• amanda0195

Market Revolution


PROTO-INDUSTRIALISM

  • Putting-out system/Cottage industry

TRADE CUT OFF FROM BRITAIN

  • Embargo of 1807

  • Jefferson's embargo on all goods coming from Europe because of harassment of U.S. ships during European war between Napoleon and Britain

  • Prompted Americans to begin producing manufactured goods within the U.S.

  • This continued through the:

  • Non-Intercourse Act (1809)

  • Macon's Bill No. 2 (1810)

  • And the War of 1812

  • Which cut off trade with Britain

  • Cutoff of British imports Stimulated first large-scale American factories

AFTER WAR OF 1812

  • After Treaty of Ghent (1815) British sold products to U.S. at low prices.

  • Congress passed Tariff of 1816 to protect American manufactures.

INVENTIONS


  • Interchangeable Parts

  • 1798 Eli Whitney came up with "interchangeable parts" to create muskets

  • Parts were all identical so easy to manufacture and fix.

  • Used in 1850 for mass-production

  • Sewing Machine

  • Elias Howe invented sewing machine in 1846.

  • Foundation for clothing industry

  • Boon to northern industrialization (along with increased supply of cotton)

  • Steel Plow

  • Invented by John Deere, the steel plow in 1837, could break through hard soil in the West.

  • McCormick Reaper

  • Reaper was a horse drawn reaper that could cut crops faster than hand-picking. Enabled large-scale farming.


FIRST FACTORIES

  • Samuel Slater

  • Brought knowledge of textiles factories from Britain

  • Waltham, Massachusetts

  • 1814 group of merchants (Boston Associates) made first factory using power looms to weave cotton cloth.

  • 1820s expanded by creating a factory town (city of Lowell, 1836) on Merrimack R., 27 miles from Boston.

  • Built a group of modern textile factories - spinning thread, weaving, finishing cloth.

  • Along "fall line" (where waterfalls and river rapids used for power.

  • See Lowell Girls (below)

CORPORATIONS

  • "free incorporation"= businessmen could create corporations without applying for charters from legislature.

EMPLOYMENT

CHILDREN

  • Children used frequently as laborers in the 1820s (low pay - but only good for simple machines)

WOMEN

  • First worked spinning yarn, weaving cloth and making products for home (butter, soap etc.)

  • Cult of Domesticity - women expected to be homemakers and stay in the private sphere while men worked in the public sphere

  • Catharine Beecher - encouraged women to become teachers.

LOWELL GIRLS ('MILL GIRLS")


  • Lowell was most famous center of early textile manufacturing

  • Young, unmarried women worked as spinners.

  • To convince parents to let their daughters work at Lowell

  • boarding houses set up with strict rules, lecture halls, churches.

  • First time women leaving home to participate in public world and earn their own money.

  • Most left after they got married.

"WAGE SLAVES"

  • Hours - factories workers worked long hours, Martin Van Buren established 10-hour work day for federal employees in 1840

UNIONS

  • Unions -- were forbidden

  • Commonwealth v. Hunt: Supreme Court ruled unions not illegal conspiracies.

TRANSPORTATION REVOLUTION


  • Part of Henry Clay's American System

  • Bank, Internal Improvements, Tariff

  • West

  • Opening of West after Louisiana Purchase (1803)

  • Transportation = specialization of crops/commodities

  • West grew grain and livestock to feed factory workers in East and Europe

  • South grew cotton for export to Britain and New England

  • Northeast made textiles and manufactured goods for South and West.

  • Roads

  • National Road

  • Federal government financed and built the National Road (aka Cumberland Road)

  • Construction authorized in 1806

  • Connected Cumberland, Maryland to Wheeling, Ohio by 1818

  • By 1838 extended to Illinois

  • Lancaster Turnpike (toll road)

  • Hard-surfaced highway from Philadelphia to Lancaster PA

  • People who used the road had to pay a toll

  • Canals

  • Erie Canal

  • DeWitt Clinton, governor of New York, used New York money to build the Erie Canal in 1825

  • Connected Great Lakes (Erie) to the Hudson River

  • Boats pulled by mules walking on the shore.

  • New cities popped up around the canal

  • Site of the Second Great Awakening ("Burned-over district")

  • Other states also financed canals because of success of Erie

  • But they failed to generate much income

  • So states became wary of financing any more internal improvements.

  • Railroads

  • Railroads built by private investors since states were hesitant to invest in internal improvements (see canals)

BOATS AND TRAINS

  • Clippers

  • 1840s and 50s use of new clipper ships.

  • Faster - though couldn't carry as much cargo

  • replaced by steamboats

  • Steamboats

  • Robert Fulton put a steam engine in a boat, creating the first steamboat.

  • Played a great role in expansion West and South

COMMUNICATION


  • Pony Express

  • Established 1860 to carry mail from Missouri to Sacramento.

  • Ended after 18 months because not profitable.

  • Telegraph

  • Invented by Samuel Morse ("morse" code)

IMMIGRATION (1840-1860)

  • Economic expansion = need for labor.

  • Over 4 million people came 1840-1860 (more than whole population in 1790)

  • Most from Ireland and Germany

  • Irish (Catholic)

  • Push factor: escaping potato famine 1845-51 (1 millions starved to death)

  • Most were poor, unskilled farm workers

  • Most settled in NY (too poor to go west)

  • Germany (Catholic and Protestant):

  • Push factor: Failed 1848 revolutions, agricultural modernization (pushed peasants off land) rigid social hierarchies, repressive governments.

  • More skilled craftsmen

  • Settled in tight-knit neighborhoods

  • In eastern cities or Cincinnati, St. Louis, Milwaukee region.

  • Other immigrants

  • Scandinavians to farms in Old Northwest.

  • Russian and Ukrainian Jews (fleeing religious persecution)

  • Pull factors

  • Job opportunities

  • Wealthy immigrants could buy land.

  • New ocean going vessels made travel across the ocean easier

  • Destination

  • 90% to northern states (job opportunities and didn't have to compete with labor from slaves)

  • New York City = primary point of entry.

  • Work that poor immigrants did:

  • Low-wage unskilled work.

  • Domestic servants (women)

  • Longshoremen (loading and unloading cargo from ships)

  • Many helped dig canals and erect railroad tracks

NATIVISM (Anti-Immigration)

  • Alien Act of 1798 = Passed by Adams because of fear of immigrants with radical political views.

  • Anger over "new immigration" (from southern and eastern Europe - old immigrants were from western Europe)

  • Fear of Catholicism

  • See John Hughes, archbishop of NYC, condemned Protestant Bible in public schools, tried to convert Protestants to Catholicism etc.

  • Fear that Catholics more devoted to Pope than U.S.

  • Fear that Catholics trying to dominate the American West

  • Fear that immigrants taking jobs away from Americans

  • Belief Irish were source of urban crime, alcohol, political corruption (see Tammany Hall)

  • Violent anti-immigrant riots in New York City and Philadelphia.



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