• amanda0195

Origin of the Thirteen Colonies



VIRGINIA (1607)

  • First permanent English settlement

  • Founded by the Virginia Company of London

  • Got charter from King James I

  • ​104 men and boys landed on Chesapeake Bay May 24, 1607

  • Under Captain Christopher Newport

  • Purpose: Searching for gold and other trade commodities

  • Named after Queen Elizabeth I, the "Virgin Queen" (who had died 1603)

  • Chesapeake Bay was swampy with brackish water

  • Shortage of drinking water

  • Depended on trade with Native Americans between supply ships from England

  • John Smith

  • Became president of the colony Sept. 10, 1608

  • Installed policy of rigid discipline and strengthened defenses.

  • "He that shall not work shall not eat"

  • Negotiated with the Powhatan Confederacy - truce

  • Left after a gunpowder injury Oct. 1609 and never returned

  • Chief Powhatan then ended truce

  • STARVING TIME winter 1609-1610

  • Powhatan Indians stopped trading and prevented colonists from hunting

  • Only 61 of 500 colonists survived

  • John Rolfe

  • Arrived with third supply ship in 1610

  • Brought seeds for a sweet strain of tobacco from Trinidad

  • Helped turn colony into profitable venture.

  • Married Pocahontas ("Rebecca"), the daughter of Chief Powhatan, in 1614

  • Lord Delaware (Baron de la Warr):

  • ​Also arrived in 1610

  • Stopped ships from leaving Virginia

  • ANGLO-POWHATAN WARS (Algonquin)

  • Three wars: 1610-1614, 1622-1626, 1644-1646

  • First war ended in temporary peace in 1614

  • When John Rolfe married Chief Powhatan's daughter, Pocahontas

  • Second war under Powhatan's successor, Opechancanough, in 1622

  • Caused King James I to revoke Virginia Company's charter in 1624 and take direct control.(became a royal colony)

  • Third war

  • Ended when Opechancanough was captured and killed

  • Peace until Bacon's Rebellion in 1676

  • TOBACCO:

  • Tobacco needed land and laborers

  • Colonists encroached on Indian land

  • Indentured servants from Britain (because of primogeniture, enclosure, population growth), up to seven years labor to pay back cost of passage, then "freedom dues"

  • Later, black slaves (1st in New World 1619)

  • Headright System (1618):

  • 50 acres given to head of household for every passage to New World paid (basis for emerging aristocracy)

  • GOVERNMENT:

  • House of Burgesses:

  • Representative government created in 1619 from Virginia Company charter to decide prices for tobacco and levy taxes, legislative assembly made up of 22 members elected by landowners

  • Government dominated by elite, property requirements to vote

  • After 1624 royally-appointed governor had power to veto laws enacted by Burgesses

  • First Virginia Families:

  • ​Elite landholders in Virginia who dominated government

  • Charter revoked 1624, became royal colony with appointed governor

  • ECONOMY

  • ​Cash-crops (tobacco), Mercantilism, Navigation Acts

  • BACON'S REBELLION (1676)

  • ​Former indentured servants in back country upset because Governor William Berkeley didn't stop attacks by Native Americans on frontier

  • ​Also upset because they had no political power

  • Rebels rallied behind Nathaniel Bacon (who had personal gripes with Berkeley)

  • Attacked Indians then Jamestown - Berkeley fled

  • Rebellion ended after Bacon died

PLYMOUTH COLONY 1620


  • SEPARATISTS (Pilgrims)

  • Extreme wing of Puritanism

  • Followed John Calvin

  • Believed in "predestination"

  • God "predestined" some people "the elect" to go to Heaven

  • English Separatists didn’t want to pray with "non-saved"

  • First went to Holland, then America 1620

  • 102 sailed on Mayflower

  • ​40 "saints" (including governor William Bradford) and the rest "strangers" (non-Separatists, including Myles Standish)

  • Landed in Plymouth

  • Mayflower Compact

  • Colonists agreed to form a government (a "Civil Body Politick") empowered to make laws that all would obey

  • First written form of government in the colonies

  • Winter deaths (1620-21)

  • ​Pilgrims got help from Squanto, a native of Pawtuxet

  • Celebrated first "Thanksgiving" with Indians

NEW HAMPSHIRE (1629) and MAINE (1820)

  • Originally settled by fur trappers and fisherman

  • In 1622, James I granted territories to two proprietors (John Mason in N.H., Fernando Gorges in Maine)

  • In 1677, Maine became part of Massachusetts.

  • Maine became a separate "free" state in 1820 (Missouri Compromise)

  • In 1680, Charles II made New Hampshire a royal colony

MASSACHUSETTS BAY COLONY 1630

  • PURITANS (Congregationalists)

  • Calvinists (see above)

  • Puritans were deemed treasonous by James I because they denied divine Right of Kings, James forbade private services at home

  • Puritans wanted Anglican church "purified" of Catholic elements

  • GREAT MIGRATION (1629-1642)

  • Charles I (1625-1649): French wife devoted to Pope, enforced laws against Puritans, ban on predestination

  • Puritans to New England (20,000) and West Indies (48,000)

  • Migration ended during Cromwell’s reign 1649-1660 (Charles II, the "Merry Monarch," was restored to the throne after Cromwell's death)

  • MASSACHUSETTS BAY COLONY

  • First migrants to Massachusetts Bay Colony led by John Winthrop in 1629

  • Wrote that colony would be a “City upon a Hill” (A Model of Christian Charity)

  • GOVERNMENT

  • Only churched men, that is, those "elected" by God to go to heaven (“visible saints” determined by interviews) could vote (dropped in 1690s)

  • Voting also based on property requirements

  • Purpose of government was to enforce God’s laws (theocracy)

  • Town meetings

  • Massachusetts Bay Charter was revoked 1684

  • RELIGION

  • John Cotton Preacher defended the right of the government to enforce religious rules

  • Halfway Covenant (1657 and 1662)

  • Allowed children of baptized but unconverted church members to be baptized and thus become church members and have political rights.

  • ECONOMY

  • Rocky soil and long winters = farming limited

  • ​Subsistence farms (not cash crops)

  • Puritans believed in hard work

  • Cod/fishing, trade, lumber, shipbuilding, rum-distilling

  • AP DBQ on Puritans

MARYLAND (1632)

  • PROPRIETARY COLONY

  • Given by King Charles I to Lord Baltimore, head of the Calvert family

  • Detached part of Virginia Colony north of the Potomac River

  • Haven for Catholics

  • Dream dashed because Catholics never majority

  • Calvinist Protestants hostile to Catholicism immigrated en masse to Maryland

  • RELIGION

  • Calverts passed Act of Toleration 1649

  • To prevent violence against Catholics

  • “No person…professing to believe in Jesus Christ, shall be troubled because of his religion” (i.e. Christians)

  • Protestants repealed Act of Toleration in 1654, heavily taxed Catholics, by 1692 Catholics can't worship publicly

  • ECONOMY

  • Prospered from tobacco

  • Quitrent

  • Not rent (owners owned land)

  • But "rent" paid in recognition of grant

  • Used to be symbolic, then source of income for Maryland

RHODE ISLAND (1636)


  • FOUNDED by Roger Williams

  • A Puritan who believe that governments could not determine who was a "visible saint" therefore all men should vote

  • Believed Puritans should not impose their religion

  • Thought church management of government corrupted the purity of Christian faith

  • England had no right to grant land that belonged to Indians

  • He was banished to England but instead fled to what would become Rhode Island

  • Rhode Island became known as the "Sewer of New England" by the Puritans

  • Place where heretics and other undesirables (like Anne Hutchinson) could be banished

  • Rhode Island got charter from British Parliament in 1644

  • RELIGION

  • Freedom for all religions (including Judaism and Catholicism)

  • No oaths, no compulsory attendance at worship, no taxes to support a state church

  • First Baptist Church

  • Simple manhood suffrage (then narrowed by property qualification)

  • Anne Hutchinson

  • Invited people to her home to discuss sermons and Bible

  • And claimed that God spoke to her directly

  • Believed the elect were "saved" by faith alone and were, therefore, above the laws of human governments ("antinomianism" - literally "against the law")

  • ​Accused ministers of teaching "covenant of works" rather than "covenant of faith"

  • She was banished to Rhode Island in 1637

  • In 1643 she and six of her children were massacred by Indians

CONNECTICUT (1636)

  • Name from Algonquin word quinatucquet ("upon the long river")

  • Secessionists from Massachusetts Bay Colony

  • John Winthrop (1st colony)

  • got permission to create new colony at Old Saybrook in 1635

  • Direct challenge to Dutch claims

  • 1644 Saybrook colony merged into Connecticut colony

  • Thomas Hooker (2nd colony) HARTFORD

  • Hooker broke with Massachusetts in 1636

  • Argued with John Winthrop over who should be admitted to church membership (argued for less rigorous requirements)

  • Led a group to Connecticut River Valley and founded Hartford

  • Hartford was more liberal than Puritans

  • Govt. based on Mass. model but men didn't have to be church members to vote.

  • Fought with Pequot Indians, massacred more than 400 Indians at Mystic River

  • John Davenport (3rd colony) NEW HAVEN

  • Founded March 1638

  • New Haven Colony (merged into Connecticut Colony in 1662)

  • Puritans who wanted to create a closer church-government alliance than in Massachusetts

  • Fell into disfavor with Charles II because they had sheltered two regicides (judges who had condemned Charles I to death)

  • New Haven was know for having stricter blue laws (religious laws) than Massachusetts


  • Fundamental Orders (1639) (In Hartford)

  • 1st written constitution in Western tradition:

  • Outlined the government's power and limitations

  • Connecticut is called “Constitution State”

  • Said all free men share in electing their magistrates

  • Used secret paper ballots

  • Fundamental Orders replaced by a Royal Charter in 1662

  • ​But parts of Fundamental Orders used in state constitution.

CAROLINA 1663 (South Carolina)


  • FOUNDED

  • Named after Charles II

  • Carolina (both North and South) were founded during Restoration period (when King Charles II was restored to power in Britain after fall of Commonwealth)

  • ​Other "Restoration Colonies": New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania and Delaware

  • Carolina granted to eight court favorites, "Lords Proprietors"

  • ​To block Spanish expansion

  • ECONOMY

  • Many settlers in the south came from plantations in British West Indies colony of Barbados

  • Because land was becoming too expensive.

  • Settlers brought harsh Barbados Slave Code: including making it a crime to teach slaves to read or write

  • Primary crops: Rice and Indigo (later, cotton)

  • Most plantation owners didn't live on their lands because of malaria, yellow fever etc.

  • Instead lived in Charleston (the busiest seaport) and visited plantations.

  • INDIANS

  • ​At first armed friendly Indians to make raids on Spanish Florida

  • Enslaved others and sold them to other colonies and West Indies from Charleston

  • 1715 Yamasee and Creek rebelled - crushed by colonists

  • GOVERNMENT

  • ​Proprietors wanted to establish a feudal society with hereditary nobility, serfs, slaves.

  • But to attract settlers they created elected assembly and religious toleration.

  • ​And headright system offering 150 acres for each person a settler brings in (family, slave etc.)

DELAWARE (1664)


  • John Cabot claimed Delaware River for England 1497

  • Dutch thought they had claim on it based on 1609 explorations of Henry Hudson (Dutch W. India Co.)

  • Swedish (with Peter Minuit) founded trading post in Delaware at Fort Christina (Wilmington)

  • 1655 Swedish conquered by Dutch, Delaware became part of New Netherlands

  • 1664 Delaware taken by English

  • ​Administered from NY as part of James' New York Colony

  • Duke of York gave it to his friend William Penn, who incorporated it into his Pennsylvania land grant.

  • Pennsylvania’s Lower Counties, as Delaware was referred, developed their own representative body and effectively became independent of Pennsylvania

  • Claimed by Lord Baltimore (Maryland) and William Penn (Pennsylvania, wanted access to sea)

  • Property line settled by Charles Mason and Jeremiah Dixon 1767

  • Mason-Dixon Line drawn between Penn. ML, west of Delaware

  • Cultural boundary between North and South (Dixie)/free and slave states

  • Delaware River named in honor of Sir Thomas West (Lord De La Warr) governor of the English colony at Jamestown, VA 1610

NEW YORK (1664)

  • See creation of New Netherland.

  • FOUNDED

  • In 1664, King Charles II seized the multi-national colony of New Netherlands (parts of present-day New York, Delaware, New Jersey and Connecticut) from the Dutch and granted it to his brother, the Duke of York (future King James II).

  • He promised Dutch governor Peter Stuyvesant that settlers could live peaceably in the colony if they surrendered.

  • After the colony became British, the Dutch were allowed to stay on their land and religious freedom was upheld.

  • CHARTER OF LIBERTIES AND PRIVILEGES 1683

  • After the colonists complained of being denied English liberties (like right to consent to taxes)

  • Duke of York passed Charter

  • Required elections every three years by male property owners

  • Reaffirmed English rights

  • Trial by jury, security of property, religious toleration for all Protestants


NEW JERSEY (1664)

  • New Jersey was part of the British conquest of New Netherland (see above)

  • Began as two colonies - King James II gave it to two friends

  • John Berkeley got the west and sold it to two Quakers (see below)

  • George Carteret got the east

PENNSYLVANIA (“Holy Experiment”) (1681)


  • Name = "Penn's Woods" (he wanted to call is "Sylvania")

  • Given to William Penn by Charles II in 1681 to pay debt to his late father

  • QUAKERS

  • William Penn hoped to make Pennsylvania a haven for Quakers ("Society of Friends," called "quakers" because they trembled during services)

  • Quakers are pacifists who believe that all people have an “inner light” therefore, there is no need for priests or ministers, no oaths must be taken, all people, including Indians and kings, are considered equal before God, women participated in religious services.

  • 1682 2,000 Quakers came to America, most headed to Pennsylvania.

  • INDIANS

  • Made peace with Indians

  • ​Necessary since Quakers didn't have arms or a militia until the 1740s

  • Relationship deteriorated as settlers moved to the west.

  • CIVIL LIBERTIES (Charter of Liberty)

  • No restrictions on immigration

  • Representative assembly

  • No tax-supported state church = freedom of worship ("Christian liberty")

  • But Jews and Catholics couldn’t vote or hold office

  • No black slavery

  • Blue laws (religious laws) implemented

  • GOVERNMENT

  • ​Penn had power to determine the form of government

  • Created a council to make laws and an assembly elected by male taxpayers and men who owned 100 acres of land (50 acres for former indentured servants)

  • IMMIGRANTS

  • Penn owned all the land and sold it to settlers at ow prices

  • Publicized

  • Large number of immigrants came to Pennsylvania from Germany (called the "Pennsylvania Dutch" from word for German "Deutsch")

  • ​most were Lutheran but also many Anabaptists (including Mennonites, Amish)


NORTH CAROLINA (1712)

  • Physically separated from South Carolina by beaches, woods, swamps

  • ​Few ways to travel between north and south

  • Northerners were different from Southerners

  • Most came from Virginia

  • More democratic, independent-minded, less aristocratic,

  • Grew tobacco rather than large plantations crops

  • Few slaves

  • Charleston ignored northern areas, gave them a separate governor

  • North officially separated from S. Carolina in 1712

GEORGIA (1732)

  • Named after King George II (r. 1727-1760)

  • Last of 13 colonies founded.

  • Established by king as a military buffer (protection) between South Carolina, Spanish in Florida and French in Louisiana

  • Commanded by military trustee, James Oglethorpe

  • Oglethorpe envisioned it as a colony for poor and those in debt (known as the "Charity Colony")

  • With no alcohol, no slavery

  • Didn't work because South Carolinians defiantly brought slaves to Georgia and rum was popular

  • Christian religious toleration (except Catholics)

  • Least populous state

  • Plantation economy suffered

  • Bad climate, early restrictions on slavery, demoralizing Spanish attacks

OTHER EUROPEAN COLONIES

SPANISH COLONIES IN NORTH AMERICA

  • Florida:Pedro Menendez de Aviles, 1565, St. Augustine administered by Cuba

  • New Mexico: 1609 Sp. ailed up Rio Grande founded Santa Fe (oldest seat of government in US), Franciscan missionaries to win Indian souls, 86,000 Pueblo Indians baptized, 1670s Pueblo ravaged by disease, hunger and assaults by Apache and Navajo, some Pueblo Indians reverted to old religion prompting Spanish to hand several, 1680 Pueblo rebelled (see Pope's Rebellion)

DUTCH COLONIES IN NORTH AMERICA

See Link

REGIONS


  • New England (Massachusetts and Maine, New Hampshire, Rhode Island, Connecticut)

  • Centered on trade rather than agriculture (only subsistence farming) because land was too rocky.

  • Boston, Massachusetts was the main port city

  • Most colonists were English Puritans who had come with their families

  • Least diverse region and most populated

  • Colonists in New England lived longer than in other colonies

  • Middle Colonies (New York, Pennsylvania, New Jersey)

  • Focused on farming because land was more fertile

  • Called the “bread colonies” because they exported grain

  • Philadelphia and New York City were major harbors and trade centers

  • New York and Pennsylvania had more non-English immigrants than New England but fewer Africans than in the South

  • Mixed religions (Anglicans, Lutherans, Quakers, Jews etc.) because William Penn (Pennsylvania) and Dutch (NY) were more tolerant

  • Southern Colonies (Virginia, Maryland, North and South Carolina, Georgia)

  • 90% of slaves (up to ½ population in some colonies) lived in the Southern Colonies

  • Few cities in the region (biggest port was Charleston, South Carolina)

  • Isolated plantations, bad transportation, women had property rights

  • Most white colonists practiced Anglicanism

  • Made money from cash crops

  • Virginia = tobacco (see below)

  • Carolinas and Georgia = rice and indigo/blue dye (cotton came later)

  • Less populated than Middle and New England colonies

  • Chesapeake Colonies (Maryland and Virginia)

  • Around the Chesapeake Bay

  • Combined features of Middle and Lower colonies

  • Biggest export was tobacco

  • Needed labor for tobacco - at first, used indentured servants then slaves

  • Unlike deeper south, Chesapeake colonies had major cities

  • Most colonists were Anglicans (even though Maryland was originally founded as a haven for Catholics)

DOMINION OF NEW ENGLAND


  • In 1685, King James II had a problem with the colonies:

  • ​Massachusetts had theocratic rule (rule by church) and little tolerance for non-Puritans, Mass. laws incompatible with English practice, Mass. involved with disputes with Maine and condoned smuggling

  • Plymouth colony (part of Mass.) was not formally chartered

  • New Haven colony (part of Connecticut) protected regicides ("king killers" who helped assassinate Charles I)

  • To bring order to chaos, James II created "Dominion of New England"

  • To stop illegal trade, regain control and streamline administration of colonial territories

  • Assigned a royal governor (Edmund Andros) to rule over the dominion

  • Dissolved all local assemblies

  • Forced colonies to conform to English laws

  • Forced Puritan churches to hold Anglican services

  • Dominion of New England came to an end after 1688-9 Glorious Revolution

  • William and Mary become new monarchs of England, sign English Bill of Rights (see U.S. Constitution)

  • Ended Dominion of New England (but didn't return charter to Massachusetts)

  • Dominion of New England brought an end to Massachusetts ambition to build a "city on a hill"

  • ​Colony kept town meeting system but eliminated religious tests for voting and holding office. Anglican church dominates in Boston.

#DominionofNewEngland #Colonies

1 view0 comments

Recent Posts

See All