoleon III (1852-1870)

  • Piedmont-Sardinia's King Victor Emmanuel II named Camillo di Cavour his Prime Minister

1853

  • Crimean War (1853-1856)

1855

  • Alexander II to power in Russia (ended Crimean War) (1855-1861)

1856

  • Patent for Bessemer process (steel)

1859

  • Darwin published Origin of Species

1861

  • Civil War in United States (1861-1865)

  • Alexender II (Russia) emancipated serfs

  • Victor Emanuel became first King of Italy (Mar. 1861-1878)

1862

  • William I of Prussia chose Otto von Bismarck to be Prime Minister

1864

  • Alexander II introduced local self-government through zemstvos

1866

  • Seven Weeks' War - Bismarck defeated Austria

1867

  • Austria agreed to create Dual Monarchy with Hungary

  • England under Benjamin Disraeli passed Reform Bill of 1867 - suffrage to most men.

1871

  • Franco-Prussian War

  • German Unification (Bismarck)

1873

  • Claude Monet painted Impression Sunrise (Impressionism)

1876

  • Telephone invented by Alexander Graham Bell

1878

  • Congress of Berlin

1879

  • Henrik Ibsen wrote A Doll's House

1880

  • Beginning of the "Belle Epoque" (1880-1914) - "Beautiful period"

1881

  • Alexander II assassinated by People's Will (anarchists)

1884

  • Berlin Conference (1884-85) moderating Scramble for Africa

1888

  • William I of Germany died, succeeded by William II (1888-1918)

1890

  • William II forced Bismarck to resign

1894

  • Nicholas II (Russia) to power (1894-1917)

  • Dreyfus Affair (Fr.)

1896

  • Theodor Herzl published The Jewish State

1898

  • Emile Zola wrote J'Accuse (in l'Aurora newspaper)

1899

  • Freud wrote The Interpretation of Dreams

20th CENTURY

1903

  • Social Democrats split into Mensheviks and Bolsheviks (Lenin)

1905

  • Russo-Japanese War

  • Revolution of 1905 Russia/"Bloody Sunday"

  • Einstein's Theory of Relativity

1914

  • Br. Parliament passed Irish home-rule bill (postponed because of WWI)

  • Archduke Franz Ferdinand assassinated by Serbian Black Hand

  • Beginning of WWI (1914-1918)

1917

  • Tsar Nicholas II (Russia) deposed (Mar.1917)

  • Russian provisional government (Alexander Kerensky)

  • U.S. entered WWI (Apr. 1917)

  • Russian Revolution - Lenin (Oct.Nov 1917)

1919

  • Treaty of Versailles

1921

  • Lenin's New Economic Policy (USSR)

1922

  • Mussolini to power in Italy

1923

  • Hitler Beer Hall Putsch

  • German occupation of Ruhr

  • Dawes Plan (US loans to Germany)

1924

  • Lenin died

1925

  • Locarno Pact (Fr. Ger. Eng. Italy, Belgium) - guaranteed borders between Germany and France

1928

  • Kellogg-Briand Pact - promise to "renounce war as an instrument of national policy"

  • Stalin launched first Five-Year Plan (USSR)

1929

  • U.S. stock market crash - beginning of Great Depression

  • Lateran Accord (Mussolini peace with Pope Pius XII)

1931

  • Salvador Dali's The Persistence of Memory

1933

  • Hitler to power

  • Germany withdrew from League of Nations

1934

  • Stalin's Great Terror (1934-1938)

1935

  • Nuremberg Laws in Germany (Jews not citizens, no marriage between Jews and Germans)

  • Hitler began rearming Germany

  • Mussolini invaded Ethiopia

1936

  • Remilitarization of the Rhineland

  • Spanish Civil War (Franco's Nationalists rebelled against Italian Republic) (1936-39)

1938

  • Hitler annexed Austria (Mar. 1938) Anschluss

  • Munich Conference (Sep. 1938)

  • Kristallnacht (Nov. 9 and 10, 1938)

1939

  • Non-Aggression Pact (Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact) Germany and USSR (Aug. 1939)

  • Hitler invaded Poland (Sep. 1, 1939)--> beginning of WWII (1939-1945)

1940

  • Battle of Britain (July 10-Oct. 31, 1940)

  • Vichy government in France under Philippe Petain (July 1940-Sept. 1944)

1941

  • Operation Barbarossa, Germany invaded USSR (Jun. 22, 1941)

  • Japan took Indochina (Jul. 1941)

  • Japanese attack Pearl Harbor (Dec. 7, 1941) US entered war

1942

  • Japanese Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere

  • Battle of Midway (Jun. 1942)

1943

  • "Island Hopping" (Jun. 1943)

  • Tehran Conference (Nov, 1943)

1944

  • D-Day (Jun. 6, 1944) Landing in Normandy

1945

  • Yalta Conference (Feb. 1945)

  • US President Roosevelt died (Apr. 12, 1945)

  • Mussolini executed (Apr. 28, 1945)

  • Hitler suicide (Apr. 30, 1945)

  • Victory over Europe (V-E) Day (May 8, 1945)

  • Potsdam Conference (Jul. 17-Aug. 2, 1945)

  • Atomic bomb on Hiroshima (Aug. 6) and Nagasaki (Aug. 9, 1945)

  • Japan surrendered (Sept. 2, 1945)

1947

  • Truman Doctrine (Mar,. 12, Truman aid to Greece and Turkey)

  • Britain granted India independence (split into Pakistan and India)

1948

  • Marshall Plan (Apr. 3, 1948)

  • Berlin Blockade and Airlift (Jun 24, 1948-May 12, 1949)

1949

  • Creation of NATO (Apr. 4, 1949)

  • People's Republic of China developed with Mao Zedong (Oct. 1, 1949)

1950

  • Schuman Plan (May 9, 1950) proposed European Coal and Steel Community

1951

  • Treaty of Paris formally established European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC)

1952

  • European Coal and Steel Community created (Benelux, France, Italy, West GermanY0

1953

  • Stalin died, Khrushchev to power in USSR

  • Battle of Dien Bien Phu - Vietnamese (Ho Chi Minh) defeated French

1956

  • Khrushchev criticized Stalin (deStalinization) in speech

1957

  • Hungarian Revolution

  • Rome Treaty signed (Created European Economic Community - EEC)

  • Sputnik (Russian satellite) launched (Oct. 4, 1957)

1958

  • Fifth Republic created in France under Charles de Gaulle (1958-1969)

1961

  • Berlin Wall built (Aug. 13, 1961)

1962

  • Algeria became independent from France after war

1963

  • Cuban Missile Crisis

1968

  • Prague Spring (Czechoslovakia) (Jan. 5-Aug. 21, 1968) Dubcek

  • Brezhnev Doctrine (Nov, 1968)

1975

  • Helsinki Accords (Aug. 1, 1975)

1979

  • Margaret Thatcher became PM (Br.) (May 1979-Nov., 1990)

  • Soviet invasion of Afghanistan (Dec. 25, 1979-Feb, 15, 1989)

1986

  • Gorbachev (USSR) to power - Glasnost and Perestroika

1989

  • Gorbachev policy of demokratizatsiya

  • Polish voters elected Solidarity candidates (Jun. 1989)

  • Berlin Wall dismantled (Nov. 9, 1989)

  • Velvet Revolution Czechoslovakia (Nov 17-Dec. 29, 1989) Vaclav Havel

1991

  • Failed coup in Soviet Union (Aug. 1991)

  • Gorbachev resigned (Dec. 25, 1991)

  • Boris Yeltsin to power as President of CIS (Commonwealth of Indep,. States)

  • Shock Therapy in Soviet Union

1992

  • Maastricht Treaty signed

1993

  • Czech Republic and Slovakia split peacefully into two countries

1999

  • Euro introduced

  • Yeltsin resigned, Vladimir Putin succeeded him.

2001

  • Terrorist attack on US (September 11, 2001)

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