• amanda0195

Leading to the Civil War


CHRONOLOGY

  • Missouri Compromise 1820

  • Manifest Destiny 1845

  • Texas annexed 1845

  • Annexation of Oregon 1846

  • Mexican-American War 1846-1848

  • California Gold Rush 1849

  • Compromise of 1850

  • Uncle Tom's Cabin 1852

  • Gadsden Purchase 1853

  • Kansas-Nebraska Act 1854

  • Ostend Manifesto 1854

  • Bleeding Kansas 1856

  • Caning of Charles Sumner 1856

  • Dred Scott Decision 1857

  • Lincoln-Douglas Debates 1858

  • Raid on Harpers Ferry 1859

  • Election of Abraham Lincoln 1860

  • South Carolina secedes 1860

MISSOURI COMPROMISE 1820


  • Missouri ready to become a state

  • But admitting a new slave state would disrupt balance between slave and free states in Senate

  • Compromise

  • Missouri admitted as slave state

  • Maine (until then, part of Massachusetts) would be admitted as a free state

  • No slavery would be permitted north of 36' 30" line

MANIFEST DESTINY

  • Term coined by John O' Sullivan in 1845

  • Belief that U.S. is destined to expand across North America

  • And remake West as agrarian


TEXAS


  • Mexico became independent from Spain in 1821

  • Hoped to settle northern part of Mexico, including area settled by Tejanos (Spanish Texans)

  • Mexico employed help of Moses and Stephen Austin

  • Brought in Americans (most coming with slaves)

  • They were supposed to learn Spanish, convert to Catholicism and follow Mexican laws

  • Mexico passed law outawing slavery 1829

  • Then (under Santa Anna) began to impose more control on Texians (Americans in Texas)

  • Texians rebel

  • Battle of Alamo 1836

  • All Texians battling Mexicans from their refuge in Alamo Mission were killed

  • Including American heroes, Jim Bowie and Davy Crockett

  • Battle of San Jacinto

  • Texians led by Sam Houston defeat Mexicans

  • Captured Mexican President General Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna

  • Force him to accept Texas independence

  • With border at Rio Grande (not Nueces River as Mexicans believed)

  • This becomes a cause of the Mexican-American War

  • American government hesitant to bring Texas into the nation

  • Because of fear of disturbing balance between slave and free states

  • Texas was occupied by slave owners

  • So big that it could be carved into a number of slave states

  • Texas finally annexed by President John Tyler in 1845

OREGON


  • Oregon territory was shared by U.S. and Britain since 1818 Negotiation and Rush-Bagot agreement

  • In 1844 U.S. election

  • James Polk appealed to Manifest Destiny

  • By claiming he would fight to claim Oregon territory for the U.S. up to the 54 40 line (54-40 or fight!)

  • When he became president

  • Polk negotiated with Britain

  • To draw line at 49th parallel

  • Expanding the line from Rush Bagot treaty

  • Oregon annexed up to 49th line in 1846

MEXICAN-AMERICAN WAR/MEXICAN SESSION


GOLD RUSH


  • Then something happened that complicated the issue a bit

  • The discovery of gold in California

  • By 1849

  • Gold diggers (called 49ers) rushed into the area from all over the world

  • 25,000 Americans came by ship

  • 55,000 Americans crossed the continent

  • 8,000 Mexicans showed up

  • 5,000 South Americans

  • And a number of Europeans and Asians

  • Came to make their fortunes

  • Leaving San Francisco a Ghost Town

  • So many people came

  • That California could easily apply for statehood

  • California applied as a free state

  • So that they wouldn’t have to compete with slave owners for gol

  • Problem

  • If California is a free state, how would rest of territory be decided?

COMPROMISE OF 1850

  • Henry Clay introduced an omnibus bill:​

  • Admitting California to union as a free state

  • ​Settling border of Texas (Giving a portion of it [inc. Santa Fe] to New Mexico

  • Enacting a stronger Fugitive Slave Law (1851)

  • Creating Utah and New Mexico territories with slavery issue to be decided by popular sovereignty (that is, the people of the state decide)

  • Making slave trade (but not slavery) illegal in Washington DC.


  • Clay's Omnibus Bill was rejected by Calhoun, Daniel Webster and Pres. Zachary Taylor.

  • Then Clay, Calhoun, Webster and Taylor all died.

  • Stephen Douglas split it into five individual bills.

  • They all passed, signed into law by Taylor's VP, Millard Fillmore.

  • Most objectionable to abolitionists was Fugitive Slave Act

  • ​Revised from 1793

  • New Act gave government the authority to:

  • Appoint federal commissioners

  • Summon posses

  • Issue warrants

  • Compel citizens under pain of fine or imprisonment to assist in capture of fugitives.

  • To be returned without trial to “owner”

PLANS FOR TRANSCONTINENTAL RAILROAD


  • Congress wanted to build a transcontinental railroad

  • Possible routes

  • North - Chicago to San Francisco

  • Central -- Omaha or Kansas City to Sacramento

  • South -- New Orleans to Los Angeles

  • ​If RR was in south

  • Needed to get territory from Mexico.

  • Gadsden purchase (1853)

  • Bought from Mexico for $10 million

  • Abolitionists knew this would help spread slavery - so rejected RR plan.

  • Illinois Senator Stephen Douglas

  • Proposed building a railroad line in north

  • Through unorganized territory west of the Mississippi River

  • In order to make this work

  • The Kansas-Nebraska territories had to become states

  • Led to the Kansas-Nebraska Act (see below)


KANSAS-NEBRASKA ACT 1854

  • Proposed by Congress in May 1854

  • The Kansas-Nebraska Act

  • Like Utah and New Mexico territories

  • Allowed people in territories of Kansas and Nebraska to join union as slave or free states (popular sovereignty)

  • Southern Democrats and Whigs

  • Jumped at opportunity to open northern territories to slavery

  • Quickly passed act

  • Northerners outraged

  • Because Douglas and Southerners had effectively killed Missouri Compromise

  • Missouri Compromise of 1820 banned slavery north of 36 30

  • Whigs divided into northern and southern Whigs over slavery.

  • ​Northern Whigs joined the new Republican Party (created in 1854)

BLEEDING KANSAS

Kansas-Nebraska Act

  • After Kansas-Nebraska Act 1000s of pro and anti-slavery men flooded to Kansas to vote

  • Nebraska - too far north for slave owners

  • Migrants from North and South claimed as much land as they could to create majority

  • They rigged elections, recruited friends and family, cast illegal ballots, voted many times.

  • Border Ruffians = Pro-slavery Missourians who came to Kansas from Missouri

  • Anti-slavery northerners and Free-soil migrants = settled in towns like Lawrence.

Sacking of Lawrence (May 21, 1856)

  • Proslavery mob burned hotel and newspaper office in Lawrence, Kansas - an anti-slavery town.

John Brown

  • Radical abolitionist

  • Came to Kansas with his sons and attacked pro-slavery people.

  • In revenge for the attack on Lawrence, John Brown killed five pro-slavery settlers at Pottawatomie (Pottawatomie Massacre)

  • Brown wasn't punished

Topeka Constitution (1855)

  • Constitution created by anti-slavery advocated for state of Kansas as free state.

Lecompton Constitution (1857)

  • Competing constitution proposed by Southern pro-slavery advocates

  • Contained clauses protecting slavery.

  • Boycotted by anti-slavery settlers in Kansas.

  • Accepted by President James Buchanan.

VIOLENCE IN SENATE

Caning of Charles Sumner (May 22, 1856)


  • Charles Sumner, an abolitionist Senator, made a speech in Senate called "Crime against Kansas"

  • Targeted two men specifically: Stephen Douglas and Andrew Butler

  • Mocking Andrew Butler's Southern chivalry, he said

  • "a mistress . . . who, though ugly to others, is always lovely to him; though polluted in the sight of the world, is chaste in his sight—I mean," added Sumner, "the harlot, Slavery."

  • Preston Brooks, Butler's relative, reacted by beating Sumner savagely with his cane.

DRED SCOTT DECISION (1857)

  • Dred Scott, a slave

  • Scott and his wife had been taken to live in free territories (Illinois and Wisconsin) by his master.

  • When his master died, Scott claimed he and his wife should be free.

  • He sued in court.

  • Court of Roger Taney ruled against Scott

  • Said anyone of African ancestry couldn't claim to be a citizen of the U.S.

  • Since blacks weren't citizens, he could not legally sue in federal court.

  • Also ruled that slaves were property and the court couldn't deprive a master of his legal property (5th Amendment) without due process of the law.

  • Consequences

  • Decision implied that no state could deny a man the right to take his property into the state.

  • Effectively deeming all anti-slavery laws were unconstitutional.

  • Including Northwest Ordinance, Missouri Compromise, popular sovereignty, Compromise of 1850 etc.

LINCOLN-DOUGLAS DEBATE (1858)

  • Abraham Lincoln and Stephen Douglas campaigned for position as Senator of Illinois

  • Made Dred Scott decision the main issue.

  • Lincoln gave "House Divided" speech

  • Said a house divided against itself cannot stand (Bible)

  • Said U.S. should be either all-slave or all-free.

  • Stephen Douglas promoted the Freeport Doctrine

  • Said didn't matter what Supreme Court ruled (Dred Scott decision)

  • But suggested that local regions could discourage slave owners to come to their area by enacting laws that would make it difficult.

RAID ON HARPER'S FERRY (October 16-18, 1859)

John Brown

  • Raided the US arsenal at Harper’s Ferry Virginia (Oct. 16-18, 1859)

  • He hoped to seize a cache of weapons to give to slaves for a slave uprising.

  • Slave rebellion was complete failure

  • Brown was captured by marines and tried for treason.

  • Before he was hanged, he made a speech.

  • I wanted to free the slaves, that was all I intended, I never intended murder or to make an insurrection. Now, if it is deemed necessary that I should forfeit my life for the furtherance of the ends of justice, and mingle my blood further with the blood of my children and with the blood of millions in this slave country whose rights are disregarded by wicked, cruel, and unjust enactments, I submit; so let it be done!

  • Perception of John Brown

  • To the South

  • He was considered a demonic, treasonous ax murderer

  • To the North

  • He was considered a righteous martyr and freedom fighter

  • Very polarizing


ELECTION OF ABRAHAM LINCOLN (Nov. 1860)

  • South Carolina secedes (Dec. 1860)

  • Civil War


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