Imperialism 19th Century
1815 -- West controlled 35% of the world
1915 -- West controlled 85% of the world
Latin American countries became independent
U.S. expands from Atlantic to Pacific Ocean after Mexican-American War
CONGRESS OF VIENNA, 1815
Balance of power is achieved in Europe which kept the peace
Concert of Europe = conservatives work to maintain balance
To ensure than no nation creates another Napoleon
WARS AFTER 1850
Crimean War (1853-1856)
Russia v. France, Britain and the Ottoman Empire
Wars of Italian Unification
Italy is unified in 1860
Franco-Prussian War (1870-71)
France suffers humiliating defeat (compensated through imperialism)
Germany is unified under Emperor Wilhelm and his PM Bismarck
REASONS FOR IMPERIALISM
ECONOMIC -- Industrial Revolution
Desire to find raw materials
Like rubber for tires, palm oil lubricant, etc.
Desire to find new customers to buy manufactured goods and keep people employed.
Need for bases and coal stations around world
For navies and civilian fleets
Steam and petroleum-driven ships needed repair and fueling facilities
Western nations seized islands and ports around the world
Truth was the cost of maintaining colonies was higher than profits.
Examples: Railroads more expensive than goods yielded.
Mines didn't yield enough minerals to cover costs
Theory by Herbert Spencer
That some people are more biologically evolved than others.
Used as justification for imperialism, racism, political conservatism
White Man's Burden (1899)
Poem by Rudyard Kipling about Philippine-American War
Promoted belief that the technologically advanced Western world
Had an obligation to "civilize" the less-developed world
Families and individuals wanted to make fortunes abroad
Overpopulation made jobs scarcer - colonies provided opportunities for work
Lowest white colonizers were enjoyed higher status in foreign countries.
Because of Concert of Europe
European nations can't expand borders in Europe
Nations looked for foreign lands to colonize
European nations expressing nationalistic pride after Napoleon is defeated
Colonizes to make up for humiliation of Franco-Prussian War
Imposed Russian language on all subjects.
Eager to expand territory to reach warm-water ports
Italy and Belgium
Not powerful in Europe, made up for it with colonies
Colonies because measure of status and prestige.
Competition among European countries to establish more colonies
Especially as the century closes and the amount of desirable unconquered land diminishes.
Desire to establish buffer colonies between primary colonies
West wealthy enough with industrialization to pay for
Allowed Europeans to travel by sea
And sail up previously un-navigable rivers.
Later used petroleum as fuel
Suez Canal (opened 1956)
Panama Canal (opened 1915)
Cut 1000s of miles off journeys.
Telegram (1880) allowed Europeans to communicate long-distances
In 1800 mail took 1 year to get from London to India
1880 telegram took 1 hour
Industrialization brought new weaponry
Machine gun (Maxim), Long-range artillery etc.
Natives could match technology
Battle of Omdurman in Sudan 1898
11,000 Muslim tribesmen died, 28 British soldiers.
First discovered in 1820
Medication taken from bark of a cinchona tree
Helped treat malaria, allowing Europeans to travel deep into Africa
First used by French in 1830
to protect soldiers from deadly malaria long enough to take Algeria.
Br. writer Joseph Conrad wrote Heart of Darkness 1902
Revealing brutality that came with conquest
SCRAMBLE FOR AFRICA