• Amanda Roraback

Between the wars - Europe


Treaty of Versailles

Incorporated Wilson's 14 points

Little Entente

Czechoslovakia, Romania and Yugoslavia

Main target was Hungary

Not protection against Germany (more concern about Russia)

Poland didn't join because of border dispute with Czechoslovakia

France allied with Little Entente and with Poland

Germany and Russia both concerned about being left out of the alliances

Treaty of Rapallo 1922

Germany and USSR established diplomatic and economic relations with each other.

Germans helped train Russian army

Germany's army got valuable experience in use of tanks and planes in USSR.

Caused French to believe that Germany was not going to live up to Versailles treaty

Ruhr Crisis 1923

France (PM Raymond Poincare) declared Germany defaulted on payment of reparations.

Jan. 11, 1923 French sent troops to occupy German mining and manufacturing in Ruhr region

Germans told German workers to go on general strike

Poincare sent French workers to take their place in mines and railroads

Germans relented and paid

But British criticized French heavy-handed action

British became more sympathetic to Germany

Germans printed money to pay German workers and reparations

Caused massive inflation

French government

1924 Poincare government lost election

Coalition of leftist parties (Cartel des Gauches, led by Edouard Herriot)

Took control of French government

Recognized the Soviet Union

More friendly to Germany

Aristide Briand was foreign minister

Mild inflation - value of franc fell in 1926

Poincare returned in 1926

Franc recovered, lower inflation = prosperity until 1931



1918 all men over 21 and women over 30 could vote

1928 all women over 21


Before war = coalition of Liberal, Conservative and Labour ministers

Labour Party participation in war earned it reputation as being less radical

Liberal Party divided

Up to 1916 Liberal PM was Herbert Asquith

But disagreements over war management = Asquith out and Liberal David Lloyd George in.

Party split - supporters for Asquith and Lloyd George

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