• Amanda Roraback

Mexican History after Independence

Spain under Napoleon

  • Napoleon invaded Spain in 1808

  • Forced Bourbon Spain's king, Charles IV to abdicate

  • Napoleon put his brother, Joseph, in power as the Spanish king

  • Created crisis of legitimacy

New Spain

  • Peninsulares (Spanish nobles born in Spain) took over rule of New Spain

  • Creoles (Spanish people born in Mexico) plotted to become independent from Spain

Cry of Dolores

  • Miguel Hidalgo y Costillo

  • A Catholic priest from the village of Dolores

  • On Sept. 16, 1810, he issued his Grito de Dolores ("Cry of Dolores")

  • Which called for:

  • The end of Spanish rule in Mexico

  • Redistribution of land

  • Racial equality

  • Hidalgo gathered an army of 90,000 poor farmers

  • Hidalgo was captured and executed July 30, 1811

  • Followed by other peasant leaders

  • Like Vicente Guerrero

  • Who fought against the Spanish and Royalists

MEXICAN INDEPENDENCE (1821)

  • Royalist General Iturbide had originally fought for the Spanish

  • But after a liberal coup d'etat in Spain

  • Conservatives in Mexico (like Iturbide) wanted immediate independence

  • Collaboration at Iguala

  • Iturbide allied with rebel leader Vicente Guerrero's radical insurgents

  • Plan of Iguala (Feb. 24, 1821)

  • Proclaimed three guarantees

  • Immediate Independence from Spain

  • Equality for Peninsulares and Creoles

  • Supremacy of the Roman Catholic Church (banned all other religions)

  • Mexico would become an independent constitutional monarchy

  • Treaty of Cordoba (Aug. 24, 1821)

  • Granted Mexico independence

AGUSTIN DE ITURBIDE (r. 1822-23)

  • Iturbide, a caudillo (Mexican military chieftain) became the first president of the newly independent Mexico

  • After independence, Iturbide removed Guerrero

  • May 19, 1822, Iturbide declared himself emperor.

  • Ruled in an arbitrary manner, didn't bring stability

  • ​1823 Iturbide was overthrown by General Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna

  • Iturbide fled to Italy, then England

  • Executed when he returned to Mexico, July 15, 1824

Provisional Government of Mexico (1823-1824)

  • After the fall of Iturbide, a republic was created

  • Called the United Mexican States

  • With a succession of a half dozen heads of state

ANTONIO LOPEZ DE SANTA ANNA (r. 1833-1855, 22 years of rule jwere not consecutive)

  • Bio

  • Santa Anna at first opposed Mexican independence, then changed mind.

  • The General who overthrew Iturbide in Mar. 19, 1823

  • Santa Anna drew up new constitution

  • Established a federal Mexican republic with 19 states and 4 territories

  • Ruled as president 1823-1836

Political instability (1825-1850)

  • National governments changed hands rapidly

  • Between 1825 and 1855 there were 48 different executives

TEXAS INDEPENDENCE

  • Battle of Alamo (Feb. 23-Mar. 6, 1836)

  • Battle of San Jacinto (Apr. 21, 1836)

  • Texas became independent from Mexico (1836)

MEXICAN-AMERICAN WAR (1846-1848)

  • Mexico lost California, New Mexico and Utah territories to the United States (Mexican Cession, in pink to the right)

  • Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo

  • And lost the last remaining piece of land in the Gadsden Purchase (in yellow to the right) of 1853 for $10 million.

  • Caused the Revolution of Ayutla

PLAN OF AYUTLA 1854

  • Plan aimed at removing Santa Anna from power

  • Revolution of Ayutla ousted Santa Anna in 1855

  • Santa Anna fled to France

LA REFORMA (1858-1860)

  • Second Federal Republic of Mexico

  • Three-year civil war

  • Between Liberal Party and Conservatives

  • Liberal Party

  • Ruled since 1855 under Plan of Ayutla

  • Based in Veracruz

  • Led by reformist Benito Juarez

  • Recognized by the US government

  • Conservative Party

  • Ruled from Mexico City

  • Led by Felix Zuloaga

  • Jan. 1861 Liberals captured Mexico City

  • Liberal President Benito Juarez moved administration to Mexico City

  • But there was still instability and a growing foreign debt.

BENITO JUAREZ (r. 1858-1862, 1867-1872)

  • Bio

  • Born to poor rural Zapotec family

  • Became lawyer

  • Government was in debt

  • Bankrupt treasury

  • Army and police force hadn't been paid

  • Commerce stagnant

  • Transportation inadequate

  • No currency in circulation

  • Juarez in 1861 ordered two-year moratorium on payment of Mexico's foreign debt

  • Caused Spanish, French and British governments to meet in Mexico (Oct 31, 1861)

  • Signed tripartite agreement (Cnvention of London) to intervene in Mexico to recover unpaid debts

  • Europeans landed at Veracruz Dec. 8

  • Conservatives saw the forces as valuable allies in struggle against Liberals.

  • French under Napoleon III captured Mexico City (Spanish and British withdrew)

FRENCH INTERVENTION - EMPEROR MAXIMILIAN (1862-1867)

  • In 1862, French Emperor Napoleon III (nephew of Napoleon I) established a French client state in Mexico

  • Installed Maximilian of Hapsburg as Emperor

  • Maximilian's conservative government controlled much of the country

  • But Liberals kept power in northwest and parts of Pacific coast

  • Under Benito Juarez

  • U.S. under Sec. of State Seward disapproved

  • But U.S. was busy in Civil War

  • Abraham Lincoln didn't want Mexico to help Confederacy

  • Mexican Resistance

  • Conservatives not happy with Maximilian's attempts to adopt more Liberal policies

  • Liberals saw Maximilian as a tool for French interests.

  • Cinco de Mayo (May 5, 1962)

  • Mexican Army defeated the French Empire at the Battle of Puebla

  • A year later, a larger French force defeated the Mexican Army

  • At the Second Battle of Pueblo

  • French withdrew 1867

  • Because of resistance (50000 Mexicans had died fighting the French)

  • And because the Empire was drain on French treasury

  • Mexico's second empire collapsed in colonial city of Queretaro

  • Juarez and the Republicans returned

  • Juarez ordered death penalty for Maximilian Oct. 1865

BENITO JUAREZ (1867-1872)

  • French occupation had caused growth of Mexican nationalism

  • But hurt economy

  • Treasury still empty

  • Commerce, industry, agriculture in shambles

  • Politics

  • Lack of strong central authority under French caused localism

  • Armed men in countryside

  • Juarez returned to Mexico City Jul. 15, 1867

  • Called for elections

  • He was voted in for 3rd term as President of the Republic

  • Juarez reforms

  • Tried to implement Constitution of 1857 and modernize Mexico

  • Economy

  • Named Matias Romero as secretary of the treasury

  • Romera called for improved transportation

  • Tax and tariff restructuring

  • And exploitation of natural resources by attracting foreign capital

  • Believed future was in mining, not industrialization

  • But foreign capital was difficult to get because of reputation of political instability, rebellions and bandits

  • Secularized Mexico

  • Catholic Church was barred from owning property

  • Except churches and monasteries

  • Education and marriage were now in the hands of the state

  • Army and Police force

  • Juarez reduced Mexican army from 60,000 to 20,000 (to reduce military rule)

  • Funded a rural police force (rurales)

  • Helped the army

  • Patrolled roads

  • Guarded shipments of bullion etc.

  • Contributed to stabilization in the countryside.

  • Transportation

  • 1873 completed Mexico City-Veracruz RR (had begun in 1937)

  • Work was done by the Ferrocarril Mexicano (Mexican RR Co.)

  • Finished work done by British

  • Blessed by the Archbishop (signaled improved relations between church and state)

  • Education

  • 5-man commission headed by Gabino Barreda

  • Emphasis on arithmetic, physics, chemistry, mechanics

  • Primary education was free and obligatory for first time

  • Foreign relations

  • US

  • US had helped Mexico during Maximilian

  • US Sec. of State William Seward visited Mexico 1869

  • Election 1871

  • Juarez's popularity had been declining

  • Juarez v. two other liberals

  • Porfirio Diaz (General in war against French) (Porfiristas)

  • And Sebastian Lerdo de Tejada (Lerdistas)

  • Had backing of professional classes and wealthy

  • No majorities so contest went to Congress.

  • Juarez reelected.

  • Diaz proclaimed Revolt of La Noria to oust Juarez

  • Juarez died July 19, 1872 (coronary seizure)

  • New election

  • Lerdo defeated Diaz

SEBASTIAN LERDO DE TEJADA

  • Juarez succeeded by Sebastian Lerdo de Tejada

  • Lerdo wanted peace through strong executive control

  • Liberalism became centralized and dictatorial

  • Kept many Juaristas in government (including Romero)

  • Railroad and telegraph

  • Used rurales to patrol Mexico-City-Veracruz RR

  • New line from Mexico City to border of US by Central Railroad of Mexico

  • Goal - to connect all the state capitals to Mexico City via telegraph

  • Education

  • 1870-1871 number of schools doubled

  • But still only 1 of 19 school-age children (few were female)

  • Government

  • Lerdo added a Senate to the formerly unicameral Legislature

  • He believed the elite Senate could help him centralize

  • Lerdo de Tejado was overthrown in a coup 1876

  • By Porfirio Diaz - Plan de Tuxtepec

  • Which established no re-election of the president

PORFIRIO DIAZ (r. 1876-1880, 1884-1911)

  • Improved economy

  • When Diaz came to power

  • There was an empty treasury

  • Long list of foreign debts

  • Huge bureaucracy who were behind on salaries

  • Balance of trade problems

  • Nearly impossible to get foreign capital

  • Rich wouldn't invest

  • Diaz changes

  • Diaz reduced his salary and ordered reduction of govt. employee salaries

  • 1000s of useless bureaucratic jobs eliminated

  • Prevented smuggling through tough government policy

  • After end of his first term

  • Diaz stepped down as per Plan de Tuxtepec

  • To show world that Mexico had matured politically

  • Supported Manuel Gonzalez

MANUEL GONZALES presidency (1880-1884)

  • Controversial presidency

  • Gonzalez overextended government subsidies which left him with insufficient funds

  • Rather than default on foreign debts

  • Gonzales stopped paying salaries of many government officials

  • Rumors of graft and corruption

  • Illegally selling contracts

  • Selling government property cheaply to favorites

  • Stealing from the treasury

  • Sex scandals

DIAZ'S SECOND TERM (1884-1911)

  • Ruled as dictator

  • Passed legislative reforms that allowed him to stay in office for 32 years

  • All power remained in executive branch

  • Legislative branch and Supreme Court had no power

  • Diaz's appointees ran local and state governments

  • Public safety

  • Dedicated to rule of law and suppression of violence

  • Suppressed banditry

  • Economy - Mexico entered modern age

  • Diaz welcomed foreign investment and trade

  • Economy grew at annual rate of 2.3%

  • Money from foreigner film crews

  • Lowered foreign debt

  • Foreigners flocked to Mexico to get jobs

  • They were treated better than local Mexicans

  • Court cases always favored foreigners

  • Foreign policy

  • Three new Mexican consulates opened along border with US

  • New Department of Foreign Relations 1910

  • Modernized Mexico (with new revenue)

  • Mining

  • Revived mining with new mining code 1884

  • No mention of traditional Hispanic jurisprudence

  • Owners of land controlled all the bituminous and mineral fuels

  • New code attracted US and European investors in 1880s and 1890s

  • Brought modern machinery

  • New mining development (1880-1890) initiated by foreigners

  • Sierra Mojada, Batopilas and El Boleo

  • El Boleo (owned Fr. and Ger.) = one of richest copper mining areas in N. America

  • Cyanide = easier mining

  • Gold, silver

  • Foreign investors: especially American Daniel Guggenheim and his brothers and Colonel William Greene

  • Improved infrastructure

  • Improved railways (could be used to send troops to quell rebellions)

  • Improved telegraph and telephone system

  • Dept. of Communications and Public works coordinated installation of cables

  • Electric tramways connected Mexico City to suburbs

  • Modernized army

  • Reduced army from 30-20,000 people

  • Saw army as a potential threat

  • Hydroelectric-generating stations

  • Health and sanitation

  • Diaz hired British firm to deal with drainage problems in Mexico City

  • Public buildings

  • To improve Mexico's image abroad

  • Boulevards, parks, public buildings, monuments, statues

  • New penitentiary 1900

  • $3 million post office 1907

  • New asylum

  • New buildings celebrated with festivals

  • Problems

  • Diaz gave political favors to the very wealthy and ignored the poor

  • Economic crisis - prices doubled from 1900 to 1910

  • Political crisis

  • Middle classes wanted representation, greater freedoms, liberalism

  • Diaz (in his 70s) had not decided on a successor

  • Local autonomy disappearing

  • Social crisis

  • Communal lands were being replaced by haciendas because of exports

  • Villages saw land and political autonomy disappearing

  • Feared rurales and intimidation by local hacendados and jefes politicos

  • Diplomatic crisis with US

  • Dictatorship

  • Diaz used military to force compliance and administer the country

  • Diaz spent 1/4 of the budget on military establishment (believed it was important for forced peace)

  • Military dominated state governorship and the 300 jefe politicos (local political bosses)

  • Convergence of crises

  • Led to 10-year Civil War - 2 million casualties (1/8 population killed)

REVOLUTIONARIES

  • Discontent over Diaz abuses turned into new desire for social reform

  • Wistano Luis Orozco

  • Concerned with social issues

  • 1895 criticized Diaz land laws

  • Said "large accumulation of land in a single hand causes ruin and degradation"

  • Revolutionaries gathered in San Antonio, Texas -- then St. Louis Missouri

  • Flores Magon brothers

  • Camilo Arriaga

  • And benefactor, Francisco I. Madera

  • Published weekly magazine called the Regeneracion

  • Smuggled into Mexico

  • In 1906 the junta published its Liberal Plan

  • Freedom of speech

  • Freedom of press

  • Suppression of jefe politicos

  • Secularization of education

  • Nationalization of Church property

  • No more death penalty

  • Educational reforms for poor

  • Prison reform (rehabilittion)

  • 8-hour workday/6 day week

  • No more tienda de raya (pasmen in legal tender)

  • No more child labor

  • All uncultivated lands to be taken over by the state and redistributed to people who would work them.

MEXICAN REVOLUTION 1910-1921

  • Long-term causes

  • Continued caste and class system (holdover from Spanish era)

  • Diaz's oppressive 31-year rule

  • No freedom of speech or assembly

  • Diaz favored wealthy landowners and industrialists

  • 1910 Election

  • In 1908 Dias had said he welcomed democratization in Mexico

  • Suggested he would not run a 7th term

  • Diaz proclamations opened way for Francisco I. Madero

  • Wealthy landowner from Coahuila

  • But Diaz changed his mind and decided to run for re-election

  • To eliminate the competition, Diaz had Madero jailed

  • Madero escaped from jail and fled to Laredo, Texas

  • Porfirio Diaz won through rigged election

  • Plan of San Luis Potosi (Oct. 5, 1910)

  • Written by Madero In San Antonio, Texas

  • Called for end of Diaz's authoritarian presidency

  • Restoration of democracy

  • And Mexicans to revolt Nov. 20, 1910

  • Series of revolts

  • Diaz was forced to resign May 1911

  • ​He fled in exile to Paris with most of his family

  • His nephew, Felix Diaz, stayed in Mexico

  • Interim government installed

  • ​Under Leon de la Barra (May-Nov. 1911)

  • ​Who kept many of Diaz's people in government

FRANCISCO I. MADERO Presidency (1911-1913)

  • Madero bio

  • Born in Coahuila in 1873

  • Wealthy family

  • Went to school in Paris and Berkeley, California

  • Was in charge of his families haciendas

  • But became interested in the welfare of the peones who worked them

  • Supported the Flores Magon brothers

  • Until they became too radical

  • Wrote "La Sucesion Presidencial en 1910" saying that Diaz should be challenged and that Mexico needed democracy.

  • New elections October 1, 1911

  • Madero won as an "Anti-re-electionist"

  • Committed to constitutional democracy, rule of law, separation of powers

  • Also planned to breakup large estates (didn't do it)

  • Gave positions of power to his family

  • Began to lose support

  • Revolts against Madero

  • Nov. 1911

  • Emiliano Zapata and Zapatistas revolted in Morelos (south)

  • Zapata formed Liberation Army of the South

  • And issued Plan de Ayala

  • Called for redistribution of lands to the peasants

  • Zapata drove Madero's forces (led by Victoriano Huerto) out of Morelos

  • Through scorched-earth policy

  • Zapatistas were contained but not suppressed

  • Mar. 1912

  • Pascual Orozco (Orozquistas) and Pancho Villa revolted in Chihuahua

  • Accused Madero of ignoring the Plan of San Luis Potosi and permitting corruption.

  • Orozco demanded

  • 10-hour workday

  • Restrictions on child labor

  • Better working conditions

  • Higher wages

  • Suppression of tiendas de raya (company stores)

  • All railroads nationalized and operated by Mexicans

  • And uncultivated land distributed to landless farmers

  • Orozco not popular outside of Chihuahua

  • Put down by General Victoriano Huerto

  • But leaders escaped

  • Pancho Villa became governor of Chihuahua 1913 and 1914

  • Oct. 1912

  • Unsuccessful attempt to overthrow Madero

  • By Diaz's nephew, Felix Diaz (in Veracruz) and Bernardo Reyes (Nuevo Leon)

  • Unsuccessful: Felix Diaz and Reyes sentenced to life in prison (Mexico City)

  • US Ambassador Henry Lane Wilson

  • Representing President William Howard Taft

  • Tried to undermine Madero's administration

TEN TRAGIC DAYS (Decena Tragica) (Feb. 9-Feb. 19, 1913)

  • Rebels demanded release of Gen. Felix Diaz and Bernardo Reyes

  • Both released

  • Reyes was killed, along with 400 others.

  • Madero named General Victoriano Huerta to command his troops

  • Mexico City in chaos

  • Artillery fire, burning cars, looters

  • Belen prison burst open (100s of inmates)

  • 1000s of civilian casualties

  • Pact of the Embassy (Feb. 18, 1913)

  • Victoriano Huerta (Madero's key general) decided to change sides

  • Huerta sent General Aureliano Blanquet to National Palace to arrest Madero, VP and cabinet

  • Called the Pact of the Embassy

  • General Felix Diaz and Victoriano Huerta met at U.S embassy

  • Negotiated under aegis of U.S. ambassador in Mexico City - Henry Lane Wilson

  • In era of "Dollar Diplomacy"

  • Madero and VP (Pino Suarez) were forced to resign

  • New president

  • ​Foreign Minister Pedro Lascurain sworn in as interim president according to line of succession

  • Lascurain appointed General Huerta Secretary of Interior (next in line of succession)

  • Then Lascurain resigned less than an hour later

  • ​According to Constitution of 1857, presidency passed to Sec. of Interior (Huerta)

  • Madero and Suarez murdered Feb. 22, 1913

  • ​While being transported to a penitentiary

VICTORIANO HUERTA (1913-1914)

  • Huerta became president in a coup Feb. 1913

  • Appointed by Lascurain as Sec. of Interior

  • Lascurain resigned minutes later

  • Huerta became president

  • Domestic reforms

  • Raised budget for education

  • Porfirio Diaz 7.2%, Madero 7.8%, Huerta 9.9%

  • Curriculum added history, literature and philosophy

  • Not just science and math

  • Agriculture

  • Distributed free seeds

  • Expanded agricultural schools in Mexico City

  • Restored 78 ejidos (areas of communal land) to Yaqui and Sonora Indians

  • Commissioned Eduardo Tamariz (Sec. of Agriculture) to study problem of land redistribution

  • Nothing in Constitution of 1857

  • Solution - raise taxes on large haciendas - less profitable --> sale

  • No social mobility for masses

  • Huerta's presidency challenged by forces in north and south

  • NORTH (CONSTITUTIONALISTS)

  • Venustiano Carranza, Alvaro Obregon and Francisco "Pancho" Villa

  • Carranza

  • From rich, landowning family in Coahuila

  • Proclaimed Plan of Guadalupe

  • Denouncing Huerta and proposing restoration of constitutional govt.

  • Carranza was "First Chief" (Primer Jefe) of Constitutionalist Army

  • No mention of social reforms

  • Obregon wanted to be neutral but joined Carranza

  • Pancho Villa

  • SOUTH (ZAPATISTAS)

  • By Emiliano Zapata

  • Like northerners, he wanted to get rid of Huerta

  • But also wanted to restore village lands, so didn't join northerners

  • Supported Plan de Ayala

CIVIL WAR (1914-1915)

  • Civil War

  • Constitutionalists won victories in north

  • Huerta became dictatorial

  • Turned whole country into war effort

  • Railroads for military use only

  • Federal army increased to 250,000 (12x as under Diaz)

  • Forced conscription of poor and illiterate

  • Huerta became dictatorial

  • Press censorship

  • Spies

  • Political prisoners

  • Political assassinations (Madero, Suarez, Belisario Dominguez)

  • Dissolved the Legislature

  • Economy in shambles

  • Workforce depleted by Huerta

  • No pickers for cotton, coffee beans, sugarcane

  • Mines closed

  • Cattle slaughtered for soldiers

  • Transportation delays for food and manufactured goods

  • Currency

  • Government printed paper money not backed by gold or silver

  • Constitutionalists and Zapatistas also printed their own currency

  • So did local regions

  • 25 different kinds of paper currency in circulation

  • Lots of counterfeiters

UNITED STATES INVOLVEMENT IN MEXICO

  • U.S. under Woodrow Wilson refused to recognize Huerta

  • Because he was not elected democratically

  • Even though Henry Lane Wilson had tried to encourage US to recognize Huerta

  • Ambassador Henry Lane Wilson recalled

  • Replaced by John Lind (who didn't speak Spanish)

  • Lind reports inaccurate, bellicose, anti-Catholic

  • US supported Constitutionalists

  • Occupation of Veracruz

  • Pres. Woodrow Wilson beefed up US fleet in Mexican waters

  • Some Americans from USS Dolphin came to Mexican shore for supplies (gas)

  • Were arrested

  • Mexico officially apologized

  • But Rear Admiral Mayo wanted

  • US flag on shore

  • And 21-gun salute

  • Mexico said okay if US also gave 21-gun salute to Mexican flag

  • US refused because it would be like recognition of Huerta

  • US Marines took Veracruz

  • Led to anti-American outcry in Mexico (including from the Constitutionalists)

  • Loss of Veracruz meant no revenue from customhouse

  • Anti-Huerta forces

  • Huerta's troops show of force against Americans

  • Allowed Constitutionalists in north and Zapatistas in South to move into military vacuum

  • Huerta resigned Jul. 8, 1914

  • Because of diplomatic, economic and military pressure

HUERTA SURRENDERED

  • Huerta's forces surrendered (Aug 15, 1914)

  • Recognized Constitutional government

  • Carranza entered Mexico City (supported by Obregon) (Aug. 20, 1914)

  • Passed his Plan of Guadalupe

  • Which named him (as First Chief of the Constitutionalist Army) as provisional governor.​

CONVENTION OF AGUASCALIENTES (Oct. 10-Nov, 9, 1914)

  • Held to sort out power relations between the "big four" warlords

  • Pancho Villa, Zapata, Carranza and Obregon

  • Division among the revolutionaries

  • ​Villistas and Zapatistas

  • ​Fighting for land and liberty

  • Believed others fighting for criollos, not Indians

  • Favored agrarian Plan de Ayala

  • Carrancistas and Obregonistas

  • ​Fighting for political reasons

  • Favored Plan of San Luis Potosi

  • Convention elected Gen. Eulalio Gutierrez Ortiz

  • Against wishes of Carranza

  • President for 20 days

MEETING AT XOCHIMILCO (December, 1914)

  • Pancho Villa and Emiliano Zapata met

  • Both expressed mutual hatred of Carranza and his followers

  • Villa:

  • "Those are men who have always slept on soft pillows. How they ever be friends of the people, who have spent their whole lives in nothing but suffering?"

  • Zapata:

  • "On the contrary, they have always been the scourge of the people... Those carbines! As soon as these a little chance, well, they want to take advantage of it and line their own pockets! Well, to hell with them!"

  • Alliance was short-lived

  • Zapata to Morelos

  • Villa to north

POLITICAL CHAOS (early 1915)

  • President Gutierrez

  • Abandoned Mexico City to Nuevo Leon

  • Obregon

  • Took Mexico City

  • Carranza (Constitutionalists)

  • Claimed to be ruler from Veracruz

  • Carranza's Additions to the Plan of Guadalupe (Dec. 12, 1914)

  • Law of Reform (like Benito Juarez's Laws of Reform)

  • Roque Gonzales Garza

  • Supported by Zapatistas as president

  • Pancho Villa

  • Claimed to be leader from Chihuahua

  • No-one recognized money or legal contracts of the others

BATTLE OF CELAYA (Apr. 6-15, 1915)

  • Forces under Pancho Villa

  • Badly defeated by forces under Obregon troops supporting Carranza

  • Carranza became political leader of Mexico

  • Zapata and Villa retreated - but remained threats

  • US supported Constitutionalists (Carranza) (official in Oct. 1915)

  • ​Pancho Villa angry about US support of Carranza and killed Americans

PANCHO VILLA

  • Jan. 9, 1916 Killed American civilians in Santa Isabel (Chihuahua)

  • Mar. 9, 1916 terrorized town of Columbus, New Mexico, killed 18

  • Screamed "Viva Villa! Muerte a los Gringos!

  • Woodrow Wilson sent General John Pershing to find Pancho Villa

  • 6,000 US troops to Mexico ($130 million)

  • No help from locals who yelled "Viva Villa!"

  • First Chief Carranza ordered Pershing to withdraw

  • Didn't withdraw until Jan. 1917

VENUSTIANO CARRANZA (r. 1915-1920)

  • Bio

  • Conservative from a rich, northern landowning family

  • Primer Jefe (First Chief) of the Constitutionalists

  • Head of State 1915-1917, President 1917-1920

  • Promulgated 1917 Constitution (but didn't enforce it)

  • Current constitution of Mexico

  • Drafted in Queretaro by a constituent convention

  • Successor to Constitution of 1857

  • Freedoms

  • Freedom to petition, assembly, bear arms, right to privacy, freedom of religion

  • Criminal rights

  • Habeas corpus, innocent until proven guilty, right to remain silent, lawyer, no cruel punishments or excessive fines, no double jeopardy, victims rights

  • Article 3

  • All people have right to free, secular, mandatory education

  • Article 27

  • Agrarian changes based on Zapata's Plan de Ayala

  • Land seized illegally from peasantry during Porfiriato to be restored

  • "Private property is a privilege created by the nation"

  • Nation can restrict private property for public interest and for equitable distribution of public wealth

  • Article 123

  • Everyone has a right to have a a job.

  • No child labor

  • Minimum wage, equal pay for equal work regardless of gender, workers entitled to profit sharing

  • Right to organize

  • Didn't do enough

  • Problems

  • Worthless paper money, mining losses, wages down, industry down, communication and transportation in shambles, agricultural shortages, inflation

  • Weak enforcement of Article 27

  • Carranza only distributed 45,000 acres (many hacendados had more than 7 million acres)

  • Land taken from political enemies

  • Violation of Article 123

  • Arrested leaders of workers who went on strike

  • Carranza reversed gains from Huerta

  • Carranza hated Huerta so much that he repudiated everything Huerta did

  • Reduced teacher salaries

  • restored land from communal ejidos to Porfirian owners

  • Lowered budget for education from 9.9% under Huerta to .09%

  • Lowered expenditures on social programs from 11.6% (1913) to 1.9% (1919)

ZIMMERMAN TELEGRAM (Jan. 19, 1917)

  • From German foreign minister (Arthur Zimmerman) to Mexico

  • Offered aid to Mexico to reclaim land lost during Mexican-American War

  • If Mexico joined Germany in World War I

  • Carranza was tempted because Germany had never taken anything from Mexico

  • But turned it down

  • Because he realized Germany was too bogged down in Europe to help Mexico

CARRANZA AGAINST ZAPATISTAS

  • Zapata letter to "Citizen" Carranza March 1919

  • "You turned the struggle to your own advantage and that of your friends who helped you rise and then shared the booty.."

  • "It never occurred to you that the Revolution was fought for the benefit of the great masses..."

  • Carranza sent 1000s of federal troops to Morelos under Gen. Pablo Gonzales

  • Destroyed crops, burned towns and killed 1000s of civilian supporters of Zapata.

  • Emiliano Zapata assassinated April 10, 1919

CARRANZA ASSASSINATED

  • Carranza's term due to end Dec. 1920

  • He tried to force election of Ignacio Bonillas

  • Opposition by his generals

  • Obregon led armed rebellion in April 1920

  • Carranza fled capital to Veracruz with government records and money from the treasury

  • His train was attacked, Carranza fled on horseback to mountains

  • Betrayed by bodyguards and murdered May 20

ALVARO OBREGON (1920-1924)

  • After Carranza's death

  • Sonoran generals of the Constitutionalist Army (Obregon, Plutarco Elias Calles, Adolfo de la Huerta) dominated Mexico

  • Foreign relations

  • US under Harding did not recognize his government

  • US demanded repeal of several articles of the Constitution of 1917 that were socialist and nationalist

  • Like Article 27 which said Mexico was in direct control of everything on Mexican soil

  • But Obregon considered foreign direct investment necessary to rebuild the Mexican economy after the revolution.

  • US had business interests in Mexico, especially oil

  • Would recognize Obregon's government

  • If he guaranteed the rights of property of US citizens living in Mexico

  • and its oil companies in Mexican territory

  • Bucareli treaty (1923)

Plutarco Elias Calles (1924-1934)

  • Bio

  • Was a loyal supporter of Obregon

  • Was interior minister under Obregon

  • Oregon chose him as his successor

  • Calles was liberal/radical

  • Anticlerical

  • 1924 Election

  • Calles was first populist

  • Called for land redistribution and promised equal justice, education, labor rights, democracy

  • Fears

  • Landowners (haciendados) feared they would lose their property

  • Industrialists feared higher wages for their workers

  • Government

  • Calles became less and less tolerant and more openly dictatorial

  • Relied heavily on the army to get rid of government foes

  • Political prisoners filled jails (many "committed suicide")

  • State atheism (1924-1926)

  • Large-scale secularization

  • Anti-clericalism

  • Based on 1917 Mexican Constitution (anti-Catholic)

  • Articles 3, 5, 24, 27, 130

  • Reaction = Cristero War (see below)

  • Economy

  • Economic growth

  • High demand for Mexican raw materials

  • Calles stepped up land distribution

  • Distributed 8 million acres between 1924 and 1928

  • Most of the land granted to the communal ejidos rather than individuals

  • To stem decline in agricultural productivity, he initiated irrigation projects, established agricultural schools and extended agricultural credit to small farmers.

  • Labor

  • Favored union leader Luis Moromes (brought into cabinet) and the CROM

  • By 1928, CROM membership had reached 1.8 million - had a strong influence and support from the government

  • Wages rose

  • Reforms

  • Added more than 2000 rural schools

  • Concentrated on teaching Spanish to acculturate Indians

  • Health and sanitation program built

  • Foreign policy

  • American government wanted more assurances that foreign property interests would be protected

  • But Calles refused to go beyond promises made by Bucareli Treaty

  • New petroleum law December 1925

  • Required all oil companies apply to the government for confirmation of their concessions.

  • Mexico would apply doctrine of "positive acts" as under terms of Bucareli Treaty

  • Cancelled Bucareli Treaty

Cristero War (1926-1929)

  • Church and State had struggled in 19th century with War of Reform

  • Reaction to Articles 3, 24, 27 and 130 in Constitution ("Calles Law")

  • Article 3: Educational services shall be secular

  • Article 24: Every man shall be free to choose any religious belief

  • Article 130: State and church are separate entities. Religious congregations shall be organized under the law.

  • Which limited the power of the Roman Catholic Church

  • Caused massive rural uprising supported (tacitly) by the Church

  • In north-central region of Mexico

  • Government made some concessions ending the conflict 1929

Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI) (1929-2000)

  • Formed in 1929 to consolidate reforms from 1917 Constitution

  • Backed by pro-government labor unions and peasant organizations

Lazaro Cardenas (1934 - 1940)

  • Reestablished the ejido system

  • Which established communally shared farmland.

Nationalization

  • 1937 nationalization of the railways

  • 1938 expropriation of the oil industry from British and US firms

Industrialization 1950s and 60s

NAFTA 1994

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