• amanda0195

Industrialization


INVENTIONS


  • Textile industry

  • John Kay - flying shuttle (1733)

  • Samuel Crompton - Spinning mule (1779)

  • Edmund Cartwright - water-driven power loom (1785)

  • James Watt's steam engine (1765)

  • Burned coal, which drove a piston, which turned a wheel

  • Steel

  • Bessemer process

  • Bessemer converter (1856) made cheaper, stronger steel

  • Coke (purified coal) replaced charcoal as principal fuel

  • Transportation

  • With steam engine and improved steel

  • George Stephenson invented first steam-powered locomotive (1815)

  • Called the Rocket

  • Steamships

  • Began to replace sailing ships in mid 19th c.

  • Eli Whitney

  • Invented cotton gin 1793

  • Interchangeable parts for firearms

  • Henry Ford (1913)

  • Introduced assembly line in automobile production

INDUSTRIALIZATION AROUND THE WORLD

BRITAIN

  • Industrialization began in Britain

  • Reasons

  • Enclosure

  • Large land-owners enclosed land and employed expensive machinery

  • Small farmers forced to leave farms

  • Created a large labor force for factories

  • Britain had a lot of rivers (water power and transportation)

  • British entrepreneurs provided capital

  • Government friendly towards business

  • New Limited Liability companies

  • British forbade emigration of skilled workes

BELGIUM

  • First successful country to follow in Britain's footsteps for industrialization

  • Reasons

  • Natural resources

  • Waterways for transportation

  • Contacts with Great Britain

  • Coal, iron, textile, glass and armaments production flourished early 19th c.

FRANCE

  • By 1830, French firms employed 50,000 skilled British workers

  • Who helped establish mechanized textile and metallurgical industires in France.

  • By mid 19th c.

  • French engineers and inventors devising refinements and innovations

  • led to greater efficiences - esp. in metallurgical industires

  • Later in century

  • Boom in raikroad construction

GERMANY


  • Industrialization slower than Belgium and France

  • Because of political instability

  • Because of competition between German states.

  • After 1840s

  • Iron and coal production soared

  • By 1850s

  • An extensive railroad network was under construction

  • After German unification

  • Bismarck sponsored rapid industirlization

  • To strengthen military - developed heavy industry

  • Formation of huge businesses

  • Giant Krupp firm, for example

  • ​dominated mining, metallurgy, armaments production, shipbuilding.

  • IG Farben

  • ​world's largest chemical company until mid 1900s.

JAPAN


  • Before the 1850s

  • Only one port was open to trade once a year in Nagasaki

  • Only the Dutch and Chinese could trade with Japan

  • American Commodore Matthew Perry came to Japan 1854

  • Japanese were forced to open to trade

  • Visit convinced Japanese that they needed to modernize

  • Resulted in Meiji Restoration

  • Tokugawa Shogunate overthrown

  • Meiji emperor came to power

  • Industrialization promoted by the governemnt

  • Thousands of foreign experts hired to establish modern industires

  • Opened technical insttitutes and universities

  • Initially the government owned businesses

  • In 1880s, the government sold most enterprise to private entrepreneurs (zaibatsu)

  • ​Resulted in concentration of enormous economic power in the hands of a small groups of people.

  • Japan was the most industrialized nation in Asia by 1900

RUSSIA

  • Crimean War (1853-56)

  • ​Russia lost to a coalition of Ottoman Empire, Britain, France

  • Emancipation of the serfs in 1861

  • ​Seen as an obstacle to economic development

  • Besides being economically inefficient, serfdom was source of rural instability and peasant revolt

  • ​100s of insurrections broke out during first half of 19th century.

  • Tsar Alexander II

  • ​"Better to abolish serfdom from above than to wait until the serfs begin to liberate themselves from below"

  • Alexander II emancipated serfs partly to create a labor force for industries.

  • Industrialization between 1860 and 1900

  • Finance minister Sergei Witte (Witte System)

  • ​Witte was minister of finance from 1892 to 1903

  • Aim: to remove the "unfavorable conditions which hamper the economic development of the country" and kindle "a hearty spirit of enterprise"

  • Oversaw construction of trans-Siberian railroad

  • ​Opened Siberia to large-scale settlement and exploitation of raw materials.

  • Reformed commercial law to protect industires

  • Remodeled the state bank to raise domestic capital for industries

  • Encouraged foreign investors

  • France and Belgium helped with steel and coal industires

  • Britain helped with petroleum

  • Promoted nautical and engineering schools

  • By 1900 Russia produced 1/2 the world's oil

OTTOMAN EMPIRE


  • After Suleiman the Magnificent (1520-1566), the Ottoman Empire declined.

  • Became "sick man of Europe"

  • Discovery of the New World cut Ottoman Empire out of trade route to Asia

  • Sultans were secluded and uneducated

  • The Janissaries prevented modernization.

  • Territories broke away

  • In the Balkans: Serbia, Greece

  • North Africa: Egypt became autonomous under Muhammad Ali

  • Ottoman Empire was dependent on Europe for manufactured goods

  • Egypt (Muhammad Ali 1805-1848)

  • Napoleon had defeated the Mamelukes in Egypt leaving a power vacuum.

  • Muhammad Ali rose to power in 1805 and enacted reforms

  • He built a powerful army based on European models

  • He hired French and Italian officers to train the troops

  • Launched a program of industrialization (esp. cotton textiles and arms)

  • Mahmud II (1808-1839)

  • Ottoman Sultan who launched his own reforms.

  • He massacred the Janissaries when they rebelled

  • And created a modern army based on European models

  • Secondary-level schools for boys.

  • Curbed religious clergy

  • Tanzimat Period (1839-1876)

  • Under sultans Abdulmedic I and Abdulaziz

  • Program launched to stop decline of the empire.

  • Heavily influence by European ideas.

  • Began with Edict of Gulhane 1839

  • Promoted "Ottomanization"

  • To stop the rise in nationalist movements (Greeks, Serbians, Egypt etc.)

  • And lesson foreign interference in Ottoman Empire through millets

  • Millets = autonomous communities of religious minorities (Christians, Jews)

  • Granted equality to all religions/ethnicities throughout empire

  • No more jizya and dhimmies.

  • All people could join army (not just Muslims)

  • Ottoman flag (see image), Ottoman currency, Ottoman national anthem

  • All men had to wear fez hats instead of traditional clothes which distinguished people by religion, occupation, status.


  • Other Tanzimat reforms

  • Secular law replaced religious law

  • Modern factories instead of guilds

  • Standardized taxation to eliminate abuses

  • Abolished slavery (1847)

  • Modern universities

  • Established first telegraph and railway networks (1850s)

  • Reaction to Tanzimat

  • Christians not happy because they wanted to keep autonomy

  • Muslim clergy unhappy because of equality of religions, end to religious laws (Sharia)

  • Young Ottomans believed reforms didn't go far enough

  • Constitutional period (1876)

  • Young Ottomans forced Abdul Hamid II to accept a constitution

  • Within a year, the sultan rejected the constitution and ruled as an autocrat.

  • Young Turks (1908)

  • Exile group that had studied in Europe

  • Committee of Union and Progress (CUP)

  • Favored

  • Universal suffrage

  • Free public education

  • Equal treatment under the law

  • Secularization and emancipation of women

  • Staged coup against Sultan Abdul Hamid II in 1908

  • Second Constitutional period

  • Multi-party democracy

  • Future sultans were puppets under the Young Turks

  • Turks were extremely nationalistic

  • Forced Turkish language and culture on the diverse population

  • Resulted in resistance in Arab and Armenian areas.

NORTH AMERICA

  • North America had a lot of resources

  • But without railroads, it was hard to exploit

  • 1820s

  • American industrialization begn when entrepreneurs lured British crafts workers to New England

  • and built cotton textile industry.

  • by mid 1800s, there were more than 1000 mills in the U.S.

  • First transcontinental railroad

  • Completed in the 1860s

  • Heavy iron and steel industries in 1870s

  • Robber Barons/Captains of industry

  • Andrew Carnegie (Carnegie Steel)

  • John D. Rockefeller (Rockefeller Oil -- monopoly)

  • By 1900, US was economic powerhouse

  • Labor and investment capital

  • Came largely from Europe

  • Migrants crossed Atlantic in large numbers

  • Eruopean bankers and businesspeople eagerly sought opportuniteis to invst in business

CONSEQUENCES OF INDUSTRIALIZATION

IMPERIALISM

  • Industrialization created a demand for raw materials and markets to sell manufactured goods

  • Raw material

  • Cotton from India and Egypt

  • Rubber from Brazil, Malaya, Congo River basin

  • Foreign investors owned and controlled plantations and production

GLOBAL INTEGRATION

  • Goods and raw materials traveled among different parts of the world.

RISE IN STANDARD OF LIVING IN INDUSTRIALIZED COUNTRIES

  • More cheap manufactured goods were available

RISE IN POPULATION

  • More accessible food

  • Improved sanitation

  • Edward Jenner smallpox vaccine

  • Louis Pasteur - pasteurization

  • Declining birthrates (contraception)

NEW SOCIAL CLASSES CREATED

  • New aristocracy of wealth

  • Robber Barons/Captains of Industry

  • John D. Rockefeller (Standard Oil)

  • Andrew Carnegie (steel)

  • New middle class

  • Managers, accountants and other professionals

  • Growing working class

  • Unskilled, poorly paid

MIGRATIONS

  • Internal migration of people from countryside to city

  • Agricultural machinery diminished need for labor

  • External migration

  • Between 1800 and 1920 50 million Europeans migrated to North and South America

  • Searching for jobs and opportunities

  • Emigrants left because of:

  • Famine in Ireland

  • Anti-Antisemitism in Russia

  • Displacement from farms because of mechanization

  • Indentured servants

  • Began 1820s

  • British and French used Indian migrants to work on sugar plantations in Indian Ocean

  • After Opium Wars

  • Large number of Chinese laborers

  • To sugar plantations in Cuba and Hawaii

  • Guano mines in Peru

  • Tin mines in Malaya

  • Gold mines in South Africa and Austrial

  • Railroad work in U.S., Canada, Peru

  • After Meiji restoration in Japan

  • Japanese laborers to Hawaii to work on sugar plantations

  • Workers given free passage, food, shelter, clothing

  • In exchange for commitment to give 5 to 7 years of labor

CHANGES IN THE FAMILY

  • Sharp distinctions between work and family life

  • Working long hours outside home

  • Women and children employed for lower wages

  • Mothers could not bring children to work in mines or factories

CHANGES IN ART

  • Romanticism (1800-1850)

  • Themes of human emotion and nature countered the dehumanizing effects of machines

PHILOSOPHICAL/IDEOLOGICAL REACTION

  • Karl Marx - Communist Manifesto (1848)

RESISTANCE TO FACTORY SYSTEM

  • Luddites struck against mills and destroyed machines 1811-1816


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