John Kay - flying shuttle (1733)
Samuel Crompton - Spinning mule (1779)
Edmund Cartwright - water-driven power loom (1785)
James Watt's steam engine (1765)
Burned coal, which drove a piston, which turned a wheel
Bessemer converter (1856) made cheaper, stronger steel
Coke (purified coal) replaced charcoal as principal fuel
With steam engine and improved steel
George Stephenson invented first steam-powered locomotive (1815)
Called the Rocket
Began to replace sailing ships in mid 19th c.
Invented cotton gin 1793
Interchangeable parts for firearms
Henry Ford (1913)
Introduced assembly line in automobile production
INDUSTRIALIZATION AROUND THE WORLD
Industrialization began in Britain
Large land-owners enclosed land and employed expensive machinery
Small farmers forced to leave farms
Created a large labor force for factories
Britain had a lot of rivers (water power and transportation)
British entrepreneurs provided capital
Government friendly towards business
New Limited Liability companies
British forbade emigration of skilled workes
First successful country to follow in Britain's footsteps for industrialization
Waterways for transportation
Contacts with Great Britain
Coal, iron, textile, glass and armaments production flourished early 19th c.
By 1830, French firms employed 50,000 skilled British workers
Who helped establish mechanized textile and metallurgical industires in France.
By mid 19th c.
French engineers and inventors devising refinements and innovations
led to greater efficiences - esp. in metallurgical industires
Later in century
Boom in raikroad construction
Industrialization slower than Belgium and France
Because of political instability
Because of competition between German states.
Iron and coal production soared
An extensive railroad network was under construction
After German unification
Bismarck sponsored rapid industirlization
To strengthen military - developed heavy industry
Formation of huge businesses
Giant Krupp firm, for example
dominated mining, metallurgy, armaments production, shipbuilding.
world's largest chemical company until mid 1900s.
Before the 1850s
Only one port was open to trade once a year in Nagasaki
Only the Dutch and Chinese could trade with Japan
American Commodore Matthew Perry came to Japan 1854
Japanese were forced to open to trade
Visit convinced Japanese that they needed to modernize
Resulted in Meiji Restoration
Tokugawa Shogunate overthrown
Meiji emperor came to power
Industrialization promoted by the governemnt
Thousands of foreign experts hired to establish modern industires
Opened technical insttitutes and universities
Initially the government owned businesses
In 1880s, the government sold most enterprise to private entrepreneurs (zaibatsu)
Resulted in concentration of enormous economic power in the hands of a small groups of people.
Japan was the most industrialized nation in Asia by 1900
Crimean War (1853-56)
Russia lost to a coalition of Ottoman Empire, Britain, France
Emancipation of the serfs in 1861
Seen as an obstacle to economic development
Besides being economically inefficient, serfdom was source of rural instability and peasant revolt
100s of insurrections broke out during first half of 19th century.
Tsar Alexander II
"Better to abolish serfdom from above than to wait until the serfs begin to liberate themselves from below"
Alexander II emancipated serfs partly to create a labor force for industries.
Industrialization between 1860 and 1900
Finance minister Sergei Witte (Witte System)
Witte was minister of finance from 1892 to 1903
Aim: to remove the "unfavorable conditions which hamper the economic development of the country" and kindle "a hearty spirit of enterprise"
Oversaw construction of trans-Siberian railroad
Opened Siberia to large-scale settlement and exploitation of raw materials.
Reformed commercial law to protect industires
Remodeled the state bank to raise domestic capital for industries
Encouraged foreign investors
France and Belgium helped with steel and coal industires
Britain helped with petroleum
Promoted nautical and engineering schools
By 1900 Russia produced 1/2 the world's oil
After Suleiman the Magnificent (1520-1566), the Ottoman Empire declined.
Became "sick man of Europe"
Discovery of the New World cut Ottoman Empire out of trade route to Asia
Sultans were secluded and uneducated
The Janissaries prevented modernization.
Territories broke away
In the Balkans: Serbia, Greece
North Africa: Egypt became autonomous under Muhammad Ali
Ottoman Empire was dependent on Europe for manufactured goods
Egypt (Muhammad Ali 1805-1848)
Napoleon had defeated the Mamelukes in Egypt leaving a power vacuum.
Muhammad Ali rose to power in 1805 and enacted reforms
He built a powerful army based on European models
He hired French and Italian officers to train the troops
Launched a program of industrialization (esp. cotton textiles and arms)
Mahmud II (1808-1839)
Ottoman Sultan who launched his own reforms.
He massacred the Janissaries when they rebelled
And created a modern army based on European models
Secondary-level schools for boys.
Curbed religious clergy
Tanzimat Period (1839-1876)
Under sultans Abdulmedic I and Abdulaziz
Program launched to stop decline of the empire.
Heavily influence by European ideas.
Began with Edict of Gulhane 1839
To stop the rise in nationalist movements (Greeks, Serbians, Egypt etc.)
And lesson foreign interference in Ottoman Empire through millets
Millets = autonomous communities of religious minorities (Christians, Jews)
Granted equality to all religions/ethnicities throughout empire
No more jizya and dhimmies.
All people could join army (not just Muslims)
Ottoman flag (see image), Ottoman currency, Ottoman national anthem
All men had to wear fez hats instead of traditional clothes which distinguished people by religion, occupation, status.
Other Tanzimat reforms
Secular law replaced religious law
Modern factories instead of guilds
Standardized taxation to eliminate abuses
Abolished slavery (1847)
Established first telegraph and railway networks (1850s)
Reaction to Tanzimat
Christians not happy because they wanted to keep autonomy
Muslim clergy unhappy because of equality of religions, end to religious laws (Sharia)
Young Ottomans believed reforms didn't go far enough
Constitutional period (1876)
Young Ottomans forced Abdul Hamid II to accept a constitution
Within a year, the sultan rejected the constitution and ruled as an autocrat.
Young Turks (1908)
Exile group that had studied in Europe
Committee of Union and Progress (CUP)
Free public education
Equal treatment under the law
Secularization and emancipation of women
Staged coup against Sultan Abdul Hamid II in 1908
Second Constitutional period
Future sultans were puppets under the Young Turks
Turks were extremely nationalistic
Forced Turkish language and culture on the diverse population
Resulted in resistance in Arab and Armenian areas.
North America had a lot of resources
But without railroads, it was hard to exploit
American industrialization begn when entrepreneurs lured British crafts workers to New England
and built cotton textile industry.
by mid 1800s, there were more than 1000 mills in the U.S.
First transcontinental railroad
Completed in the 1860s
Heavy iron and steel industries in 1870s
Robber Barons/Captains of industry
Andrew Carnegie (Carnegie Steel)
John D. Rockefeller (Rockefeller Oil -- monopoly)
By 1900, US was economic powerhouse
Labor and investment capital
Came largely from Europe
Migrants crossed Atlantic in large numbers
Eruopean bankers and businesspeople eagerly sought opportuniteis to invst in business
CONSEQUENCES OF INDUSTRIALIZATION
Industrialization created a demand for raw materials and markets to sell manufactured goods
Cotton from India and Egypt
Rubber from Brazil, Malaya, Congo River basin
Foreign investors owned and controlled plantations and production
Goods and raw materials traveled among different parts of the world.
RISE IN STANDARD OF LIVING IN INDUSTRIALIZED COUNTRIES
More cheap manufactured goods were available
RISE IN POPULATION
More accessible food
Edward Jenner smallpox vaccine
Louis Pasteur - pasteurization
Declining birthrates (contraception)
NEW SOCIAL CLASSES CREATED
New aristocracy of wealth
Robber Barons/Captains of Industry
John D. Rockefeller (Standard Oil)
Andrew Carnegie (steel)
New middle class
Managers, accountants and other professionals
Growing working class
Unskilled, poorly paid
Internal migration of people from countryside to city
Agricultural machinery diminished need for labor
Between 1800 and 1920 50 million Europeans migrated to North and South America
Searching for jobs and opportunities
Emigrants left because of:
Famine in Ireland
Anti-Antisemitism in Russia
Displacement from farms because of mechanization
British and French used Indian migrants to work on sugar plantations in Indian Ocean
After Opium Wars
Large number of Chinese laborers
To sugar plantations in Cuba and Hawaii
Guano mines in Peru
Tin mines in Malaya
Gold mines in South Africa and Austrial
Railroad work in U.S., Canada, Peru
After Meiji restoration in Japan
Japanese laborers to Hawaii to work on sugar plantations
Workers given free passage, food, shelter, clothing
In exchange for commitment to give 5 to 7 years of labor
CHANGES IN THE FAMILY
Sharp distinctions between work and family life
Working long hours outside home
Women and children employed for lower wages
Mothers could not bring children to work in mines or factories
CHANGES IN ART
Themes of human emotion and nature countered the dehumanizing effects of machines
Karl Marx - Communist Manifesto (1848)
RESISTANCE TO FACTORY SYSTEM
Luddites struck against mills and destroyed machines 1811-1816