Presidents after World War I
1913 - 1921 - Woodrow Wilson (Dem.)
1921 - 1923 - Warren G. Harding (Rep.)
1923 - 1929 - Calvin Coolidge (Rep.)
1929 -,1933 - Herbert Hoover (Rep.)
1933 - 1945 - Franklin D. Roosevelt (Dem.)
1945 - 1953 - Harry Truman (Dem.)
1953 - 1961 - Dwight D. Eisenhower (Rep.)
1961 - 1963 - John F. Kennedy (Dem.)
1963 - 1969 - Lyndon B. Johnson (Dem.)
1969 - 1974 - Richard M. Nixon (Rep.)
1974 - 1977 - Gerald R Ford (Rep.)
1977 - 1981 - Jimmy Carter (Dem.)
1981 - 1989 - Ronald Reagan (Rep.)
1989 - 1993 - George H. W. Bush (Rep.)
1993 - 2001 - Bill Clinton (Dem.)
2001 - 2009 - George W. Bush (Rep.)
2009 - 2017 - Barack Obama (Dem.)
2017 - present - Donald Trump (Rep.)
WARREN G. HARDING (1921 - 1923) Republican
Bought and ran the Marion Star newspaper
"Return to Normalcy"
Andrew Mellon, Sec. of Treasury
Reduced tax rates for wealthy, raised tariffs, ignored antitrust regulation
Jun. 1921 - Sacco and Vanzetti trial
1921 Quota Act (3% based on 1910 census) (see 1924)
Teapot Dome Scandal
Sec. of Interior Albert Fall leased government oil fields to private oil companies in exchange for bribes. First cabinet member to go to prison
CALVIN COOLIDGE (1923 - 1929) Republican
As governor of Mass. Coolidge called the National Guard to end the Boston police strike
Said "There is no right to strike against the public safety by anybody, anywhere, anytime."
(Jan. 1925) Scopes Monkey Trial (ACLU, Butler Act, Clarence Darrow, William Jennings Bryan, Scopes guilty, fined $100)
1924 National Origins Act (2% based on 1890 census = fewer south/east Europe)
Dawes Plan (1923)- aid to Germany
Treaty of Locarno (1925)- Fr/Ger agree not resort to war, Germany in League of Nations
Kellogg-Briand Pact (signed 1928, proclaimed 1929, text)
Pact between US and other Powers (UK, Fr, Japan, Germany etc.) pledging to "renounce war as instrument of national policy."
HERBERT HOOVER (1929-1933) Republican
Was Sec. of Commerce
Hoover won landslide over Al Smith of New York
Showed support for Republican policies and good times.
1929 Great Depression (link)
Bull market reached peak, overproduction, underconsumption
American factories produced nearly 1/2 worlds industrial goods but uneven distribution of wealth, 80% of population didn't have a saving
Hoover believed "The crisis will be over in 60 days"
1932 Reconstruction Finance Corporation
1932 Bonus Army 20,000 WWI vets to DC.
Dust Bowl (Beginning in 1930)
Okies, John Steinbeck "Grapes of Wrath," Dorothea Lange
Hawley-Smoot Tariff (1930)- Highest in U.S. history (31-49%) led to retaliatory tariffs
Stimpson Doctrine (1932) - US would not recognize Japan's invasion of China (Manchukuo)
Began "Good Neighbor Policy" (see FDR)
FRANKLIN D. ROOSEVELT (1933 - 1945) Democrat
Was governor of New York
Easily defeated Hoover because of Depression, Bonus army etc.
Health: FDR was paralyzed form waist down because of Guillain-Barre syndrome
Economy - New Deal
Aug. 4 1942 Bracero Program
From Sp. "manual laborer" using "arms")
Series of laws and diplomatic agreements with Mexico for farm labor
1943 - Zoot suit riots, Los Angeles
Good Neighbor Policy - Latin America
No more Dollar Diplomacy: businesses didn't have money to invest because of Depression
FDR wanted friendly Latin America because of growing German militarism
At Pan-American Conferences in Uruguay (1933) and in Argentina (1936) US delegates pledged US would not intervene in Latin affairs.
1934 Congress nullified Platt amendment in Cuba (kept Guantanamo Bay)
1938 Mexican President Lazaro Cardenas seized American-owned oil properties
FDR didn't intervene
But US continued to support dictators: Anastasio Somoza (Nicaragua), Rafael Trujillo Molina (Dominican Republic), Fulgencio Batista (Cuba)
FDR recognized the Communist regime in Russia, exchanged ambassadors
Tydings-McDuffie Act (1934) - Philippines would be independent in 1946 and US military presence would gradually be removed.
1934 Sen. Gerald P. Nye committee on "merchants of death"
1935-37 Neutrality Acts banning loans and sales of weapons
Quarantine speech (Oct. 5, 1937)
Called for an international "quarantine" against the "epidemic of world lawlessness"
Died April 12, 1945
HARRY TRUMAN (1945 - 1953) Democrat
Vice President under FDR
Became president in 1945 after Roosevelt's death
Election of 1948
Thomas Dewey (Rep.)
Appeared as if he would win "Dewey defeats Truman" headline.
Moderate progressive Republicans
Strom Thurmond (Dixiecrat)
Right-wing Southern Democrats frustrated with Truman.
Alliance formed by Hubert Humphrey
Segregationist policy and states' rights to legislate segregation
Henry Wallace (Progressive Party)
Progressive Party not related to Roosevelt's Party
Left-wing Democratic Party liberals and socialist "fellow travelers"
Wallace claimed to be true heir to FDR - wanted to expand New Deal
Taft-Hartley Act (1947)
Enacted over Truman's veto (he called it "slave labor law")
Reversed government's backing of labor movement, employees had right to refuse to join a union (outlawed "closed shop"
Fair Deal (1949)
Ambitious program to continue New Deal liberalism
Universal health insurance, Fair Employment Practices, repeal of Taft-Hartley
Congress (80th) dominated by conservatives and Southern Democrats sympathetic to Republicans behind Robert Taft
All of Truman's proposals were rejected by "do-nothing Congress."
1947 Federal Employee Loyalty Program (Exec. Order 9835)
Invasive measures to identify/remove Communist sympathizers from govt.
HUAC (House Un-American Activities Committee)
Created 1938 to investigate disloyalty and subversive activities
Persecuted "Hollywood Ten"(inc. Trumbo) and blacklisted 300 directors, actors etc. (incl. Charlie Chaplin, Orson Wells)
And govt. official Alger Hiss 1948) (accused of being a Soviet spy by Whittaker Chambers, charged with perjury in 1950.
Not associated with McCarthy
1950 told Republican audience that he had list of 205 Communists who were working with the State Dept.
1954 Accused army of infiltration of Communists, "Have you no decency?"
Truman replaced FDR
Disagreements over Poland (Russia wanted buffer, West wanted democratic)
Russia didn't know about America's atomic bombs
End of World War II
Dropped atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki
George Kennan, Containment
Truman Doctrine (Greece and Turkey)
1948 - Berlin Blockade and Berlin Airlift
1949 - Mao Zedong defeated Chiang Kaishek (Jiang Jieshi) in China
Taiwan recognized in UN Security Council
1949 - NATO (Soviet counterpart, Warsaw Pact, 1955)
Douglas MacArthur helps Japanese created a constitution (Hirohito remains emperor)
Japan be9comes ally during Korean War
Korean War (1950-1953)
North Koreans invade below 38th parallel
Gen. Douglas MacArthur up to Yalu River, China threatened war, MacArthur fired
DWIGHT D. EISENHOWER (1953 - 1961) Republican
Five-star General in WWII
Supreme Commander of Allied Expeditionary Force
Planned invasion of North Africa (Operation Torch) and D-Day
Eisenhower/Nixon (Rep) landslide victory against
Adlai Stevenson (Dem)
Eisenhower was first president to have limit of two terms under 22nd Amend.
Passed after FDR's four terms.
"New Look" (1954)
Proclaimed by Sec. of State John Foster Dulles
Emphasized reliance on strategic nuclear weapons to deter potential threats
Interstate Highway Act (1956)
NASA (Jul. 1958)
1954 Brown v. Board of Education
John Foster Dulles (Sec. of State)
Brinkmanship, Massive Retaliation, MAD
Oct. 4, 1957 Soviets launched Sputnik, 1st satellite
Korean War (1950-53)
Ended under Eisenhower
CIA supports coup to overthrow PM Mossadegh (1953)
Vietnam War (1955-1975)
1954 - French defeated at Dien Bien Phu
U.K, France, Israel invaded Egypt after Gamal Abdel Nasser nationalized the Suez Canal ("Operation Kadesh") US
Nasser claimed to be "neutral" in the Cold War but accepting aid from Soviets.
In response: Eisenhower Doctrine (Jan. 5, 1957)
A Middle Eastern country could request American economic assistance or aid from U.S. military forces if it was being threatened by armed aggression.
To give Middle Eastern countries an alternative to accepting Russian aid.
Important because of Mid East oil.
Fidel Castro defeated Batista (1959)
OPEC (Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries) created in 1960
JOHN F. KENNEDY (1961 - 1963) Democrat
Wife Jacqueline Kennedy
JFK had affairs (including Marilyn Monroe)
New Frontier Speech (1960)
"We stand today on the edge of a New Frontier -- the frontier of the 1960s, the frontier of unknown opportunities and perils, the frontier of unfilled hopes and unfilled threats. -- Beyond that frontier are uncharted areas of science nd space, unsolved problems of peace and war, unconquered problems of ignorance and prejudice, unanswered questions of poverty and surplus."
"Ask not what your country can do for you - ask what you can do for your country."
1961 Cesar Chavez and Dolores Huerta founded United Farm Workers
1963 MLK March on Washington
1962 - Rachel Carson wrote "Silent Spring" describing how modern society is poisoning earth (especially with DDT pesticide)
Michael Harrington wrote "The Other America"
About the persistence of poverty in America (he cited 50 million), especially immigrants, urban African-Africans, aged, handicapped.
Harrington, a socialist, later worked with LBJ on the "War on Poverty."
Court cases (Chief Justice Earl Warren 1953-1969)
Baker v. Carr (1962) -States to redraw district lines to increase power of under-represented.
Engel v. Vitale (1962) - Banned school prayer
Gideon v. Wainwright (1963)- Defendant has right to legal council
Flexible Response (v. Massive Retaliation)
1961 Bay of Pigs
Oct. 1962 - Cuban Mrissile Crisis
1961 Peace Corps
Sent 15,000 "advisers"
Killed by Lee Harvey Oswald
LYNDON B. JOHNSON (1963 - 1969) Democrat
Born in Texas
Vice President under John F. Kennedy
Medicare, Medicaid, NEA, NEH, Immigration, Civil Rights Act, War on Poverty
Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965
Encouraged immigration from countries other Europe
24th Amendment - ended Poll Tax
Voting Rights Act - ended literacy tests
Civil Rights Act 1964
Court cases (Chief Justice Earl Warren 1953-1969)
Miranda v. Arizona (1966) -
Gulf of Tonkin Resolution, 1964
RICHARD M. NIXON (1969 - 1974) Republican
Born in California
Participated in the Alger Hiss Case- established his reputation as anti-communist
Ran against JFK in 1960, lost
Election of 1968
Hubert Humphrey (Democrat)
Gay liberation/Stonewall Inn, Greenwich Village NYC (1969)
Series of spontaneous demonstrations by LGBT community against police raid at Stonewall Inn, a mafia-owned bar that catered to gay and transgender clients.
Native Americans/AIM (American Indian Movement) created 1968
Members occupied Alcatraz in San Francisco to draw attention to Indian issues
In 1972, they protected in DC ("Trail of Broken Treaties"). Occupied the Bureau of Indian Affairs
1973 AIM took over site at Wounded Knee to protest Indian policy (violence).
Internal dissension caused AIM to disband in 1978
Spiro Agnew resigned 1973, Gerald Ford appointed by Nixon (25th Amendment)
Secretly bombed neutral Cambodia (caused rise of Khmer Rouge)
Enacted Vietnamization (shifting burden of war to Vietnamese)
Visited Mao Zedong
Nixon resigned before he could be impeached
GERALD R. FORD (1974 - 1977) Republican
Was appointed Vice President by Nixon after Spiro Agnew resigned.
Became president after Nixon's resigtation, the only President never elected
Pardoned Richard Nixon
WIN - Whip Inflation Now
Watched as Vietnam fell to North Vietnamese
1975 Helsinki Accords - to improve relations between Communists and West
JIMMY CARTER (1977 - 1981) Democrat
Governor of Georgia
Gerald Ford (Rep) and Bob Dole
Jimmy Carter (Dem) and Walter Mondale
Ford unpopular because of association with Nixon and pardon.
Carter was outsider
1979 Iranian Revolution
1979 Soviet Union invaded Afghanistan
Carter pulled out of SALT, boycotted Olympics
RONALD REAGAN (1981 - 1989) Republican
President of Screen Actors Guild (SAG)
Former Governor of California
Reagan Democrats: traditionally Democratic voters, esp. white, working-class Rust Belt voters, who voted for Republican Reagan
Reagan/Bush (won 49 states)
Touted strong economic recovery from 1970s
Walter Mondale and Geraldine Ferraro (1st woman to serve of major party ticket)
Criticized supply-side economic policy and budge deficits
Called for nuclear freeze and ratification of ERAA
"Make America Great Again"
Nickname for Reagan's presidency since criticism and blame didn't stick to him.
Reaganomics, "trickle down theory"
Cut taxes on wealthy to stimulate investment
But wealthy bought more luxuries from abroad
Impact: created huge deficits - $200-$300 billion/year
Gramm-Rudman-Hollings Balanced Budget Act
Across-the-board spending cuts
Cut domestic discretionary spending
1989 Christian Coalition founded by Pat Robertson
Crusaded against gay rights, abortion, secularism in public schools
Reagan proposed constitutional amendment on school prayer
Challenged 1962 Engel v. Vitale prohibiting state officials from composing an official state prayer
War on Drugs 1982
Said illicit drugs were threat to national security
Came down heavier on Crack (cheaper) than Cocaine
Nancy Reagan "Just Say No"
HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) started in primates (chimpanzees/gorillas) and jumped to humans in Africa, from Africa to Haiti, from Haiti to NY 1971, then SF 1976.
AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome) - result of untreated HIV
Reagan was silent about AIDS epidemic since it generally spread among the gay community.
John Hinckley Jr. tried to kill Reagan to impress actress Jodie Foster
Reagan's press secretary, James Brady, also shot and partially paralyzed
Increased spending on weapons - arms race
SDI ("Star Wars") 1983
Proposed missile defense system to protect US from intercontinental ballistic missiles. Scientists were recruited to try to design a system but it was criticized because it would eliminate safety of MAD. Ended in 1993.
INF Treaty (Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces Treaty) signed with USSR in 1987 to eliminate intermediate-range and shorter-range missiles. It eliminated all nuclear and conventional missiles and their launchers with ranges of 310-3,420 miles.
Korean Air Lines 007 (Sep. 1, 1983)
Scheduled from NYC to Seoul, Korea over Alaska, shot down by Soviet Interceptor aircraft because it flew through Soviet prohibited airspace because they thought it was a U.S. spy plane killed all 269 passengers and crew. Soviets denied involvement. Caused anti-Soviet sentiment in US, GPS now used worldwide.
Marines in Lebanon
After Maurice Bishop (aid from Cuba etc.) was killed by Marxist Bernard Coard
Civil War between military government and leftist coalition Farabundo Marti National Liberation Front (FMLN) (which was aided by Cuba and Nicaraguan Sandinists)
Boland Amendment prohibited funding of Contras
US officially supported Iraq in Iran-Iraq War (1980-88)
Reagan said the US would not negotiate with terrorists
But money was approved to send weapons to Iran to get Iran to help negotiate to free U.S. hostages in Lebanon, some of the money was used to fund Contras
GEORGE H. W. BUSH (1989 - 1993) Republican
George H.W. Bush and Dan Quayle v. Michael Dukakis and Bentsen
Bush capitalized on good economy and Reagan's popularity, said Dukakis was a "Massachusetts liberal"
At Republican National Convention, Bush said "Read my lips: no new taxes" (he raised taxes anyway to reduce budget deficit)
1992 riots in Los Angeles after 4 police found not guilty in beating of black driver Rodney King (caught on video tape). 52 died in riot, $1 billion damage (compare to Watts Riots 1965)
Appointed Clarence Thomas in 1991 to replace Thurgood Marshall
Clarence Thomas was accused of sexual harassment by Anita Hill
Exxon-Valdez oil spill (Mar. 24, 1989)
Oil tanker off the coast of California spilled more than 10 million gallons of crude oil causing an enviromental disaster.
Noriega had been recruited by CIA to help stop spread of Communism in C. America until he became involved in drug trafficking in 1977. In 1979 he was hired back by CIA after Marxist Sandinistas came to power in Nicaragua in 1979.
In 1983 he became dictator.
US invaded Panama in 1989 to overthrow him on charges of drug trafficking, suppressing democracy and endangering Americans. Noriega surrendered 1990.
1989 Tiananmen Square massacre of pro-democracy students
Eastern Europe/Soviet Union
Poland under Lech Walesa (Solidarity) left Communist sphere in 1989
Followed by Hungary, Czechoslovakia, Bulgaria and Romania
Berlin Wall in East Germany was taken down
Germany reunified in 1990, Baltic republics declare independence
End of Cold War 1991
Bush/Gorbachev signed START I reducing nuclear warheads
Soviet Union collapsed after failed coup against Gorbachev in August 1991
Coup was put down by Yeltsin (president of Russian SSR)
Gorbachev resigned in Dec. 1991
Yeltsin became leader of Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) in 1992
Bush and Yeltsin sign START II treaty in 1992 -->US economic help to Russia
Humanitarian disaster in Somalia and breakdown of order
US humanitarian aid (Operation Restore Hope/United Task Force UNITAF) 1992
Battle of Mogadishu 1993 between US forces and militia fighters - subject of movie "Black Hawk Down"
Gulf War against Saddam Hussein 1992-3
After Hussein attacked Kuwait
BILL CLINTON (1993 - 2001) Democrat
Full name: William Jefferson Clinton
Was Governor of Arkansas
Married to 2016 presidential candidate, Hillary Clinton
1993 Hillary and Bill were under investigation for Arkansas real-estate deal (Whitewater), prosecutor Kenneth Starr shifted focus to Lewinsky.
George H.W. Bush - incumbent Republican
H. Ross Perot was a Texas billionaire running as independent
At age 46, he was 3rd youngest president, first Baby Boomer
"Age of big government is over"
Clinton was liberal culturally and socially but after 1980 was as business-friendly as Reagan - cut social programs
Clinton was accused of changing positions to get elected
earned nickname "slick Willie"
"Don't Ask, Don't Tell" - homosexuals in the military, 1994
Proposition 187 (1994)
California - denied illegal immigrants and children access to welfare, education and most health services. Implementation barred by courts.
Al Qaeda exploded truck bomb at World Trade Center killing six 1993
WACO siege in Texas (Apr. 1993)
Compound Branch Davidian sect (followers of David Koresh) suspected of stockpiling illegal weapons raided by ATF agents. Fire killed 76 including Koresh and many children. Inspired Timothy McVeigh
Timothy McVeigh (member of militant anti-government movement) (1995)
Exploded bomb at a federal office building in Oklahoma City, 168 dead (incl. children)
Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act 1999-repealed part of Glass-Steagall Act of 1933
By 2000 23 states had passed English only laws.
Casey v. Planned Parenthood - reaffirmed right to abort
NAFTA (North American Free Trade Agreement), (Dec. 1993)
Eliminated barriers to imports from Mexico and Canada, maquiladoras.
Kyoto Protocol (1997)
Signed by 180 countries, to reduce output of greenhouse gases from fossil fuels to end global warming, US pulled out under Bush
Serbian ethnic ceansing under SlobodanMilosevic
After Kosovo crisis, Clinton said US would intervene to prevent human rights abuses when it could do so without suffering substantial casualties - without the authority of the UN Security Council
1998, Monica Lewinsky scandal. Clinton impeached for perjury and obstruction of justice
GEORGE W. BUSH (2001 - 2009) Republican
Son of Gorge H.W. Bush, brother to Florida Governor Jeb Bush
Candidates: Bush and Dick Cheney v. Al Gore and Joe Lieberman (1st Jewish)
Both won almost equal popular votes
Votes in Florida were very close - a few hundred votes. (29 electoral votes)
Jeb Bush, Florida's governor, was Bush's brother
Democrats demanded recount, counters checking or "hanging chads"
Sept. 11 2001 - four planes hijacked by terrorists flew into Twin Towers, Pentagon and crashed in a field. Osama bin Laden and Al Qaeda took responsibility.
USA PATRIOT Act (Oct. 26, 2001)
Full name: Uniting and Strengthening America by Providing Appropriate Tools Required to Intercept and Obstruct Terrorism Act.
300 pages, authorizing the govt. to spy on citizens, open letters, red emails etc. 5,000 Mid East foreigners rounded up, 1,200 arrested
No Child Left Behind
War in Afghanistan (2001)
Against Taliban after they refused to hand over Osama Bin Laden
People captured in Afghanistan or accused of terrorism kept prisoner in U.S. Naval base in Cuba.
"Axis of Evil" speech (North Korea, Iraq, Iran), Jan. 2002
Bush Doctrine (Sep 2002) text
Security confronting US is different from before.
It's the first duty of the US Govt. to protect American interests and people
US will act preemptively in self-defense.
War in Iraq against Saddam Hussein (Mar. 2003)
"Operation Iraqi Freedom"
Prompted by Neocons Dick Cheney (VP), Donald Rumsfeld, Paul Wolfowitz
On basis that Iraq had Weapons of Mass Destruction
Sec. of State Colin Powell objected
Abu Ghraib prison (2004)
Series of human rights violations against POWs in Iraq: torture, sodomy, humiliation etc. Photos published, including those of soldier Lynndie England posing with naked Iraqi prisoners and hooded prisoners on a box
BARACK OBAMA (2009 - 2017) Democrat
Obergefell v. Hodges 2015
said 14th Amendment protected right of same sex couples to marry
Affordable Care Act (ACA)
Passed without a single Republican vote
United group of conservatives and libertarians who objected to Obamacare, abortion, gun control, undocumented immigration.
Republicans in House
Captured/killed Osama bin Laden (2011)
DONALD TRUMP (2017 - present) Republican