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1756 -1763 - Seven Years War/French and Indian War

1774 - British colonists in North America create Constitutional Congress after Intolerable Acts

1776 - American Declaration of Independence (written by Jefferson)

1783 - End of American Revolution, U.S. is independent

1787 - U.S. Constitution written

1789 - Storming of the Bastille in Paris (official beginning of French Revolution)

Louis XVI becomes constitutional monarch

1791 - Haitian slave revolt under Voodoo priest Boukman

1792 - France declares war on Austria and Prussia

1792 - France becomes a republic (Year 1 in new French calendar)

1793 - France declares war on Spain, Britain and Netherlands

France declares universal manhood suffrage

Louis XVI guillotined, Robespierre and radical Jacobins take over.

1794 - More than 40,000 "counter-revolutionaries" killed in France, French outlaw slavery in Haiti

1795 - Directory set up France after Robespierre is executed (lasts until 1799)

1797 - Toussaint Louverture controls most of Saint-Domingue

1799 - Napoleon overthrow the Directory and becomes First Consul, then Consul for life

1801 - Toussaint Louverture creates Haitian constitution with equality and citizenship to all residents

1802 - Napoleon crowns himself emperor.

Napoleon sends troops to restore Fr. authority in Saint-Domingue, troops die of yellow fever

1803 - Dessaline declares Saint Domingue an independent republic

1804 - Saint-Domingue is renamed "Haiti"

1807 - Napoleon fights Peninsular War with Spain and Portugal

Portuguese court flees to Brazil

1810 - Mexican revolt under Father Hidalgo

May Revolution in Argentina led by Jose de San Martin

1811 - Simon Bolivar fights Spanish with army of Creoles

1812 - Napoleon's army is defeated in Russia

1814 - Napoleon is exiled in Elba

1815 - Napoleon is defeated again in Waterloo , exiled to St. Helena

1819 - Simon Bolivar becomes president of Gran Colombia (until 1830)

1821 - Mexico becomes indpendent under Iturbide Brazil becomes independent from Portugal

1822 - Iturbide becomes emperor of Mexico (until 1823)

Son of King Joao of Portugal becomes King Pedro I of Brazil (until 1834)

1823 - Mexico becomes a republic after Iturbide is overthrown

1825 - Southern Mexico declares independence from north, becomes Central American Federation.

1830 - Gran Colombia breaks apart (New Granada/Colombia, Venezuela, Ecuador)

1838 - Southern Mexico splits into independent states

(Guatemala, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Costa Rica)

1898 - Spain loses last colonies (Cuba, Puerto Rico, Philippines, Guam) after Spanish-American War

1903 - Panama becomes independent from Colombia with U.S. help


SEVEN YEARS WAR (see link)

  • Fought mostly between British and French

  • World war fought in many places

  • North America (called the "French and Indian War")

  • India (France and Britain)

  • Europe (Prussia, Russia, Spain, Britain and France)

  • Caribbean

  • West Africa

  • Philippines

  • ​North American part of the war called "French and Indian War"

  • Consequences

  • British East India Company dominated India (South Asia) after French companies defeated

  • French kicked out of North America (except Haiti)

  • New France divided between British and Spanish

  • British in debt after the war (leads to change in policy in the 13 colonies)



  • See link.

  • 13 British colonies

  • Navigation Acts

  • Colonists had to trade certain items (tobacco, cotton etc.) only through Britain (mercantilism)

  • Salutary neglect

  • As long as trade continued, British stayed out of colonial affairs

  • French and Indian War (North American part of Seven Years War) (1756-1763)

  • British and colonists defeat French

  • New France is divided between Spain and Britain

  • Consequences of Seven Years War

  • Ended period of "Salutary Neglect"

  • Quartering Act (colonists had to house soldiers)

  • British impose taxes on North American colonists

  • ​Sugar Act, Stamp Act, Townshend Act, Tea Act

  • Colonists reacted

  • Against "taxation without representation"

  • Colonists in Massachusetts reacted to Tea Act with Boston Tea Party (1773)

  • By throwing British tea in Boston Harbor

  • British passed Intolerable Acts to punish Massachussetts

  • Closing Boston Harbor, ending self-government in Massachusetts for example

  • First Continental Congress 1774

  • Colonists joined together to protest taxes and Intolerable Acts

  • British sent troops to Lexington and Concord to confiscate weapons and arrest revolutionaries

  • Second Continental Congress 1775

  • Colonists created a Continental Army led by George Washington

  • Inspired by Enlightenment ideas of John Locke, colonists declared independence from Britain July 4, 1776

  • The American Revolution (1775-1783)

  • British advantages:

  • Strong government, strong navy, more money

  • American advantages:

  • Fighting on home turf, George Washington's leadership

  • French (under Louis XVI) joined colonists against British

  • To avenge their loss in French and Indian War

  • Weary of a costly conflict, British forces surrendered in 1781 at Yorktown

  • Constitutional Convention, 1787

  • New American constitution guaranteed freedom of press, of speech, and of religion

  • American republic based on principles of equality, popular sovereignty

  • Full legal and political rights were granted to men of property



  • Causes

  • French debt

  • ​Debt from wars (including helping Americans)

  • Taxes only collected from Third Estate

  • 1/2 of French governments revenue went to paying off debts

  • Price of Bread

  • ​Droughts caused price of bread to soar - some families spent 80% of their salary on bread

  • Enlightenment

  • ​Challenging authority, freedoms, rational thinking, secularism

  • Inspired by American Revolution

  • Rigid social structure

  • ​Three Estates: Clergy, Nobility and Third Estate (everyone else)

  • Third Estate = bourgeoisie (middle class), workers, peasants

  • Estates General

  • King Louis XVI called an Estates General to change the taxation system

  • Each Estate represented by one vote (gave 1st and 2nd Estates the advantage)

  • Third Estate decided to form their own government, the National Assembly

  • When Third Estate was locked out of the meetings, they moved to the Tennis Court vowing to create a constitution based on popular sovereignty

  • Storming of the Bastille (July 14, 1789)

  • Hearing a rumor that the King was trying to shut down the National Assembly, the commoners in Paris attacked the Bastille prison (a symbol of authoritarian power)

  • Sparked insurrections in other cities

  • "Bastille Day" is commemorated yearly in France as the formal beginning of the Revolution

  • "Declaration of Rights of Man and the Citizen"

  • Preamble to France's new constitution written with help from Jefferson

  • Women, like Olympe de Gouges, complained that rights were not extended to women.

  • "Liberty, equality and fraternity" - became slogan of the Revolution

  • National Assembly abolished the feudal system, altered the role of the church.

  • Women's march on Versailles Palace

  • Commoners went to Versailles demanding that the King and Queen moved back to Paris

  • King Louis XVI becomes a constitutional monarch

  • Flight to Varennes

  • In 1791, Louis XVI and his wife, Marie Antoinette try to flee to Austria

  • They are caught and forced to return to Paris

  • War

  • Prussia and Austria threatened France (Declaration of Pillnitz)

  • French government declared war on Prussia and Austria

  • The following year, France declared war on Britain, Spain and the Netherlands

  • European nations invade France to restore the ancien régime (old order)

  • Republic

  • Inspired by victories in war and Enlightenment

  • Sept 22, 1792, France became a republic

  • Declared universal manhood suffrage

  • King and Queen were jailed

  • Revolution turned radical

  • Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette executed by guillotine in 1793

  • Radical Jacobins led by Maximilien Robespierre dominated the National Assembly

  • "Reign of terror" instituted -- more than 40,000 "counterrevolutionaries" executed.

  • Revolutionary changes

  • Price of bread controlled

  • Population wore "revolutionary" clothing and cockades

  • Calendar and clocks changed

  • "Year One" = establishment of Republic

  • Weeks = 10 days, hours = 100 minutes etc.

  • All churches closed, replaced by "Cult of Reason"

  • Women won some rights (for example, divorce by mutual consent)

  • Revolution "eats its own children"

  • Robespierre was finally arrested and executed July 1794

  • Jacobins and other radicals were arrested

  • More conservative middle class Frenchmen take over.

  • The Directory, 1795-1799

  • A conservative reaction against the excesses of the Convention

  • New constitution is written, ending controls on price of bread for instance


NAPOLEON (r. 1799-1815)

  • Bio

  • ​Born in Corsica

  • Married Josephine, a creole widow and mother.

  • Napoleon's first military campaign was against the Austrians in Italy in 1798 (under Directory)

  • Then he went to Egypt

  • Egypt

  • Napoleon easily beat the Mamelukes in Egypt in the Battle of the Pyramids 1798

  • In Egypt, Napoleon's team of scientists found the Rosetta Stone

  • Written in Greek, hieroglyphics and demotic (simplified hieroglyphics)

  • Helped Europeans decipher Egyptian hieroglyphics

  • Consulate (1799-1804)

  • In 1799, Napoleon returned to France and overthrew the Directory

  • He became "consul for life"

  • Brought stability back to France after years of chaos

  • Made peace with the Roman Catholic Church and Pope Pius VII (Concordat of 1801)

  • Freedom of religion to Protestants (Huguenots) and Jews

  • Emperor (1804-1814)

  • In 1804 Napoleon crowned himself Emperor of France

  • Civil Code of 1804

  • Restricted individual freedom, especially speech and press

  • Ignored elective bodies

  • Surrounded himself with loyal military officers who ensured that representative assemblies did not restrict his authority

  • Political and legal equality for all adult men

  • Merit-based society

  • Protected private property

  • Allowed aristocrats to return and regain some property

  • Restored patriarchal authority

  • ​Women lost some rights

  • French civil law

  • Used in Quebec, Netherlands, Italy, Spain, some Latin American republics, Louisiana

  • War

  • Dominated the European continent: Iberia (Spain and Portugal), Italy, Netherlands

  • Defeated Austria and Prussia

  • Fought British on high seas (but lost Battle of Trafalgar against Horatio Nelson)

  • Peninsular War (1808-1814)

  • ​Against Spain and Portugal

  • Portuguese royal family fled to Brazil

  • Napoleon's brother, Joseph, installed as King of Spain

  • Disastrous invasion of Russia in 1812 in winter destroyed Napoleon's Grand Army

  • The fall of Napoleon

  • Forced by coalition of enemies to abdicate in 1814, exiled on Elba

  • Congress of Vienna

  • Hundred Days

  • Escaped, returned to France, raised army, but was defeated by British in 1815

  • Exiled to St. Helena



  • The Haitian Revolution = the only successful slave revolt in history

  • Geography

  • France had lost its North American colonies in the French and Indian War (see map above)

  • Saint-Domingue (future Haiti) was a rich French colony on western Hispaniola (eastern part was Spanish Santo Domingo)

  • In the Caribbean

  • Population

  • White settlers (dominated)

  • French colonial officials (European born Frenchmen)

  • ​Dominated colonial administrative posts

  • Wealthy plantation owners

  • ​Minor aristocrats who hope to return to France quickly

  • Lower class whites

  • Artisans, shopkeepers, slave dealers, merchants

  • Poor immigrants

  • All sought self-governance/independence from France, republican government

  • But opposed freedom for gens de couleurs

  • Gens de couleur libre (free black people)

  • Had same legal status as whites

  • Could own property live where they wanted

  • And have an education and career.

  • But from 1760s onward, colonial administrators began taking these rights away.

  • By French Revolution, free blacks were ruled by discriminatory laws

  • Wanted to be equal to Europeans

  • Slaves (90% of population, 500,000)

  • ​Worked under brutal conditions in sugar fields

  • Slavery regulated under 1685 Code Noir (Black Code

  • Maroons - escaped slaves who set up communities in the hills.

  • Civil War/First stage of rebellion May 1791

  • National Assembly in France granted political rights to free people of color born to two free parents who had sufficient property

  • Caused fury among white elite - government refused to enact it.

  • Caused violence between white settlers and gens de couleur.

  • Second stage of rebellion

  • Expanded when

  • Vodou hougan (priest) and maroon leader, Dutty Boukman, organized slave revolt

  • Slave revolt began August 1791.

  • Factions of white settlers, gens de couleur, and slaves battled each other

  • 12,000 slaves began killing white settlers (burning homes etc.) – then 100,000 slaves.

  • Many slaves veterans of wars in Africa.

  • French troops arrived in 1792

  • British and Spanish forces intervened in 1793

  • British, Spanish forces interned 1793 (trying to benefit)

  • Boukman died.

  • But slaves overcame white settlers, gens de couleur and foreign armies.

  • Because of Francois Dominque Toussaint (Louverture 1791)

  • Toussaint Louverture (1744-1803)

  • Bio

  • Son of slaves, literate, skilled organizer, (livestock overseer)

  • Planted coffee on leased land with rented slaves.

  • Free since 1776

  • Helped masters escape in 1791 during slave rebellion, then joined rebellion.

  • Built a strong and disciplined army

  • Initially joined Spanish when they entered war against French.

  • Then to French side when France abolished slavery (1794)

  • By 1797 Louverture led an army of 20,000

  • And controlled most of Saint-Domingue

  • Created a constitution in 1801

  • Granted equality and citizenship to all residents

  • Stopped short of declaring independence form France

  • Because didn’t want to provoke Napoleon into attacking.

  • Napoleon

  • 1802 Napoleon sent 40,000 French troops to restore French authority

  • Toussaint tried to negotiated

  • But arrested and jail (maltreatment)

  • Arrested by French troops; died in jail, 1803

  • The Republic of Haiti

  • Yellow fever ravaged French troops;

  • defeated and driven out by slave armies

  • Haiti Declared independence in 1803;

  • established the Republic of Haiti (“land of mountains”) in 1804

  • Second independent republic in western hemisphere.

  • Napoleon sold Louisiana to U.S. for $15 million




  • Peninsulares (30,000) -Spanish/Portuguese born in Spain/Portugal (Iberian Peninsula)

  • Peninsulares acted as colonial official governing the region

  • Creoles (3.5 million) - White, Spanish people born in the New World

  • ​Creoles lived on plantations or ranches or participated in trade

  • Greivances

  • ​Like Americans in the British colonies they resented economic regulations by Spain

  • They wanted to displace Peninsulares but keep their privileged positions

  • Didn't want equality like Haiti or Robespierre's France

  • They wanted lower taxes and participated in tax revolts (like Americans)

  • They wanted political independence (like Americans)

  • Between 1810 and 1823, the Creoles brought independence to al Spanish colonies

  • ​except Cuba and Puerto Rico which remained in Spanish hands until the Spanish-American War in 1898

  • Influenced by Enlightenment, American and French Revolutions

  • Mestizos (mixed Spanish and Indian)

  • Indigenous people (10 million)

  • Mulattoes (mixed black people and white)

  • Slaves (in Brazil, slaves made up the majority of the population)

Battles for Independence in Latin America

  • Napoleon's invasion of Spain in 1807 weakened royal control of colonies

  • 1810 revolts against Spanish rule

  • In Argentina, Venezuela and Mexico

  • Between 1810-1823 – Creoles brought independence to all Spanish colonies

  • Except Cuba and Puerto Rico



  • Peasant revolt in Mexico (1810)

  • Led by Hidalgo, (Father Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla)

  • Rallied indigenous people and mestizos against colonial rule

  • Seen as social and economic warfare by the masses against the elites of Mexican society

  • Particularly since Hidalgo rallied people to his cause by invoking the name of Virgin of Guadalupe

  • Symbol of Mexican independence (Sept. 16 1810) (Mexico’s primary holiday)

  • 1810 Rebellion was defeated by conservative creoles

  • Colonial rule ended 1821

  • When creole general Augustine de Iturbide declared independence

  • Then declared himself emperor in 1822.

  • 1821: Mexico briefly a military dictatorship,

  • Creole elites deposed Iturbide

  • Established a republic 1823

  • Southern Mexico 1825

  • South declared independence

  • Formed a Central American Federation

  • 1838 - Split into independent states

  • ​Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica


  • Before Porfirio Diaz

  • Texas become independent in 1836

  • Mexican-American War 1846-48

  • Treaty of Guadeloupe Hidalgo, US gained California, New Mexico, Utah

  • War of the Reform (1858-1860)

  • French intervention in Mexico (1862-1867)

  • French imposed rule of Emperor Maximilian

  • Diaz and "Cientificos" seized power in a coup against Maximilian

  • Social structure

  • Creoles - Spanish born in Latin america - rich, landed elite

  • Mestizos - Mixed European and Indian, the largest group

  • Indian - poor

  • Porfirio Diaz

  • Bio

  • Was mestizo from poor state of Oaxaca

  • President of Mexico 1877-1880 and 1884-1911 (period called Porfiriato)

  • During presidency brought stability after decades of conflict.

  • Economy

  • Diaz encouraged foreign investment

  • Large American investment to build railroads and develop mines and pump oil

  • Built telegraph system and ports integrating Mexico into world circuit of trade

  • With trade and railroads, commercial agriculture more profitable and marketable

  • Large landed estates (haciendas) expanded

  • Porfirio regime favored landed elites over peasants

  • Autocratic regime (strongman)

  • Not a military or police state

  • But balance between repression and consensus

  • local strongmen pushed out or encouraged to be loyalists

  • Regular elections held - but fraudulent

  • Supreme Court had no power

  • Legislature had no power

  • Strong centralized state with power concentrated in Diaz

  • Standing army reduced from 30,000 to 20,000 people so that it wouldn't be a threat

  • Railroads used to send troops to quell rebellion

  • Discontent

  • Economic crisis - prices doubled between 1900 and 1910

  • Diaz and other ministers getting old

  • Rise of haciendas meant communal lands being taken over

  • Villages saw land and political autonomy disappearing

  • Diplomatic crisis with US


SIMON BOLIVAR (1783-1830)

  • Bio

  • Wealthy Creole from Venezuela

  • Educated abroad (Spain and France)

  • Where he learned Enlightenment ideas about popular sovereignty and Republicanism

  • Inspired by George Washington

  • Peninsular Wars with Napoleon 1808

  • Bolivar took advantage of disorder in Spain during occupation of Napoleon

  • Defeat of Spanish Army

  • Bolivar first gathered wealthy Creoles 1808

  • Took arms against Spanish rule in 1811

  • 1819 army surprised and crushed Spanish army in Colombia

  • Then campaign in Venezuela, Ecuador and Peru

  • Coordinated with

  • Jose de San Martin in Argentina

  • Bernardo O’Higgins in Chile

  • Spanish defeated

  • By 1825 - Creole forces overcame Spanish armies throughout South America

  • ​Deposed Spanish rulers

  • Gran Colombia

  • Bolivar expelled Spanish

  • And founded first union of independent states: Gran Colombia

  • ​Included present-day Colombia (including Panama), Venezuela, Ecuador, some parts of Peru, West Guyana and northwest Brazil.

  • Bolivar was president 1819-1830

  • Break-up of Gran Colombia

  • By 1830 there were regional differences

  • Then Gran Colombia broke apart

  • Bolivar, disappointed, went to Europe and died there of tuberculosis



  • Rio de la Plata

  • Viceroyalty under Spanish (capital Buenos Aires)

  • Included present-day Argentina, Bolivia, Paraguay and Uruguay

  • Causes of Rebellion

  • Ideological motive:

  • Inspired by American Revolution and Enlightenment ideas about popular sovereignty

  • Economic motive:

  • Spain forbade American colonies from trading with other nations. (mercantilism)

  • But Spain didn't produce enough goods

  • Anger over privileges of peninsulares.

  • Peninsular War (Spain v. Napoleon, 1808)

  • King Ferdinand VII of Spain abdicated in favor of Napoleon

  • Throne went to Napoleon's brother, Joseph Bonaparte

  • 1810 May Revolution

  • Began Argentine War of Independence

  • Led by Jose de San Martin from Argentina

  • Fought from 1810-1818

  • July 9, 1816 Argentina bcame indepenent



  • First attempt at independence

  • Jose Joaquim da Silva Xavier (aka "Tiradentes")

  • Rebellion in 1789

  • Rebellion was put down and Tiradentes was executed

  • Napoleon in Portugal (1807)

  • Napoleon invaded Portugal (a Br. ally) in 1807

  • To tighten blockade (Continental System)

  • Royal court (Dom João/King John VI) fled to Rio de Janeiro

  • Estabished a government in exile (1808)

  • João was warmly welcomed.

  • Brazil under Dom João

  • A number of reforms were passed

  • Abolished the Portuguese commercial monopoly on Brazilian trade

  • Opened trade to all friendly nations (mainly Britain)

  • Repealed laws that prohibited Brazilian manufacturing

  • Established a library, military academy, medical and law schools

  • Dom João became King of Portugal in 1816

  • King returned to Portugal 1821

  • Left his son, Dom Pedro, behind in Brazil as regent.

  • Relations between Portugal and Brazil after 1821

  • Portugal's parliament (Cortes) in Lisbon wanted to restore Brazil to dependent colonial status.

  • The Cortes repealed most of Dom João's reforms

  • Then ordered Dom Pedro to return to Europe

  • Pedro said "Fico" ("I am staying")

  • Independence

  • Creoles called for independence from Portugal 1822

  • Pedro agreed and proclaimed independence

  • Became Emperor Pedro I (reigned 1822-1834)

  • Less strife

  • Brazil became a nation with less strife and bloodshed than the rest of the Spanish-speaking nations of the New World

  • Central government was largely intact

  • National economy remained strong

  • Brazil after independence

  • National economy remained strong.

  • Wrote a liberal constitution

  • Which gave he emperor the power to dissolve the Chamber of Deputies, select members of the Senate, and appoint and dismiss ministers of state.

  • Dom Pedro loses popularity

  • Lost Uruguay after war with Argentina (1825-28)

  • Appointed few mazombos (Brazilian Creoles) to high office

  • Too concerned with Portuguese affairs

  • Promised to abolish slave trade

  • Pedro abdicated in 1831

  • Brazil didn't end slavery until 1888



  • Independence brought little social change in Latin America

  • ​Slavery coNtinued

  • Catholic Church dominated (allied with creoles)

  • Lower orders were repressed

  • Main beneficiaries: Creole elites

  • ​After peninsulares returned to Europe

  • Caudillos (strongmen)

  • Newly independent states gave military authority to local charismatic strongmen




  • Revolutions

  • French Revolution and Haitian Revolutions were revolutions

  • Because revolutions changed society

  • France

  • Revolution brought an end to the division of society into three estates

  • Temporarily ended monarchy and created a republic

  • Although Napoleon was an emperor

  • And monarchy reinstated after Napoleon was defeated

  • Temporarily destroyed Catholic Church

  • Napoleon reconciled with the Catholic Pope and made Catholicism legal again.

  • Haiti

  • Ended slavery.

  • Wars of Independence

  • United States

  • Political structure changed

  • No more monarchy

  • First government was loose confederation of sovereign states with weak central government

  • 1878 Constitution was written, created a federal government with popular sovereignty (vote for white men with property)

  • Social structure stayed the same (still had slavery)

  • Economy the same (except changes in trade, no more mercantilism)


  • American Revolution

  • Taxes ("no taxation without representation)

  • Enlightenment (Locke, social contract)

  • Monarchy outdated

  • Colonists wanted Independence

  • French Revolution

  • Inspired by American Revolution

  • Taxes (Third Estate)

  • Enlightenment (Rousseau, "general will")

  • Monarchy outdated

  • Wanted constitutional monarchy

  • Then republic

  • Inequality

  • Haitian Revolution

  • Inspired by American Revolution

  • Took advantage of disorder during French Revolution

  • Freedom (slaves)

  • Independence (white people)

  • Inequality (gens de couleur)

  • Mexican Revolution

  • Took advantage of disorder during French Revolution

  • Inequality (first stage, Hidalgo)

  • Enlightenment (creoles)

  • Independence (creoles)

  • Brazil

  • Independence

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