Tudors and Stuarts
Henry VIII (r. 1509-1547)
Was once the "Defender of the [Catholic] Faith" who hated Luther
Wanted to end marriage to Catherine of Aragon (daughter of Ferdinand and Isabella of Spain)
In order to marry Anne Boleyn
And have a male heir (Catherine had a daughter, Mary, but too old to bear more children).
Pope refused to grant Henry the annulment
Henry broke with the Catholic Church
Created the Protestant Anglican Church (Church of England)
Henry VIII was church's Supreme Head (Act of Supremacy 1534)
"Protector and Only Supreme Head of the Church and Clergy of England"
Anglican Church kept most Catholic traditions (hierarchy of the clergy, Six Articles, 1539 etc.
Beginning in 1536, Parliament began closing English monasteries and taking their land.
Most of the land was sold to nobles and rich merchants (supporters of Tudors)
Henry's wives and children:
Catherine of Aragon (marriage annuled) --> Mary
Anne Boleyn (beheaded) --> Elizabeth
Jane Seymour (died)--> Edward
Other wives: Anne of Cleves (annuled), Anne Howard (beheaded), Catherine Parr (survived)
Edward VI (r. 1547-1553)
Son of Jane Seymour (see above)
Crowned at age 9 --> England ruled by regents (person appointed when monarch is underage)
True Protestantism established
Priests can marry, no more Catholic-style Mass, services in English - not Latin
Edward died at age 15
Mary I ("Bloody Mary") (r. 1553-1558)
Daughter of Catherine of Aragon (see above)
Married King Philip II of Spain 1554-58 (see Family Tree)
Tried to restore Catholicism
Killed Protestant dissenters (reason for nickname "Bloody Mary")
Died without children
Elizabeth I ("Virgin Queen") (r. 1558-1603)
Daughter of Anne Boleyn
Enacted Elizabethan Religious Settlement, 1559
Priests could marry
Sermons in English.
No images in churches
Elizabeth would be Supreme Governor of Anglican Church (Act of Supremacy 1558)
Church of England kept bishops and archbishops who wore vestments
And formal services with incense and other traditions.
Chose not to marry (hence nickname "Virgin Queen")
Defeated Spain in Spanish Armada 1588
Shakespeare wrote plays during Elizabethan era
Imprisoned and killed Mary Queen of Scots (see below)
James I (aka James VI of Scotland) (r. 1603-1625)
Son of Mary Queen of Scots (see Tudor/Stuart family tree above)
Raised Presbyterian (Scottish Calvinist) but favored Anglicanism
Became King of Scotland (as James VI) at age 1 when Mary (a Catholic) was overthrown
Became King of England (as James I) after Elizabeth died without heirs
Considered the "wisest fool in Christendom"
Believed in "Divine Right" of Kings (power to rule from God, not parliament)
Which offended parliament and Puritans (who dominated Parliament)
1604 commissioned the King James Bible (to be the official Anglican version)
Supported Archbishop of Canterbury, William Laud (r. 1633-1640) as his adviser
Laud supported Anglican hierarchy (offended Puritans)
And religious conformity, he enforced uniform rituals
James offended Catholics by banning Jesuits
Catholic plot to kill him (Called "Gunpowder plot")
Intensified anti-Catholic sentiment in England
Gave charter to Virginia Company of London to found Jamestown (1607)
The first permanent settlement in New World
Separatist Puritans ("Pilgrims") go to Plymouth on Mayflower in 1620
James always short on money
Because of wars with Spain and spending habits
Had to ask parliament for cash
House of Lords (dominated by great noble landowners)
House of Commons (gentry and representatives of merchants and townspeople)
Charles I (r. 1625-1649)
Also believed in "Divine Right of Kings"
Ruled 11 years without calling parliament (1629-1640)
Parliament refused to pay for navy until it had a say in the way it was used.
Raised money by levying ancient "ship money" (a medieval tax on coastal towns) and "forced loans" (nobles who didn't "lend" money to king were arrested)
Puritans (Calvinists who wanted to "purify" Anglican church of Catholic elements)
Opposed Charles's support for High Anglicans.
Considered "disloyal" by Charles I
"Great Migration" of Puritans to Massachusetts Bay Colony in New World (1629-1640)
Presbyterian Scots rebelled against Anglican Church in Scotland 1637
Short Parliament (Apr.-May 1640)
Charles called parliament in 1640 to get money for battle with Scotland,
Disbanded it after three weeks when MPs ("members of parliament" - especially John Pym, Oliver Cromwell) demanded concessions in exchange
Most MPs were Puritans supported by merchant class.
Long Parliament (1640-1653)
Charles I forced to call parliament again in November 1640 to fight Scots
MPs agreed to money but said king couldn't disband parliament without its consent
Long Parliament executed royal advisers, ended the Anglican hierarchy, declared Presbyterianism (Calvinism) the legal religion.
Charles married Catholic sister of French King Louis XIII
= more concessions to English Catholics
Trouble in Catholic Ireland = parliament and King didn't trust each other, Both raised a militia
Civil War (1642-1649)
King Charles and Cavaliers v. Parliament, Puritans, Roundheads
supporters king: nobles, peasants
Led by Charles I
Supporters of Parliament: Puritans, merchants
Led by Oliver Cromwell (nicknamed 'Old Ironsides")
Cromwell created troops called "The Ironsides" which became "New Model Army"
Based on extreme Calvinist discipline, democratic,
Charles surrendered to Scots
Who handed him over to Parliament in exchange for back military pay.
Parliament purged of all MPs who are sympathetic to King
Rump parliament vote to behead the king for treason (because of claims of "divine right" to demonstrate power of parliament over monarchy
Charles I beheaded (see painting below)
His sons, Charles and James, fled to Catholic France
Parliament ruled while Oliver Cromwell controlled policies
Cromwell brutally put down rebellions in Catholic Ireland and Calvinist Scotland
Settled Engish landlords in Ireland and forced Protestant church on population.
Opponents to the Commonwealth
Wanted to "level" social differences to create social justice
Wanted members of Parliament (MPs) to be paid (so that poor could also serve)
Wanted a written constitution.
And Parliament to be chosen by vote of all male heads of household (without property requirements)
Quakers -- Opposed violence
Diggers -- Socialist - opposed private property
Fifth Monarchy Men
Believed the end of time and the "second coming of Jesus" was close.
In 1653, Cromwell disbanded Parliament when they tried to dismantle his army
Cromwell ruled as Lord Protector of the Commonwealth of England, Scotland and Ireland - became military dictator
Made Britain a model Puritan land (puritanical "blue laws" imposed)
Fast days once a month, no recreation allowed on Sunday, swearing was punishable by a fine, make-up, Christmas celebrations, horse racing was banned etc.
When Cromwell died, his son, Richard, became Lord Protector but he was weaker than his father and resigned after nine months.
Charles II (r. 1660-1685) ("Merry Monarch")
After Richard Cromwell resigned, Parliaemnt reinstated monarchy - invited Charles I's son to rule
Called the "Restoration" Period
Charles II ended Puritan restrictions (nicknamed the "Merry Monarch")
Dissenters (Puritans) severely restricted and couldn't vote.
Since he was invited by Parliament, Charles II had less power to tax and had to call Parliament every three years.
Charles turned to his ally, Catholic French King Louis XIV, for financing
Charles promised to convert to Catholicism on his deathbed in exchange
And pledged England to fight against the Dutch
To prevent Catholics from holding offices, Parliament passed Test Act in 1673
Which required Protestant oath of loyalty
All office-holders had to take communion in Church of England.
Catholics couldn't serve in army or navy.
Whigs and Tories
Upper aristocracy backed by middle class and merchants
Didn't want James II to succeed Charles (because he was Catholic)
Lesser aristocracy, gentry, suspicious of wealthy in London
Loyal to the Church and the King
James II (r. 1685-1688)
Charles I's son, Charles II's brother
James II was a Catholic married to a Catholic woman
His Protestant daughter, Mary, was married to Protestant William of Orange from the Netherlands
James II ignored Test Act (see above)
Appointed Catholics to lucrative position
Believed he had power to make and reject laws
When James II suddenly had a male child who was baptized Catholic
As male, he would replace Mary as James's successor
The Parliament invited William and Mary to take power.
Glorious Revolution (r 1688-89)
Parliament invited William of Orange (Dutch husband of James II's daughter Mary) to bring fleet of 14,000 men to England to overthrow King James II
James II defeated 1690 at Battle of the Boyne in Ireland then fled to France
French under Louis XIV continued to support "James the Pretender" (James II's son) as rightful successor.
Revolution was peaceful (hence "Glorious")
William III and Mary II (r. 1689-1702)
William reduced Ireland to a colony and took Irish Catholic lands.
For legitimacy, William and Mary signed an English "Bill of Rights" in 1689
Bill of Rights (1689)
Created a constitutional monarchy (monarch's power was limited by laws)
Listed ways James II violated English laws
Granted a number of freedoms: Can't suspend laws without parliament, no standing army in time of peace, Protestants may have arms for defense (right to bear arms), freedom of speech and debates, no excessive fines or cruel and unusual punishments etc. (see U.S. Bill of Rights)
Toleration Act (1689)
Religious freedom for Dissenters (Puritans)
William created a Bank of England
To pay for war with France
William and Mary died without an heir
Anne (r. 1702-1714)
Act of Settlement (1701)
Successors to throne had to be Protestant descendants of the Stuart family
Act of Union (1707)
Created United Kingdom of Great Britain
Scots kept legal system and religion.
Anne also died without an heir
George I (r. 1714-1727)
First monarch from the German House of Hanover
Son of James VI's granddaughter, Sophia of Hanover
Although there were 56 closer relatives, George was the closest protestant relative (See Act of Settlement of 1701 above)
George only spoke German (not English) and didn't participate in the government.
The power of the monarchy diminished during his reign, actual power was held by a prime minister (Sir Robert Walpole)