Spanish-American War (1898)
EVENTS BEFORE THE WAR
John O'Sullivan coined the term Manifest Destiny in 1845
Expansion of the U.S.
Louisiana Purchase (1803)
Mexican-American War (1846-48)
California, Utah Territory, New Mexico Territory
William H. Seward, Sec. of State under Lincoln and Johnson
Signed a treaty with Russia to buy Alaska for $7 million (2 cents/acre)
Purchase ridiculed in the press as "Seward's folly" and "Seward's icebox"
In 1898, gold was discovered causing rapid influx of people.
TURNER FRONTIER THESIS, 1893
1889 the last region in frontier, Oklahoma, was sold to speculators and farmers
Was Indian territory
Boomers (eager American farmers) gathered at edge of OK waiting to claim land
Announced that all land within the U.S. was claimed
There was no longer a frontier.
Frederick Jackson Turner
Said expansion was the most important factor in America's history
"the existence of an area of free land, its continuous recession, and the advancement of American settlement westward, explain American development"
Believed Americas frontier past reflected the country's distinctive history and identity
Could Americans keep their identity now that frontier was closed? Is it the end of growth?
Second Industrial Revolution
American production grew rapidly
But not every American had enough money to buy products
America needed to find new markets overseas
ALFRED T. MAHAN
Wrote "The Influence of Sea Power Upon History" (1890)
Argued that the reason Britain was a great power (militarily, economically, politically)
Was because they had control of the seas
While naval power of European rivals was in decline.
Mahan believed the only way U.S. could become a power in its own right
Was to have overseas markets and access to foreign trade
A strong navy
And fueling stations along the way (that is, colonies)
U.S. government began investing in building and upgrading ships.
Theory by Herbert Spencer
That some people are more biologically evolved than others.
Used as justification for imperialism, racism, political conservatism
Americans believed that the U.S. had a superior political and economic system
And needed to spread it.
Americans were against "imperialism"
Because of memory of British colonization.
"Expansion" was a softer word.
U.S. missionaries had been going to Hawaii since 1820s
American sugar producers more active in Hawaii since 1870s
Grew sugar and sold it to the U.S.
Hawaii became completely dependent on trade with American markets
Sugar sales plummeted when U.S. passed McKinley Tariff
McKinley Tariff 1890
Introduced by William McKinley when he was still a senator
Under President Benjamin Harrison (grandson of William Henry Harrison)
Was the highest protective tariff in American history
Average rate of 48%
Only way for Hawaiian growers to sell to Americans
Was to become part of the U.S.
So planters didn't have to pay the tax.
Hawaiian monarchs didn't want to join with the U.S.
And in 1891, his sister/successor, Queen Liliuokalani
To remove reluctant monarchs
Group of Americans and Europeans deposed the Queen to protect profit
Queen Liliuokalani was overthrown and a provisional government was set up.
Composed of American and European businessmen
Who proclaimed Hawaii a protectorate of the U.S.
President Grover Cleveland
Sent scouts to Hawaii to investigate
Concluded the overthrow of Liliuokalani was illegal
Cleveland proposed putting Liliuokalani back on throne as long as everyone involved was given amnesty.
Republic of Hawaii 1894
Monarchy was abolished, the "Republic" of Hawaii was proclaimed.
Sanford Dole was made president
Sanford Dole was the cousin of James Dole who later founded the Hawaiian Pineapple Company in Oahu, which became Dole Food Company
The Spanish had lost most of their colonies.
After rise of Napoleon, Latin American countries revolted
Jose de San Martin (Argentina, Chile, Peru)
Simon Bolivar (Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru)
Mexico became independent 1821
By 1898, Spain only had.
And a small part of Africa
Americans interested in Cuba
Ostend Manifesto 1854
Suggested that Americans should seize Cuba if Spain refuses to sell it.
Resistance to Spanish
Jose Marti began fight for indepenence in 1895
Cried for "Cuba libre!" ("Free Cuba")
Spanish repressed rebels
Sp. Gov.-Gen. Valeriano Weyler put 1/2 million Cubans into "reconcentration" camps
More than 200,000 died of starvation
The brutality was graphically portrayed in American newspapers.
Competition for readers between
Joseph Pulitzer (New York World)
William Randolph Hearst (New York Journal and SF Examiner)
Newspapers greatly exaggerated atrocities by Spanish against Cuban civilians.
Known as Yellow Journalism
After comic strip character, "The Yellow Kid," (1895-1898) in both papers.
One of the first Sunday comic strips that was purely entertainment (not political)
DE LOME LETTER
Letter from Spanish Ambassador to the U.S.
Enrique Dupuy de Lôme
To the Foreign Minister of Spain
Don Jose Canelejas
About Spanish involvement in Cuba and U.S. President McKinley
Called McKinley "weak" and "a bidder for the admiration of the crowd" as well as a "would-be politician who tries to leave a door open behind himself while keeping on good terms with the jingoes of his party" (see text here)
Cuban rebels leaked the letter to Hearst
Who published it in Journal
Americans were outraged by the insults about their president.
U.S.S. MAINE (Feb. 15, 1898)
U.S. had sent a warship to Cuba to protect American interests
The warship exploded in the Havana harbor
Killing 267 servicemen
Later discovered that it was a boiler-room accident
But Americans assumed Spain was responsible.
Especially because of Yellow Journalism
Millions of people pressured Congress and McKinley to go to war.
MCKINLEY'S WAR MESSAGE
In reaction to hawkish atmosphere growing after sinking of USS Maine.
McKinley asked Congress:
"...to authorize and empower the President to take measures to secure a full and final termination of hostilities between the government of Spain and the people of Cuba... and to use the military and naval forces of the U.S. as may be necessary for these purposes."
Congress responded with the Teller Amendment.
TELLER AMENDMENT (April 20, 1898)
Enacted by Congress after McKinley's War Message
The people of Cuba ought to be free and independent
It is the duty of the U.S. to demand that Spain relinquish its authority over the island.
The President is empowered to use land and naval forces to ensure that Spain leaves.
And that the U.S. will leave the government and control of Cuba to its people
See the text here.
WAR WITH SPAIN
U.S. Army invaded Cuba, April 1898
With 60,000 regular troops
And 200,000 volunteers (including Rough Riders-see below)
Problems with the regular army
Graft-ridden supply system
Not enough tropical clothes (some fought in winter woolens)
Rations were rotten.
Most famous group of volunteers
Ex-convicts, cowboys, polo players, Native Americans
As well as upper-class, adventurous men and college students
Commanded by Theodore Roosevelt
Who resigned as McKinley's Asst. Sec. of Navy to join the troops
Roosevelt (unlike McKinley) was eager to join the "splendid little war"
Rough Riders led the charge to take San Juan Hill in Cuba
Easy victory over Spain
John Dewey commanded U.S. fleet sent to Philippines
While Dewey was fighting Spanish at sea
Emilio Aguinaldo was leading a Filipino revolt on land
CONCLUSION OF THE WAR
Treaty of Paris, 1898
U.S. defeated Spanish
Spanish gave Cuba independence
U.S. acquired Guam, Puerto Rico, Philippines from Spain
AFTER THE WAR
Americans divided on status of Philippines
If US doesn't colonize Philippines, another country will take it.
US will be able to implement American-style government in the Philippines
Motivated by belief that Filipinos not capable of governing themselves.
Philippines needed as a naval and commercial base in Asia (see Alfred T. Mahan above)
White Man's Burden
Rudyard Kipling, see below
William McKinley, who won reelection on an expansionist platform,
Called the residents of the newly acquired territories "rescued people."
Theodore Roosevelt praised
“the expansion of the peoples of white, or European, blood” into the lands of “mere savages."
Too expensive to maintain a colony
Trade benefits not as high as cost to maintain the colony
Profits would only benefit the army contractors and hurt the rest of the population
There is no need conquer a nation in order to trade with them
Americans are not colonists (like Britain)
Acquisition violated Dec. of Independence
Filipinos wouldn't have right to "life, liberty, pursuit of happiness"
And wouldn't enjoy full democracy
Filipinos, like Cubans (Teller Amendment), should be left to govern themselves
Would entangle US in Asian conflicts
Gompers and other laborers feared that Filipinos would compete for jobs in U.S.
Racism: American racists didn't want to mingle with dark foreigners
See William Jennings Bryan speech against imperialism
PHILIPPINE-AMERICAN WAR (1899-1902)
After Spanish were defeated, Filipinos led an insurrection against American colonists
Guerrilla war led by Emilio Aguinaldo
20,000 Filipino troops killed
More than 200,000 civilians died of combat, hunger, disease.
1,500 Americans killed in action, 3,000 died of disease.
WHITE MAN'S BURDEN (1899)
Poem by Rudyard Kipling
About the Philippine-American War
Published in New York Sun, Feb. 1899
Promoted belief that the technologically advanced Western world
Had an obligation to "civilize" the less-developed world
Congress annexed Hawaii
On pretext that navy needed a refueling station in the Pacific
Between San Francisco and Asia
Pearl Harbor Naval Station was built in Hawaii in 1899
CUBA AFTER THE WAR
US had claimed it wouldn't annex Cuba after Spain left (Teller Amendment)
But U.S. troops remained in Cuba for a few more years
Platt Amendment 1901 (see document)
U.S. troops would not leave unless Cuba agreed to seven conditions.
All the conditions were written into Cuba's new consitution
Cuba shall not enter into a treaty with any foreign power if the treaty impairs Cuba's independence.
Cuba shall not contract a public debt
U.S. may intervene to preserve Cuban independence and to make sure the government protects life, property and individual liberty
All Acts of the US in Cuba during its military occupancy are ratified and valid.
Cuba will enact plans for sanitation of the cities in Cuba to prevent epidemics and infectious diseases
In order to protect the people
And protect commerce of Cuba and the southern parts of the U.S.
The status of the Isle of Pine (Cuba's 2nd largest island) will be determined in the future.
To enable the US to maintain Cuban independence, protect its people and defend the island, Cuba will sell or lease to the US lands necessary for coaling or naval stations.
Basis for U.S. ownership of Guantanamo Bay -- still a contentious issue.
Cuba was a U.S. protectorate
Platt Amendment was repealed in 1934 under Franklin D. Roosevelt
Part of FDR's Good Neighbor Policy
But Guantanamo Bay still operates as a U.S. naval station
And a detention center (nicknamed, Gitmo)
Gitmo controversy: U.S. till interrogates dangerous prisoners using torture (waterboarding) and keeps the 779 prisoners locked up without a trial.
With acquisition of the Philippines and Guam, Americans more interested in Asia
Spheres of Influence
After Opium Wars, foreign nations had carved out "spheres of influence" in China
Britain, France, Germany, Russia, Japan
Each dominated their own ports and kept out others
First Open Door Notes (see document)
John Hay, McKinley's secretary of State
Didn't want U.S. to be left out
Sent a diplomatic note to the foreign powers
Asking them to grant equal trading privileges in China
The foreign powers were not that interested
Boxer Rebellion (1900)
A secret society of Chinese Nationalists called the Society of Harmonious Fists (Boxers)
Believed they were immune to foreign bullets
Attacked Foreign embassies and Chinese Christians
Empress Dowager Cixi (who dominated China's government) didn't stop them.
Leaving all the foreign powers --- and the U.S --- to fight the Boxers.
When they were defeated, China had to pay a huge indemnity
And U.S. was taken more seriously
Open Door Notes revisited
Hay wrote a second note to the imperialistic powers saying US was committed to:
Preserving China's integrity
(that is, making sure China wasn't carved up into colonies like Africa)
Securing "equal and impartial trade with all parts of the Chinese empire.
Question; Did the Constitution apply to all territories that fall under U.S. control?
Anti-Imperialist said yes.
Imperialists said no.
Resolved in series of Supreme Court cases (1901-1903) called insular (island) cases.
Court ruled that constitutional rights were not automatically extended to territorial possessions
The power to decide whether or not to grant such rights was up to the Congress