• amanda0195

Presidents up to Civil War


GEORGE WASHINGTON (1789-1797) No party


  • From Virginia family (Mt. Vernon)

  • Commander-in-chief of Continental Army


  • Cabinet

  • Hamilton – Sec. of Treasury

  • First Bank of US, "loose constructionism"

  • Favored manufacturing

  • Jefferson – Sec. of State

  • Anti-bank, "strict constructionism"

  • Favored farmers

  • Knox – Sec. of War

  • Whiskey Rebellion

  • 1st internal threat to new govt

  • Farmers (whisky producers) violently protested large tax on whiskey (part of Hamilton's plan)

  • Washington dispatched 15,000 troops to squelch uprising

  • Showed effectiveness of strong federal govt. (unlike Shays)

  • Inspired new Democratic-Republicans (because biased against farmers)

  • Farewell Address after end of second term

  • Neutrality – because felt young nation could not withstand a war.


  • John Jay’s Treaty (1794-95) (Between US and Br)

  • Washington didn’t want entanglement with French (preferred Britain)

  • To resolve issues since independence (unfair trade, Br. forts, Indian attacks)

  • And impressment of sailors (forcing US sailors to fight on Br. ships)

  • Unpopular with public

  • Impressment not resolved

  • Britain given “most favored nation” status

  • But Br. seriously restricted US commercial access to Br. W. Indies.

  • Jay even conceded that Br. could seize US goods bound for France if they

  • Pinckney's Treaty (Treaty of San Lorenzo) (1795)

  • ​Spain feared close relationship between U.S. and Britain (Jay's Treaty)

  • Gave U.S. free navigation on Mississippi River

  • Settled border between Spain and U.S.


JOHN ADAMS (1797-1801) Federalist


  • Alien and Sedition Acts

  • Targeted Democratic-Republicans

  • Sedition Act:

  • Fined/imprisoned people who criticized govt.

  • Alien Act:

  • Deportation of foreigners who were threat to national security

  • Extended naturalization from 5-14 years.

  • Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions (1798-99)

  • Written by Jefferson and Madison

  • Gave states power to repeal (nullify) unconstitutional laws

  • Like Sedition Act above which violates 1st Amenment rights to free speech.

  • Not accepted nationally but helped strengthen Dem-Rep. Party

  • Midnight Judges

  • Adams expanded number of judges

  • Adams appointed new judges up to midnight on last night in office.

  • Including Chief Justice John Marshall (served from 1801-1835)


  • XYZ Affair (1797-98)

  • US representatives sent to France to negotiate with Fr. foreign minister, Talleyrand

  • Three French officials (nicknamed Mr. X, Mr. Y, Mr. Z) demanded bribes and loans to introduce Americans to Talleyrand.

  • Americans offended and left without negotiations.

  • Embarrassed pro-French Democratic-Republicans.

  • Led to undeclared quasi-war with France (1798-1800)


THOMAS JEFFERSON (1801-1809) Democratic-Republican


  • Wrote Declaration of Independence

  • Helped encourage France to join colonists in American Revolution

  • Secretary of State under George Washington

  • With Madison, wrote Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions (1798-99) (above)

  • Rivalry with Alexander Hamilton (Federalist)


  • Strict constructionist interpretation of constitution

  • Government could only do what was stated in constitution.

  • Favored agriculture over industry

  • Favored France over Britain

  • Favored state rights over federal rights

  • Favored small government

  • Question: To what extent was Jefferson true to his own ideals?


  • Jefferson ran as president, Aaron Burr for VP

  • ​Because of election laws, Jefferson and Burr won equal number of votes (73 each)

  • Election was decided by House of Representatives

  • Hamilton urged supporters to vote for Jefferson over Burr

  • Election laws changed in 12th Amendment 1804

  • Aaron Burr

  • Challenged Hamilton to duel/ killed him 1804


  • "Revolution of 1800"

  • First transfer of power from one party to another. – no bloodshed

  • Question: To what extent did Jefferson's policies mark a radical change?

  • Small government

  • Reduced size of govt. (only 130 employed by exec. branch)

  • Louisiana Purchase 1803

  • Bought territory from Napoleon

  • Violation of "strict constructionism"

  • Sponsored Lewis and Clark expedition to explore new territory to the West

  • Marshall Court (see court cases)

  • Marbury v. Madison, 1801 - established judicial review for Supreme Court


  • First Barbary war.

  • Muslim principalities on Mediterranean: Tripoli (Libya), Tunis, Algiers, Morocco.

  • Privateers (pirates) took European merchant ships and held seamen for ransom.

  • Merchant countries forced to pay "protection money" for free passage.

  • Jefferson refused

  • US had small navy (see above)

  • Barbary pirates took 309 captives from Philadelphia frigate (ship)

  • Marines led by Stephen Decatur sent to Tripoli (see Marine Corps hymn)

  • Prisoners freed after $60,000 settlement

  • Anglo-French War

  • US officially neutral (profits trading with both sides)

  • British and French economic warfare against each other

  • British Orders in Council - no neutral ships in Britain unless through British port.

  • French Continental System - blocked British trade to European continent.

  • French seized 500 U.S. ships, British seized 1,000 and impressed 10-20,000 seamen

  • British-born seamen preferred to sail on U.S. ships because paid 3 times more.

  • Chesapeake incident -British boarded US navy ship and killed 18 sailors

  • Reaction = Embargo of 1807

  • Forbade US ships to go to foreign ports, no imports/exports

  • Caused hardship in U.S.

  • Non-Intercourse Act 1809

  • Passed in last few days of Jefferson's presidency.

  • Replaced Embargo 1807.

  • Opened trade with all nations except Britain and France


MADISON (1809-1817) Democratic-Republican


  • Madison considered "Father of the Constitution" (Helped draft Constitution and Bill of Rights)

  • Owned 100s of slaves in Montpelier, VA

  • Drafted the Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions with Jefferson (see above)

  • Jefferson's Secretary of State (1801-1809)


  • Bank

  • First Bank charter expired 1811 (Madison, like Jefferson was against bank)

  • But Madison chartered a second bank to help finance war with Britain.

  • Bank began operating in 1816 with a 20-year charter (1816-1836) and 25 branches nationwide by 1832.


  • Macon's Bill No 2 (1810)

  • Lifted embargo on Britain and France for 3 months

  • If either attacked U.S. ships, the US would end trade with the other.

  • France agreed --> U.S. embargo on Britain

  • War of 1812 ("Madison's War")



JAMES MONROE (1817-1825) Democratic-Republican


  • From Virginia dynasty

  • Was an Anti-Federalist

ELECTION 1816 and 1820

  • Easily won 80% of electoral votes

  • Federalists weakened by Hartford Convention


  • Panic of 1819

  • First financial crisis due to:

  • Burst bubble of land speculation (speculators can't sell land they bought on credit)

  • Second Bank of U.S., wary about unregulated wildcat lending practices, called in loans to local banks which forced the local banks to recall loans from clients.

  • Resulting in foreclosures and bankruptcies.

  • Panic was also caused by dropping prices due to competition from foreign goods that flooded the U.S. market after the War of 1812

  • Resulting unemployment.

  • Marked end of post-war economic prosperity and end of Era of Good Feelings

  • Missouri Compromise 1820

  • Missouri became slave state, Maine was free and no slavery north of 36°30′

  • Court Cases

  • McCulloch v. Maryland (1819) (see court cases)

  • Decided whether Maryland had the right to tax the national bank.

  • Supreme Court said "no"

  • Also said that Second Bank of US WAS constitutionally valid.

  • Gibbons v. Ogden (1824) (see court cases)

  • Decided if NY could grant a company a monopoly on transport between NY and NJ.

  • Supreme Court said "no" because it was "interstate commerce" (between two states, not within one state) - See Article 1, Section 8 of Constitution.


  • Treaty of 1818

  • Decided boundary between U.S. and Br. Canada at 49th parallel

  • Included shared Oregon Country.

  • Adams Onis Treaty (1819)

  • Treaty between US and Spain

  • Florida to U.S. (Florida was burden to Spain)

  • ​Before treaty, American slaves fled to Florida to join Seminole Indians.

  • Andrew Jackson fought Seminoles 1816-1819

  • Settled border between U.S. and New Spain

  • U.S. gave up claim on parts of Spanish Texas and other areas.

  • Liberia (1822)

  • Founded as a colony in West Africa to resettle former African-American slaves.

  • By American Colonization Society

  • Monroe Doctrine (1823)

  • By 1821, Latin American countries had become independent from Spain

  • European countries threatened to re-colonize Latin America

  • Monroe Doctrine opposed European colonialism in Western Hemisphere.

  • And promised that U.S. wouldn't interfere with Europe.

  • Written mostly by then-Sec. of State JQ Adams


JOHN QUINCY ADAMS (1825-1829) Dem.-Rep.; Natl. Rep.


  • Son of John Adams (who was a Federalist)


  • Won after the "Corrupt Bargain" of 1824

  • 4 candidates, all Dem-Reps.

  • Clay (Speaker of House) had least # of votes, Crawford had stroke

  • No one had majority

  • Election to HOR, Clay (Speaker) influenced House to vote for J.Q. Adams

  • Adams made Clay "Secretary of State" (position of most presidents had before election)


  • Enacted Henry Clay's "American System"

  • Internal improvements

  • Federal govt. extended Cumberland Road (aka National Road)

  • ​Erie canal completed in 1825 (financed by New York)

  • 1st American railroads built 1827 (built by mining companies)

  • Funded by high tariffs (Tariff of 1828 or "Tariff of Abominations")

  • And a national bank


ANTEBELLUM PERIOD (Leading to Civil War)

ANDREW JACKSON (1829-1837) Democrat


  • Nicknamed "Old Hickory"

  • Tough and aggressive personality

  • Hero of Battle of New Orleans 1815

  • Came from a Scots-Irish family that had just moved to South Carolina

  • Jackson was orphaned at 14 and had no formal education

  • Invaded the Seminole Indians in Florida in 1818 (led to Adams-Onis Treaty).

  • Lost election to J.Q. Adams in 1824 because of the "Corrupt Bargain"

  • Took part in five duels, once killed opponent.


  • (see Jefferson v. Jackson) Against undemocratic aristocracy

  • Defended the common person against the wealthy elites in government.

  • Believed in Manifest Destiny.

  • In favor of small, limited federal government and states rights

  • ​But a strong presidency

  • Believe in "strict" constructionist interpretation of Constitution


  • Increased voting - Jacksonian Democracy

  • To attract people, young states in the west extended the right to vote to all free adult white males.

  • Indiana, Mississippi, Illinois, Alabama, Missouri --> no property requirement to vote.

  • Mass politics/politics of the Common Man

  • Politics was source of entertainment.

  • Jackson won in a landslide against J.Q. Adams

  • Suffrage had been expanded as new Western states gave vote to all white men regardless of property. (1824, 355,000 voted, 1828, 1.1 million voted).

  • Jackson won 178 of 261 electoral votes.

  • Supporters from rural West and South

  • "People's president"

  • Expanded spoils system

  • Putting political supporters in appointed positions.

  • Civil servants should be rotated in office with new presidents.

  • Created the Democrat Party.


  • Indian Removal Act 1830

  • Congress providing funds to move Native Americans in NC, GA, FL, Alabama and Mississippi to Indian land (present-day Oklahoma)

  • Cherokee ("Civilized Tribes") had become farmers, established schools, written laws, constitution

  • Cherokee sue (Cherokee Nation v. Georgia [1831] and Worcester v. Georgia [1832])

  • Jackson and Georgia ignored ruling

  • Trail of Tears

  • Native American tribes are forced to relocate, 1000s die.

  • Nullification Crisis 1832

  • South Carolina threatened to secede (leave the U.S) because of 1828 Tariff of Abominations.

  • Jackson proposed Tariff of 1832 (reduced tariff from 45% to 35% - still too high)

  • John C. Calhoun (Jackson's VP) secretly wrote South Carolina Exposition and Protest

  • Defining state's rights to nullify a federal law.

  • Force Bill ("An Act further to provide for the collection of duties on imports")

  • Jackson declared states do not have the right to nullify federal laws

  • Despite his belief in strong states.

  • Force bill authorized president to use whatever force necessary to enforce federal tariffs.

  • Compromise Tariff of 1833 proposed by Clay and Calhoun to gradually reduce tariffs.

  • Dismantled the Second Bank of the U.S.

  • ​Rivalry with Bank president Nicholas Biddle.

  • "The bank is trying to kill me but I will kill it"

  • Moved bank funds into "pet banks"

  • Closing of the Second Bank allowed state banks to print paper money without regulation.

  • Contributed to the Panic of 1837 (see Specie Circular)

  • Specie Circular 1836

  • ​Government would only accept gold and silver ("specie") in exchange for public lands.

  • Caused rise in price of land and ultimately, the Panic of 1837


MARTIN VAN BUREN (1837-1841) Democrat


  • Son of a Dutch tavern keeper

  • Secretary of State under Andrew Jackson (1829-1831)

  • Vice President under Jackson (1833-1837)

  • Helped create the Democratic Party

  • After his presidency, he ran again in the 1848 presidential election on the Free Soil Party ticket


  • Won with endorsement of Andrew Jackson and Democratic Party


  • Didn’t want to annex Texas (Annexed by Tyler)

  • Panic of 1837

  • Caused by inflation (state banks printing too much money - no regulation from 2nd BUS)

  • And specie circular

  • Drained of gold and silver, several NY banks announced they would no longer redeem their notes in specie.

  • Speculators found themselves holding paper money that was not accepted.

  • By 1841 28,000 business declared bankruptcy.

  • Factories closed

  • Riots in cities.

  • 8 western state governments defaulted on debts.

  • Van Buren approved the Independent Treasury (not bank) to deal with the crisis

  • Government took money out of pet banks

  • And would keep its money in its own vaults.

  • Separated federal government from the nation's banking system.

  • Whigs protested:

  • What was needed was more money into the economy, not burying it.

  • Independent Treasury was repealed in 1841 under Whigs and brought back again in 1846 under Polk.

  • Van Buren (as Democrat) believed that govt. should not alleviate popular suffering (small government)

  • Depression lasted until 1843

  • Martin van Ruin” was blamed for depression.

  • Lost reelection


WILLIAM HENRY HARRISON (Mar. to Apr. 1841) Whig


  • Military hero of Battle of Tippecanoe against Indians


  • Running mate was John Tyler

  • "Tippecanoe and Tyler too"

  • Promoted as a "log cabin" candidate.

  • Voter turnout was 80%


  • Died on 32nd day in office (pneumonia)

  • Sparked constitutional crisis


JOHN TYLER (1841-1845) Whig (Apr.- Sept 1841, then no party)


  • Ran as a Whig although he held views totally opposed to Whigs

  • He was chosen as Harrison's running mate to expand Whig base in the South.

  • Believed in strict constructionism


  • To power when Harrison died (called "His Accidency")

  • Caused constitutional crisis over his status (Title? "acting president")

  • 25th amendment (1967) dictates succession if president dies


  • Tyler had many problems with Whigs in government

  • Especially Clay who hoped to control Harrison from behind the scenes.

  • Tyler's appointments were rejected by Congress.

  • Tyler vetoed American System measures (Bank, Improvements, Tariff)

  • Didn't want to raise tariffs (stuck with 1833 Compromise Tariff)

  • ​Tried to veto 2nd Bank in 1841 - but was first president to have veto overridden.

  • Caused Tyler's cabinet to resign in 1841

  • House of Representatives began impeachment process (it didn't go through)

  • Dorr Rebellion in Rhode Island (1841-1842)

  • Middle class residents of Rhode Island wanted broader democracy.

  • Rhode Island was still using colonial charter of 1663 requiring men to own $134 in property to vote

  • Led by Thomas Wilson Dorr

  • New law in 1843: all native born adult males, regardless of race, who could pay poll tax of $1 could vote (non-natives still had property requirements)

  • USS Princeton Disaster

  • Cruise down Potomac, Tyler was on board

  • Cannon fired ceremonially but malfunctioned. many were killed.

  • Tyler was safe on the bottom deck.


  • Tyler was firm believer in Manifest Destiny.

  • Webster-Ashburton Treaty (Br) (1842)

  • Conflict

  • Boundary dispute b/w Maine and Canadian New Brunswick (lost Ben Franklin map)

  • And line west of Lake Superior

  • U.S. helping Canadian rebels

  • And illegal slave trade.

  • Settlement

  • Borders determined between Maine and Canada

  • Annexation of Republic of Texas 1845

  • ​Texas had declared itself independent from Mexico 1836


  • No hope of reelection

  • Created a 3rd party


JAMES POLK (1845-1849) Democrat


  • Had been governor of Tennessee

  • In Congress for 14 years (several of those as Speaker of the House)

  • Leading Jacksonian Democrat

  • Very strict and dull: against alcohol, dancing and playing cards


  • Polk (Jacksonian Democrat ticket) was "dark horse" (surprise) candidate.

  • Opposed high tariffs

  • Against another national bank

  • ​In favor of independent treasury (non-government banks)

  • Wanted Texas (which he considered part of Louisiana Purchase).

  • And all of Oregon ("54 40 or fight")

  • Defeated Henry Clay (Whig)

  • Clay still campaigning for American System

  • And was against annexation of Texas



  • Oregon Territory

  • Had campaigned for U.S. to take all of Oregon ("56' 50" or fight")

  • As president, reached settlement with Britain at 49th latitude (an extension of the Webster-Ashburton line)

  • "Mr. Polk's War"

  • Mexican-American War (1846-1848)

  • Ended with Treaty of Guadeloupe Hidalgo


  • Polk had promised to serve only one term

  • Died 3 months after he left office


ZACHARY TAYLOR (1849-1850) Whig

  • Bio

  • Only president to come from Louisiana

  • Hero Mexican-American War

  • ​Hero of Buena Vista

  • Southern slave owner (but didn't push for expansion of slavery)

  • Election

  • Taylor was reluctant to be nominated and didn't have strong political beliefs

  • Beat Lewis Cass (Democrat) and Martin Van Buren (Free-soil)

  • Taylor's VP was Millard Fillmore

  • Domestic

  • State of Deseret created in Utah by Mormons

  • Compromise of 1850

  • Died in office

  • Because of combo of medicine given to him for a stomach problems


MILLARD FILLMORE (1850-1853) Whig

  • Compromise of 1850

  • Taylor’s VP, Fillmore became president when he died

  • Most unmemorable president


FRANKLIN PIERCE (1853-1857) Democratic


  • Pronounced name "Purse"

  • Charming pro-Southern Democrat

  • Son died after elected

  • Depended on friend Jefferson Davis (his sec. of war, future president of the Confederacy in Civil War)


  • Kansas-Nebraska Act (1854)

  • Created by Stephen Douglas to build a railroad from his home state (Illinois) to the Pacific Ocean.

  • In order to build a railroad, the territories of Kansas and Nebraska had to become states.

  • He suggested popular sovereignty - which violated Missouri Compromise of 1820

  • Bleeding Kansas (1855-1861)

  • Caning of Charles Sumner by Preston Brooks

  • ​Sumner "Crime against Kansas" speech identified two Democratic senators as main culprits: Stephen Douglas and Andrew Butler (S.C)

  • ​"a mistress, who, though ugly to others, is always lovely to him... the harlot, Slavery"

  • Brooks, a relative of Sumner, beat Sumner with a cane.


  • Supported "Young American" movement of Democratic Prty

  • Wanted to spread democracy across globe and add additional territory

  • Gadsden Purchase 1853

  • Bought land from Mexico in part of AZ and New Mexico

  • Opened way for transcontinental railway from New Orleans to Los Angeles

  • Ostend Manifesto 1854

  • Document described rationale for U.S. to buy Cuba from Spain

  • And declare war if Spain refused.

  • Goal of slaveholders and some people in Cuba.

  • Plan was dismissed after outbreak of violence after Kansas-Nebraska Act.


JAMES BUCHANAN (1857-1861) Democratic


  • From Pennsylvania

  • Was Minister to Russia under Andrew Jackson

  • Secretary of State under Polk

  • Helped draft Ostend Manifesto

  • Pro-South

  • Only president who remained a bachelor.


  • Parties had reoriented along sectional lines

  • New Republican Party platform

  • Denounced Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854

  • Demanded that federal govt. prohibit slavery in all territories

  • Called for federal subsides for transcontinental railroads

  • To win American Party (Know Nothings) votes:

  • Wanted to ban foreign immigrants and imposed high tariff on foreign manufactures.

  • Nominated Colonel John C. Fremont

  • Free-soiler who had won fame in conquest of Mexican California (Bear Republic)

  • American Party/Know-Nothing Party (nativists)

  • Also split along section lines over slavery

  • Southern faction nominated former Whig president Millard Fillmore

  • Northern contingent endorsed Fremont (Republican)

  • Democrats

  • Reaffirmed support for popular sovereignty and Kansas-Nebraska Act.

  • Nominated Buchanan.


  • Dred Scott Decision 1857 (see court cases)

  • ​Buchanan pressured court to side with southerners over Scott.

  • Dred Scott deemed still a slave (even though his master had taken him to free areas)

  • Court said

  • "Negroes" could not be citizens.

  • Slaves considered "property"

  • States could not deprive white people of their "property"

  • Deemed all laws prohibiting slavery unconstitutional (Missouri Compromise etc.)

  • Lecompton constitution

  • Buchanan ignored fact that majority of citizens in Kansas were anti-slavery.

  • In 1859 urged Congress to admit Kansas as a slave state (accepting Lecompton constitution)

  • Kansas became free state in 1861 - during Civil War.

  • Lincoln-Douglas Debate 1858

  • Abraham Lincoln and Stephen Douglas campaigning to be Senator of Illinois

  • Lincoln: House Divided Speech

  • Douglas: Freeport Doctrine

CIVIL WAR (see post)

  • Lincoln is elected president (Nov. 8, 1860)

  • Crittendon Compromise (Dec. 18, 1860)

  • Attempt to avoid civil war

  • ​​Included six proposed constitutional amendments

  • And four proposed Congressional resolutions

  • Would have guaranteed the permanent existence of slavery in the slave states

  • By reestablishing the free-slave demarcation line drawn by the 1820 Missouri Compromise

  • Rejected by Northern Republicans -- incl. Lincoln.1862

  • South Carolina secedes (Dec. 21, 1860)



ABRAHAM LINCOLN (1861-1865) Republican


  • From family of yeoman farmers.

  • moved from Kentucky, to Indiana, to Illinois.

  • Became store clerk, read Shakespeare, sudied law.

  • Married Mary Todd (aristocratic daughter of Kentucky banker) in 1842

  • Abandoned Whigs to become Republican in Illinois

  • Lincoln-Douglas Debates (1856) - Senate of Illinois (Lincoln lost)

  • Seven debates.

  • Douglas: "This govt. was made by our fathers, by white men for the benefit of white men"

  • Attacked Lincoln for supporting "negro equality"

  • Freeport Doctrine: territories could exclude slavery by not adopting laws to protect it.

  • Lincoln: "A house divided against itself cannot stand... [the U.S.] cannot endure permanently half slave and half free... it will become all one thing, or all the other."

  • On slavery

  • Disagreed with human bondage but didn't believe federal govt. had authority to tamper with slavery.

  • Voted for Wilmot Proviso (banning slavery in territories from Mexico)

  • Favored sending free blacks to AFrica.


  • Transcontinental RR (Began 1861, completed 1869)

  • Morrill Land Grant Act (1862)

  • Higher education

  • Homestead Act (1862)

CIVIL WAR (see post)

  • Confederates began Civil War by firing on Ft. Sumter Apr. 12, 1861

  • Victory at Antietam

  • Lincoln issues Preliminary Emancipation Proclamation (signed Jan.1, 1863)

  • Gettysburg Address, Nov. 1863

  • Reiterated Dec. of Indep.,

  • Civil War as struggle for preservation of the Union sundered by secession crisis, with a “new birth of freedom”

  • Four score and seven Years ago = Amer. Revolution 1776

  • Suspended Writ of Habeas Corpus.

  • 1866 Ex Parte Milligan – Constitution not suspended in wartime



ANDREW JOHNSON (1865-1869) Democrat


  • Born in North Carolina then moved to Tennessee

  • Grew up poor

  • Illiterate as adult

  • Asked a schoolteacher to teach him to read and write (she became his wife)

  • Became congressman and senator

  • Had owned a few slaves but hated secessionist cotton planters

  • Only southerner to refuse walk out of Senate in 1861

  • Wanted harsh punishment of Confederate leaders

  • Was happy with "Emancipation Proclamation" not because it freed slaves but because it punished wealthy plantation owners.

  • Ran as Lincoln's Vice President (to get votes of southern Unionists)


  • Johnson came to power after Lincoln was assassinated


  • Johnson argued that since states could not legally secede, they never legally left the union so there was no need for a process to let them reenter

  • Johnson pardoned 13,000 Confederates and restored their civil rights by end of 1865

  • Including 4 Confederate generals, 6 members from Jefferson Davis's cabinet and Confederate VP (all served in Congress)


  • Johnson was impeached by the House of Representatives for violating the Tenure of Office Act by firing Edwin Stanton

  • The Senate acquitted him.


ULYSSES S. GRANT (1869-1877) Republican

  • Battle of Little Bighorn 1876, Custer's last stand

2 views0 comments

Recent Posts

See All