Leading to the Civil War
Missouri Compromise 1820
Manifest Destiny 1845
Texas annexed 1845
Annexation of Oregon 1846
Mexican-American War 1846-1848
California Gold Rush 1849
Compromise of 1850
Uncle Tom's Cabin 1852
Gadsden Purchase 1853
Kansas-Nebraska Act 1854
Ostend Manifesto 1854
Bleeding Kansas 1856
Caning of Charles Sumner 1856
Dred Scott Decision 1857
Lincoln-Douglas Debates 1858
Raid on Harpers Ferry 1859
Election of Abraham Lincoln 1860
South Carolina secedes 1860
MISSOURI COMPROMISE 1820
Missouri ready to become a state
But admitting a new slave state would disrupt balance between slave and free states in Senate
Missouri admitted as slave state
Maine (until then, part of Massachusetts) would be admitted as a free state
No slavery would be permitted north of 36' 30" line
Term coined by John O' Sullivan in 1845
Belief that U.S. is destined to expand across North America
And remake West as agrarian
Mexico became independent from Spain in 1821
Hoped to settle northern part of Mexico, including area settled by Tejanos (Spanish Texans)
Mexico employed help of Moses and Stephen Austin
Brought in Americans (most coming with slaves)
They were supposed to learn Spanish, convert to Catholicism and follow Mexican laws
Mexico passed law outawing slavery 1829
Then (under Santa Anna) began to impose more control on Texians (Americans in Texas)
Battle of Alamo 1836
All Texians battling Mexicans from their refuge in Alamo Mission were killed
Including American heroes, Jim Bowie and Davy Crockett
Battle of San Jacinto
Texians led by Sam Houston defeat Mexicans
Captured Mexican President General Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna
Force him to accept Texas independence
With border at Rio Grande (not Nueces River as Mexicans believed)
This becomes a cause of the Mexican-American War
American government hesitant to bring Texas into the nation
Because of fear of disturbing balance between slave and free states
Texas was occupied by slave owners
So big that it could be carved into a number of slave states
Texas finally annexed by President John Tyler in 1845
Oregon territory was shared by U.S. and Britain since 1818 Negotiation and Rush-Bagot agreement
In 1844 U.S. election
James Polk appealed to Manifest Destiny
By claiming he would fight to claim Oregon territory for the U.S. up to the 54 40 line (54-40 or fight!)
When he became president
Polk negotiated with Britain
To draw line at 49th parallel
Expanding the line from Rush Bagot treaty
Oregon annexed up to 49th line in 1846
MEXICAN-AMERICAN WAR/MEXICAN SESSION
Mexican-American War 1846-1848
Then something happened that complicated the issue a bit
The discovery of gold in California
Gold diggers (called 49ers) rushed into the area from all over the world
25,000 Americans came by ship
55,000 Americans crossed the continent
8,000 Mexicans showed up
5,000 South Americans
And a number of Europeans and Asians
Came to make their fortunes
Leaving San Francisco a Ghost Town
So many people came
That California could easily apply for statehood
California applied as a free state
So that they wouldn’t have to compete with slave owners for gol
If California is a free state, how would rest of territory be decided?
COMPROMISE OF 1850
Henry Clay introduced an omnibus bill:
Admitting California to union as a free state
Settling border of Texas (Giving a portion of it [inc. Santa Fe] to New Mexico
Enacting a stronger Fugitive Slave Law (1851)
Creating Utah and New Mexico territories with slavery issue to be decided by popular sovereignty (that is, the people of the state decide)
Making slave trade (but not slavery) illegal in Washington DC.
Clay's Omnibus Bill was rejected by Calhoun, Daniel Webster and Pres. Zachary Taylor.
Then Clay, Calhoun, Webster and Taylor all died.
Stephen Douglas split it into five individual bills.
They all passed, signed into law by Taylor's VP, Millard Fillmore.
Most objectionable to abolitionists was Fugitive Slave Act
Revised from 1793
New Act gave government the authority to:
Appoint federal commissioners
Compel citizens under pain of fine or imprisonment to assist in capture of fugitives.
To be returned without trial to “owner”
PLANS FOR TRANSCONTINENTAL RAILROAD
Congress wanted to build a transcontinental railroad
North - Chicago to San Francisco
Central -- Omaha or Kansas City to Sacramento
South -- New Orleans to Los Angeles
If RR was in south
Needed to get territory from Mexico.
Gadsden purchase (1853)
Bought from Mexico for $10 million
Abolitionists knew this would help spread slavery - so rejected RR plan.
Illinois Senator Stephen Douglas
Proposed building a railroad line in north
Through unorganized territory west of the Mississippi River
In order to make this work
The Kansas-Nebraska territories had to become states
Led to the Kansas-Nebraska Act (see below)
KANSAS-NEBRASKA ACT 1854
Proposed by Congress in May 1854
The Kansas-Nebraska Act
Like Utah and New Mexico territories
Allowed people in territories of Kansas and Nebraska to join union as slave or free states (popular sovereignty)
Southern Democrats and Whigs
Jumped at opportunity to open northern territories to slavery
Quickly passed act
Because Douglas and Southerners had effectively killed Missouri Compromise
Missouri Compromise of 1820 banned slavery north of 36 30
Whigs divided into northern and southern Whigs over slavery.
Northern Whigs joined the new Republican Party (created in 1854)
After Kansas-Nebraska Act 1000s of pro and anti-slavery men flooded to Kansas to vote
Nebraska - too far north for slave owners
Migrants from North and South claimed as much land as they could to create majority
They rigged elections, recruited friends and family, cast illegal ballots, voted many times.
Border Ruffians = Pro-slavery Missourians who came to Kansas from Missouri
Anti-slavery northerners and Free-soil migrants = settled in towns like Lawrence.
Sacking of Lawrence (May 21, 1856)
Proslavery mob burned hotel and newspaper office in Lawrence, Kansas - an anti-slavery town.
Came to Kansas with his sons and attacked pro-slavery people.
In revenge for the attack on Lawrence, John Brown killed five pro-slavery settlers at Pottawatomie (Pottawatomie Massacre)
Brown wasn't punished
Topeka Constitution (1855)
Constitution created by anti-slavery advocated for state of Kansas as free state.
Lecompton Constitution (1857)
Competing constitution proposed by Southern pro-slavery advocates
Contained clauses protecting slavery.
Boycotted by anti-slavery settlers in Kansas.
Accepted by President James Buchanan.
VIOLENCE IN SENATE
Caning of Charles Sumner (May 22, 1856)
Charles Sumner, an abolitionist Senator, made a speech in Senate called "Crime against Kansas"
Targeted two men specifically: Stephen Douglas and Andrew Butler
Mocking Andrew Butler's Southern chivalry, he said
"a mistress . . . who, though ugly to others, is always lovely to him; though polluted in the sight of the world, is chaste in his sight—I mean," added Sumner, "the harlot, Slavery."
Preston Brooks, Butler's relative, reacted by beating Sumner savagely with his cane.
DRED SCOTT DECISION (1857)
Dred Scott, a slave
Scott and his wife had been taken to live in free territories (Illinois and Wisconsin) by his master.
When his master died, Scott claimed he and his wife should be free.
He sued in court.
Court of Roger Taney ruled against Scott
Said anyone of African ancestry couldn't claim to be a citizen of the U.S.
Since blacks weren't citizens, he could not legally sue in federal court.
Also ruled that slaves were property and the court couldn't deprive a master of his legal property (5th Amendment) without due process of the law.
Decision implied that no state could deny a man the right to take his property into the state.
Effectively deeming all anti-slavery laws were unconstitutional.
Including Northwest Ordinance, Missouri Compromise, popular sovereignty, Compromise of 1850 etc.
LINCOLN-DOUGLAS DEBATE (1858)
Abraham Lincoln and Stephen Douglas campaigned for position as Senator of Illinois
Made Dred Scott decision the main issue.
Lincoln gave "House Divided" speech
Said a house divided against itself cannot stand (Bible)
Said U.S. should be either all-slave or all-free.
Stephen Douglas promoted the Freeport Doctrine
Said didn't matter what Supreme Court ruled (Dred Scott decision)
But suggested that local regions could discourage slave owners to come to their area by enacting laws that would make it difficult.
RAID ON HARPER'S FERRY (October 16-18, 1859)
Raided the US arsenal at Harper’s Ferry Virginia (Oct. 16-18, 1859)
He hoped to seize a cache of weapons to give to slaves for a slave uprising.
Slave rebellion was complete failure
Brown was captured by marines and tried for treason.
Before he was hanged, he made a speech.
I wanted to free the slaves, that was all I intended, I never intended murder or to make an insurrection. Now, if it is deemed necessary that I should forfeit my life for the furtherance of the ends of justice, and mingle my blood further with the blood of my children and with the blood of millions in this slave country whose rights are disregarded by wicked, cruel, and unjust enactments, I submit; so let it be done!
Perception of John Brown
To the South
He was considered a demonic, treasonous ax murderer
To the North
He was considered a righteous martyr and freedom fighter
ELECTION OF ABRAHAM LINCOLN (Nov. 1860)
South Carolina secedes (Dec. 1860)