Lincoln is elected (Nov. 6)
South Carolina secedes (Dec. 17)
Six other states secede (Jan)
Confederate States of America formed at Montgomery, AL (Feb. 8-9)
Jefferson Davis is appointed first president of Confederate States (Feb. 18)
Lincoln inaugurated as 16th president (Mar. 4)
Ft. Sumter, S.C., Union loses, Civil War begins (Apr. 12)
Battle of Bull Run (or Manassas), Union loses (July 21)
Battle of Shiloh, Union wins (Apr. 6-7)
Second Battle of Bull Run (or Manassas), Union loses (Aug. 30-31)
Battle of Antietam, Union victory (Sept. 17)
Emancipation Proclamation goes into effect (Jan. 1)
Battle of Vicksburg begins (May 18)
Battle of Gettysburg, PA, Union wins (July 1-3)
Vicksburg, Mississippi surrenders to Union (July 4)
Sherman's March to the Sea (Nov. 15 to Dec. 21)
Battle of Appomattox Court House, Lee surrenders to Grant (Apr. 9)
Lincoln is assassinated at Ford's Theater by John Wilkes Booth (Apr. 14)
Jefferson Davis is captured (May 10)
Civil War officially ends (May 26)
13th Amendment adopted (Dec.)
CAUSES OF CIVIL WAR
Gag rule (1836-1840, repealed in 1844)
Prevented congress member from discussing slavery
Disagreements over expansion of slavery to Mexican Cession (see Wilmot Proviso)
Compromise of 1850, Kansas-Nebraska Act 1854, "Bleeding Kansas," John Brown, Dred Scott Decision, Raid on Harper's Ferry
Although only 25% of Southerners owned slaves, most small farmers aspired to become large slave owners.
Southern arguments in favor of slavery:
Biblical reasons (slavery was accepted in the Old Testament of the Bible)
The idea that all white men were equally superior to black men,
The belief that slaves were biologically suited for a life of slavery and couldn't function without the paternalistic protection of slave owners
The South's economy depended on slavery to survive'
Cultural tradition of slavery.
Lincoln-Douglas Debate 1858
House Divided v. Freeport Doctrine
States Right v. Federal Rights
Southern states claimed to be exercising their right to secede from the Union
But didn't believe Northern states had the right to outlaw slavery or resist returning fugitive slaves to their owners in the South.
Other state's rights issues in American history
Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions (after Alien and Sedition Act)
Nullification Crisis (after Tariff of Abominations)
Hartford Convention (Federalists, War of 1812)
McCulloch v. Maryland (regarding 2nd Bank of US)
Northeast = industry
West = wheat, cattle
South = cash crops, especially cotton
Industry in North attracted immigrants (Irish, German etc.)
Laws (like protective tariffs) protected industry but hurt states that bought industril goods.
More railroads connecting customers and sellers of farmed goods and manufactured goods
2/3 of world's cotton grown in South
Cotton plantations required a lot of labor (slaves)
Cotton was sold to England and to northern textile companies
When land was exhausted, planters had to move (some to the West)
Election of 1860
Election of Abraham Lincoln, a Republican (see below)
ABRAHAM LINCOLN and REPUBLICANS
LINCOLN AND SLAVERY
Lincoln (“Honest Abe”) ran for president on Republican ticket (see below)
Lincoln and slavery
Lincoln did not believe in racial equality
Allowing blacks to vote
Sit on juries
Marry white people
Or be citizens
He didn’t even want to abolish slavery in the southern states where it already exists
He believed that the institution would eventually fade on its own.
Founded in 1854 by anti-slavery Whigs
Whigs had been formed to oppose "tyranny" of Andrew Jackson
But split and disintegrated after the Kansas-Nebraska Bill of 1854
Their first candidate, John C. Fremont, won 114 electoral votes but lost the 1856 election to President Buchanan (a Democrat) who won 174.
A number of Southern states threatened to secede (break away) from the United States if a Republican won the election in 1860. (Lincoln, a Republican, won)
Higher protective tariffs
Homestead law (free land for settlers)
More internal improvements (RR to Pacific)
To maintain Union at all costs
And supported 1846 Wilmot Proviso
Prohibiting expansion of slavery into any regions acquired from Mexico
ELECTION OF 1860
The Northern and Western States had a majority of the electoral votes
And could therefore outvote the South in any election
Stephen Douglas (Northern Democrat)
Pro-Union, pro-Freeport Doctrine, for popular sovereignty
John c. Breckinridge (Southern Democrat)
Strong supporter of slavery
Pro Dred Scott decision
John Bell (Constitutional Union)
Constitutional Union party
Breakaway group formed from American Party and Southern Whig
Pro-Union (didn't want to secede from the U.S)
But didn't take a stand on slavery (either for or against)
John Crittenden (see below) was a leading member
Appealed mostly to border states (Kentucky, Virginia, Tennessee)
None of the slave states put Lincoln’s name on the ballot
So two sectional elections
Lincoln v. Douglas in the North
Breckinridge v. Bell in the South
Lincoln won the presidency
With only 39% of the popular vote
And all 18 free states
Clear majority (180 votes) in the Electoral College
SOUTH CAROLINA SECEDES (Dec. 20, 1860)
Immediately after election of Lincoln, S.C. legislature convened special convention
Voted unanimously to secede from the Union
S.C. issued “A Declaration of the Causes of Secession”
Asserting that a sectional party (only in the northern "section" of the U.S.) had elected a president hostile to slavery
Believed secession would “liberate” south
And save them from any federal attempts to emancipate slaves
Ultimately a states rights move
Other historical threats to secede
New England Federalists during War of 1812 (Hartford Convention)
In 1832 South Carolina threatened to secede over the 1828 Tariff of Abominations
Created "Nullification crisis"
CRITTENDEN COMPROMISE (Dec. 18, 1860)
Hoping to prevent war Senator John Crittenden (Kentucky) proposed a compromise
Adding an amendment to the Constitution
Would determine whether new territories would enter Union as free or slave states
All territories north of 36' 30" would remain free, south of 36' 30" would remain slave.
Promise that no future amendment would tamper with institution of slavery in slave states.
Many southerners contemplated the compromise
But Lincoln rejected it
Belief that the people had elected him to prevent westward expansion of slavery
Said “I am inflexible”
SECESSION (Feb. 1861)
Feb. 1861 – 6 other slave states followed South Carolina
Black Belt, Cotton Belt, Bible Belt
Delegates met in Montgomery, Alabama
Where they formed the Confederate States of America (Confederacy or CSA)
Drew up a constitution
Similar to U.S. Constitution except it "protected and recognized" slavery in new territories.
Jefferson Davis was chosen as provisional president
NORTH AND SOUTH COMPARED
22 million free citizens
5.5 million could fight
90% of factories in North
Railroad network twice as large as South
Shipping, mining in north
80% of banking
10 million people (7 ½ free, rest slaves)
South had very few factories (had to import arms/munitions)
South focused only growing cotton and tobacco
Didn’t have to conquer, subdue and pacify enemy’s territory.
Was defensive war
Southern generals familiar with ground (maps were useless for North)
Southern generals and soldiers superior
South had accorded higher status to military education
All but 1 had gone to military college in south
But disadvantages outweighed advantages
South needed to find an ally
French and British both looked favorably on the Confederacy
Ambivalence toward Civil War
In favor of South
South was chief source of fiber for Br. textile industry
English lords looked on southern planters as kinsmen because they imitated English manners.
Believed war was the last opportunity to arrest growing economic power of US
British had outlawed slavery in 1833 and didn't like the institution in the South
Lord Palmerston (Britain's PM) was unwilling to risk the wrath of antislavery voters unless Confederacy showed chance of winning.
South blunders, bad luck and Union victories showed losses in South
Diminishing the chance of British help
Before war, Great Britain had accumulated a huge inventory of cotton
At the time of the war, Britain was more interested in Northern wheat and corn than cotton.
Believing Britain was completely dependent on Southern cotton
Tried to blackmail Britain
By withholding cotton if British didn't support South
English mill owners had seen war coming and stockpiled reserves.
Farmers in Egypt, Middle East and India devoted more land to cotton.
Union captured enough cotton in Tennessee to keep mills of New England humming and even sell to Britain
Br. Discovered Union wheat more valuable than "King Cotton."
WHY DID THE WAR TAKE FOUR YEARS?
If the North had such an advantage - why did war take four years?
Considered south as part of themselves
“House Divided” should be reunited as soon as possible
Lincoln didn’t want to destroy South
Fought with passion
Believed livelihood at stake
TERMS AND PEOPLE
North ("United States")
“Yankees” to the Southerners
Capital: Washington, DC
Generals: Ulysses S. Grant, George McClellan
President: Abraham Lincoln
South (Confederate States of America, CSA)
"Secessionists," "Rebels" to Northerners
Capital: Richmond, Virginia
Generals: Joseph Johnston, Robert E. Lee, Thomas Jonathan "Stonewall" Jackson
President: Jefferson Davis
Republicans: Lincoln's Party (see above)
Radical Republicans: Believed Lincoln was too slow freeing slaves
Union Party: Name of Republican Party in Election of 1864 (see below)
War Democrats: Supporters of Lincoln in North, wanted aggressive policy toward South
Copperheads: Democrats in North who opposed Civil War and wanted immediate peace
Only 10 of 14 slave states followed South Carolina and seceded
Other four slave states:
Remained loyal to North
Seceded from VA in 1863
And joined the Union as a free state
Border states were crucial to the north:
Discredited Confederacy’s claim
That the Union would emancipate all slaves
Deprived South of potential fighters and factories
Maryland and Delaware had many factories which could have doubled the South's industrial capabilities
Maryland’s secession would have isolated DC from the rest of the North
Border states provided access to Rivers: Missouri, Mississippi River
FORT SUMTER (First Battle, Apr. 1861, Union loses)
Ten days after Lincoln was sworn in as America’s 16th president
S. Carolina demanded that US troops withdraw from Ft. Sumter
A small island in Charleston Harbor
When Lincoln didn’t comply
S.C. militiamen shelled the fort
Until the garrison’s commander surrendered
The easy defeat of the Fort
Led may Southerners to conclude that Northerners lacked the will to fight
Also convinced Arkansas, N.C., Tennessee and Virginia to secede
The Civil War had begun.
FIRST BATTLE OF BULL RUN/MANASSAS (Jul. 1861, Union loses)
1st significant battle at Manassas Junction (30 mi. southwest of DC)
Union soldiers fled
Left several 1000 dead and wounded
Southern General: Thomas J. Jackson, earned name "Stonewall" Jackson
Because he stood firm like a "stone wall."
Revealed weakness of North (none of the officers had experience)
Gave South a false sense of invincibility
North buckled down for long, bitter war
After defeat at Bull Run, the North developed a battle strategy
Defend Washington DC, the North's capital
By Army of Potomac (fortified and surrounded by full platoon)
Take rivers and tributaries
If North won complete control of Mississippi they would cut Confederacy in two
Isolating Texas, Ark, and LA from heart of Confederacy east
Leaving them at mercy of small Union armies
(Accomplished July 1863 at Battle of Vicksburg)
Naval blockade (Anaconda Plan)
Stop Confederate from selling cotton abroad or buying manufactures (munitions)
Called for a blockade of southern ports
Like a constricting snake
To strangle Confederacy
Union Navy had too few ships to patrol 3,550 coastline
Never completely stopped commerce
In part because Northern manufacturers needed southern markets.
And products could be shipped up/down Mississippi R.
Northerners feared if Britain couldn’t get Southern cotton, they would invade U.S. to open ports
South produced ¾ of world’s cotton
FORT HENRY AND DONELSON (Feb. 1862, Union Victory)
Union General Ulysses S. Grant captured Fort Henry and Donelson in Tennesee
First significant Union victory
BATTLE OF SHILOH (April 6-7, 1862, narrow Union victory)
Union General U.S. Grant
Engaged Confederate forces at Shiloh, Tenn.
Battle killed 25,000 men
Narrow Union Victory
Shattered Southerner’s hope for a quick and easy victory
Showed Lincoln’s resolve to save Union
BATTLE OF ANTIETAM (Sept. 1862, Union victory)
Confederate general Robert E. Lee trying to move war to North
Confederacy could capture Washington DC
And/or British and French intervention on the side of the Confederacy
Either of which would mean Confederate victory and independence
Lee crossed Potomac with 40,000 men
George McClellan (Union general) moved troops to meet Lee in western Maryland
McClellan notoriously slow, overestimated size of enemy forces and repeatedly called for reinforcement
He also ignored Lincoln’s direction to advance because he had no intention of disrupting slavery
Lincoln needed military victories to end war quickly
He knew American people wouldn't support a long, drawn out war
McClellan found Lee’s battle plan before the battle (on papers wrapped around cigars)
But moved slowly.
And didn't pursue Lee's forces as they retreated across Potomac to VA
Lincoln fired McClellan and hired Ulysses S. Grant.
10s of 1000s of soldiers died = . more Americans died on Sept. 17, 1862 than any other day in American history.
One of turning points in the war
Although no significant victory, Lee’s withdrawal was enough of a defeat
To allow Lincoln to portray it as Union victory (Despite McClellan's failures)
And convince Europeans not to get involved.
Lincoln used this “victory” to issue Emancipation Proclamation
Which completely altered the aim of the war
From preserving the Union
To ending slavery
(proclaimed Sept. 22, 1862, went into effect Jan. 1, 1863)
Lincoln waiting for a Union victory before announcing Emancipation Proclamation.
Antietam provided opportunity
Preliminary Emancipation Proclamation (Sept. 22, 1862)
Warned that unless South laid down arms by end of 1862, Lincoln would decree abolition of slavery.
Purpose of Proclamation:
Hurt South economically
Confederacy depended on slave labor
Turn war into moral cause
Boosting support for the war in the North
Convince Britain (which outlawed slavery in 1833) not to support South
Get more soldiers for Union army
Proclaimed Sept 2, 1862
To take effect Jan. 1, 1863
Border state slaves not free
Lincoln didn’t want border states to secede in anger
Also allowed free blacks to join U.S. Army and Navy.
See transcript here.
On Jan. 1, 1863 "all persons held as slaves within any State or designated part of a State, the people whereof shall then be in rebellion against the United States...will recognize and maintain the freedom of such persons..."
Truth – not a single slave left the plantation that day
Because Lincoln had no control in the South
BATTLE OF VICKSBURG (May-Jun. 1863, Union victory)
Vicksburg fell on July 4, 1863
Strategically the most significant battle for the North
Gave Union forces control of the entire Mississippi River.
Effectively cutting the Confederacy in half
While Vicksburg taking place, Union forces were repelling Robert E. Lee's invasion in PA at Battle of Gettysburg
BATTLE OF GETTYSBURG (July 1-3, 1863, Union victory)
Civil War at a stalemate
Most battles took place in South
Fredericksburg, VA in Dec. 1862 (Confederate win)
Chancellorsville, VA in May 1863 (Confederate win)
End of June 1863 Robert E. Lee decided to move northward to Penn. (Union soil)
To destroy as many military posts as possible in PA and MD while Union defended D
Hoped North would lose faith in the war
Lee sent all troops to Gettysburg and battled Union
After three days of fighting (deaths: 23,000 Union, 28,000 Confederate)
Lee retreated back to Confederate territory
This was the most decisive battle
It broke the "charm of Lee's invincibility"
Southerners became more critical of their government
Lincoln gave "Gettysburg Address" at funeral dedicated to soldiers who died at Gettysburg
Lincoln gave the speech at the funeral dedicated to those who died at Gettysburg
After a 2 hour speech by Edward Everett
Lincoln spoke for 2 minutes (272 words)
“Four score and seven years ago, our fathers brought forth on this continent a new nation, conceived in liberty and dedicated to the proposition that all men are created equal"
...we here highly resolve that these dead shall not have died in vain -- that this nation, under God, shall have a new birth of freedom -- and that government of the people, by the people, for the people, shall not perish from the earth."
One of Lincoln's best speeches
Honored those who gave lives
But was more about preserving self-government and healing the country
"four score and seven years ago" (87 years ago, that is, 1776)
A reference to the Biblical passage Psalms 90:10 which says "The days of our years are threescore years and ten..." that is, 70 years, the average length a human life. Implied that the Union had lasted longer than a typical lifespan.
Emphasized the unity of the country by referring to the Declaration of Independence.
Turned Civil War into a moral war to protect fundamental American principle (all men equal, government by the people")
See transcript here.
Lee’s defeat at Gettysburg and the loss of the Mississippi River
Crushed the South
Boosted morale and support for the war in the North
And increased Lincoln’s popularity
Blockade (Anaconda) starting to kick in
Preventing the South from trading cotton for war supplies or food
Jefferson Davis continued to wage war for 2 more years
Still hoping that GB would help him
SHERMAN’S MARCH THROUGH GEORGIA
Led by Gen. William Tecumseh Sherman
Marched through Georgia and South Carolina
Destroyed transportation, stole food, burned houses.
To break morale
And deprive South of resources
Sherman's Special Field Orders
No. 120 (Nov. 9, 1864)
Army will forage liberally (stealing turnips, apples, vegetables etc.) but not hurt the people
No. 15 ("40 acres and a mule" promise) (Jan. 16, 1865)
Confiscated 400,000 acres of land along Atlantic coast (S.C., GA, FL)
Land to be divided into parcels of 40 acres
18,000 freed slave families settled there
Purpose: To deal with 10s of 1000s of balck refugee who had joined Sherman's march in search of protection and food
Supposed to be temporary (not permanent ownership)
Later revoked by Andrew Jonson
Sherman victories convinced voters to reelect Lincoln
Lincoln didn't want to postpone elections (see quote)
Republicans ran as Union Party.
Union Party (Republicans) - Abraham Lincoln
VP Andrew Johnson, a War Democrat from Tennessee
Voters encouraged by Sherman victories
80% of soldiers voted for Lincoln (wanted "peace with honor")
Democrats - George McClellan
McClellan was the former Union general (fired by Lincoln)
Had support from those who were tired of war and casualties.
Said only asking for Union to be restored
Planned to restore slavery
Lincoln won 55% popular votes and 212 electoral votes (McClellan won 21)
In order to ensure that future presidents would not bring back slavery.
Lincoln put all his effort into creating an Amendment that would permanently end slavery.
Passed in Senate April 8, 1864
Passed House on Jan. 31, 1865
Ratified by states Dec. 6, 1865
4 million people freed (3.5 million in CSA, 500,000 in border states)
Section 1: Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United states, or any place subject to their jurisdiction.
Section 2: Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.
SURRENDER AT APPOMATOX COURTHOUSE (April 6, 1865)
Union troops had conquered Richmond, VA (Confederate capital)
Southerners had abandoned the city on April 2.
Lee is cut off from supplies
In town called Appomattox Court House, Virginia
Southern General Robert E. Lee Northern General U.S. Grant met
Lee was offered generous terms by Lincoln
Lee's soldiers were sent home with three days rations
Officers were allowed to keep their arms.
The war was over.
UNION DURING THE WAR
Draft Riots in NYC (July 1863)
Union's Conscription Act (Marc. 1863)
All men 20-45 could be drafted to serve in the military
Draftee could avoid service if they found substitute or paid $300
Provoked four days of rioting in New York City.
The rioters: mostly Democrats, Irish immigrants
Resented the fact that wealthy individuals could pay substitutes to fight for them
And feared that freed slaves would flood to the north and compete for jobs.
Attacked blacks and wealthy whites
More than 100 died in the riots
Portrayed in the 2002 film "Gangs of New York"
Democrats in the north who opposed the Civil War
Financing the War
Innovations by Secretry of the Tresury, Salmon P Chase
Union borrowed $2.6 billion through sale of government bonds.
Morrill Tariff of 1861 -- to raise revenue and protect U.S. manufacturers
First income tax (Aug. 5, 1861)
Temporary flat tax : 3% for income above $800
Revenue Act of 1862 replaced flat rate with progressive tax: 3% on $600+, 5% above $10,000, and created IRS
Temporary - to 1866
Steep excise tax (including on whiskey)
Legal Tender Act, 1862 -
Authorized the use of paper notes (rather than gold or silver/specie which were in short supply) to pay the government's bills.
Allowed government to print $150 million in paper money (greenbacks) not backed by specie - caused inflation prices up 80%
By end of war, 1/2 billion dollars in greenbacks issued - became a permanent currency
Morrill Land Grant College Act (July 2, 1862)
To spur agricultural development
The government provided grants of land to states to establish colleges specializing in agriculture.
Transcontinental Railroad (1862)
Pacific Railway Act (Jul. 1, 1862)
Congress granted 100 million acres of land Union Pacific and Central Pacific companies
The companies had received charters to build a railroad from the Missouri River to the Pacific coast.
The resulting transcontinental railroad (largely built with Chinese immigrant labor) was completed in 1869.
It ran from Omaha, Nebraska to San Francisco
At the expense of the Plains Indians, since bison were killed almost to extinction to make way for the railroad tracks and destroy the Native Americans' livelihood
Homestead Act (Passed May 20, 1862)
To encourage settlement in the west
The government offered 160 acres of land to settlers willing to cultivate the land and live in the homesteads for five years.
Suspension of Habeas Corpus (Passed Mar. 3, 1863)
In order to silence critics of the war, a number of newspaper editors, Democratic politicians and people who tried to discourage enlistment were imprisoned.
Twice Lincoln suspended the writ of habeas corpus (the law that prevents illegal detention of accused people)
Lincoln argued in a letter to a Democrat Congressman, Erastus Corning, that he was not in violation of the Constitution
Article One, Section 9, clause 2: "The privilege of the writ of habeas corpus shall not be suspended, unless when in cases of rebellion or invasion the public safety may require it."
After Wheeling Conventions of 1861
Admitted as a state Dec. 31, 1862
Became key border state
Ex parte Milligan (1866)
After the Civil War had ended the Supreme Court declared that it was unconstitutional to try people in military tribunals when civil courts are still operating.
Battle of Sand Creek (See Native American Wars)
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