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World War II - U.S.


LEADING UP TO WORLD WAR II

SEEDS OF WAR


  • WWI

  • Heavy reparations payment weakened Germany - caused rise of fascism

  • Strong desire for isolationism in US prevented American govt. from participating in international efforts to check aggressive Germany, Italy and Japan

  • War Debts

  • Outstanding debt from Germany

  • Br. and Fr. had borrowed a lot of money from US in final 2 years of WWI

  • Both relied on war reparations from Germany to pay off debts to US

  • Dawes Plan

  • 1920s Germany could no longer pay

  • U.S. Bankers provided loans to Germany

  • Germany used loan money to pay reparations to Britain and France

  • Who used the money to pay debts to U.S. bankers

  • Stock Market Crash 1929

  • Destabilized already weak Weimar Republic

  • US banks called in their loans.

  • Worsened the economy which caused extremists on the left (Socialists/Communists) and right (Fascists) to challenge governments in Europe

AMERICAN ISOLATIONISM

  • League of Nations

  • European default on war debts reinforced American isolationism

  • Despite urging of Wilson, US didn’t join League of Nations (See Article X)

  • Nye Commission

  • Senator Gerald Nye concluded in 1934 that the main reason for US participation in WWI was greed of bankers and arms manufacturers

  • Convinced Americans that US should remain isolated

1920s DIPLOMACY

  • Washington Naval Conference 1921-1922

  • U.S. alarmed by rapid growth of Japanese navy and international arms race

  • US. Sec. of State, Charles Evans Hughes invited nine nations to DC

  • To discuss naval reductions

  • UK, Japan, France, Italy, Belgium, China, Portugal, Netherlands

  • Signed four treaties including:

  • Five-Power Naval treaty (US, UK, Jap, Fr, It)

  • Called for each of the countries to maintain a set ratio of warship tonnage.

  • US and UK 500,000 tons

  • Japan 300,000 tons

  • France and Italy 175,000

  • Also called for signatories to stop building capital ships and reduce navies.

  • Unrestricted: cruiser ships

  • Four-power treaty (US, UK, Jap., Fr)

  • Signatories agreed to consult each other in a future crisis in East Asia.

  • had to maintain territorial status quo in Pacific

  • To respect territorial integrity of China

  • And abide by Open Door Policy

FDR

  • Was Wilson's Sec. of Navy

  • Endorsed internationalist foreign policy in late 1920s

  • Supported League of Nations

  • Wanted to cancel European debts in order to stabilize European economy

  • After he became president in 1933

  • Promoted international cooperation through trade rather than military coercion

  • Good neighbor policy, 1933

  • To reassure Latin American countries that US wouldn't intervene in their internal affairs

  • Formally recognized Soviet regime in Russia in 1933


NEUTRALITY ACTS

  • To prevent US involvement in another European war

  • 1935 - Banned munitions exports to belligerents and American travel on belligerent ships

  • 1936 - Banned loans to belligerents

  • 1937 - Non-munitions could be sold on Cash-and-Carry basis (belligerents had to pay for goods up front and "carry" the on their own ships. Helped Britain and Japan, hurt Germany and China).

  • 1939 - Munitions could be sold on Cash-and-Carry basis

  • 1940 - Destroyers for Bases - US would send destroyers to the Royal Navy (Britain) in exchange for US land rights on British territories (Bermuda, Newfoundland, Antigua, Bahamas, British Guiana, Jamaica, Saint Lucia, Trinidad) - US would become the "arsenal for democracy"

  • 1941 - Lend-lease. When British could no longer pay cash for arms and munitions, US would "lend" them war supplies.

AMERICA FIRST COMMITTEE (1940)

  • Inspired by the Nye Commission and American desire for isolationism, the America First Committee warned that the U.S. should work to defend its borders instead of helping allies

  • Among the most notable members:

  • Charles Lindbergh (First aviator to fly across Atlantic alone on Spirit of St. Louis)

  • Father Charles Coughlin (Anti-Semitic radio preacher)

  • Henry Ford (Founder of Ford Motor Co. and assembly line)

WORLD WAR II TIMELINE

JAPAN

  • Militarists seized political power 1931

  • Invaded Manchuria in China (Puyi)

  • US doesn't intervene

  • Japan sought to assert military power in East Asia

  • By Bombing Shanghai 1932

  • Withdrawing from League of Nations 1933

  • Renouncing Five-Power Naval Treaty 1934

  • Invading China’s northern provinces in 1937

ITALY

  • Fascist Party of Mussolini

  • Benito Mussolini was socialists who fought in WWI

  • Changed his mind and organized National Fascist Party from unemployed veterans who were disappointed with outcome of war.

  • (Fascists from Roman prowess, unity, justice)

  • Italy Invaded Ethiopia 1935

  • Withdrew from League 1937

  • Conquering Albania 1939.

GERMANY

  • Hitler, leader of the National Socialist, Nazi Party

  • Pointed out injustices in Treaty of Versailles

  • Blamed troubles on Jews and other “inferior” races

  • After becoming chancellor 1933

  • Recalled the country’s representatives to League of Nations

  • Began to rearm German military

  • In violation of Treaty

  • Invaded Rhineland March. 1936

  • Area under French control, no resistance

  • Anschluss (Germany + Austria)

  • Sudetenland (ethnic Germans in western Czechoslovakia)

  • Appeasement (Munich Accords)

  • Allowed annexation of Sudentenland in exchange for Hitler guarantee to halt territorial expansion

  • Chamberlain “Peace in our time”

  • Invasion of Poland

  • Br. And Fr. Had promised to assist Poland.

  • Hitler signed nonaggression with Russia

  • To ensure Russia would not assist Poland

  • Germany invaded Poland Sept. 1, 1939

  • France and Britain declared war

WAR IN EUROPE

  • Phony War (ending spring 1940) when Hitler began European military campaign in earnest

  • Blitzkrieg 1940

  • Control over W. European (Denmark, Norway, Belgium, Netherlands, France)

  • France Vichy

  • Dunkirk – Br. Evacuate troops

  • Battle of Britain 1940

  • German invasion of Russia (Operation Barbarossa) Jun. 1941

  • Broke Nazi-Soviet pact

  • Within four months Hitler deep in Russia

  • Intense Russian winter.

  • Hitler’s greatest blunder. (Caused a two-front war)

AMERICAN INVOLVEMENT

NEUTRALITY TO DRAFT

  • Official policy of neutrality

  • Americans preference for Allies

  • Neutrality Act 1939

  • After Poland, Roosevelt asked members of Congress to revised Cash-and-carry neutrality act

  • Roosevelt promised British 50 destroyers

  • In exchange for long-term leases on bases in British colonies in western Hemisphere

  • Burke-Wadsworth Conscription Act (aka Selective Service and Training Act), 1940

  • First peacetime draft

  • All men between 21-35 had to register for year’s worth of military service

ELECTION 1940

  • Roosevelt ran third term against Republican challenger Wendell Willkie in 1940

  • When Willkie fell behind in race

  • Accused Roosevelt of leading country into war

  • Said “Your boys are not going to be sent into any foreign wars”

  • Roosevelt won by landslide


ARSENAL FOR DEMOCRACY

  • During a fireside chat, FDR announced US would become "arsenal for democacy

  • And provide Britain and China with military supplies

FOUR FREEDOMS

  • Jan. 6, 1941 Roosevelt spoke of a future world order based on essential human freedoms:

  • Freedom of speech

  • Freedom of worship

  • Freedom from want

  • Freedom from fear

  • The Four Freedoms were incorporated into the Atlantic Charter and the United Nations charter

  • Illustrated by Norman Rockwell (below)


LEND-LEASE 1941

  • Permitted president to loan or lease arms to any nation considered vital to American defense

  • Britain and China received arms first

  • Then Soviet Union after Hitler’s invasion

NAVAL WARFARE

  • German U-Boats (submarines) were sinking British ships

  • To deliver aid to Allies, Roosevelt claimed western Atlantic neutral territory,

  • In Sept. 1941, German U-boat fired on American destroyer – Roosevelt ordered “shoot on sight”

  • Then armed all merchant vessels

  • Then permitted American ships to enter combat zones and ports of nations at war

ATLANTIC CHARTER (Aug. 1941)

  • Roosevelt and Churchill met off Newfoundland

  • Created a set of “common principles” known as Atlantic Charter

  • Called for

  • “final destruction of Nazi tyranny”

  • Self-rule for all people

  • International economic cooperation

  • Disarmament and system of collective international security

  • Freedom of seas

JAPAN AND U.S.

  • When Japan invaded China 1937, Roosevelt called for “quarantine” of aggressor nations

  • 1940 Japan working with allies to secure foothold in SEA and Pacific to secure war materials (including rubber and oil)

  • Then widened scope

  • Right to build airfields in Indochina from Vichy govt.

  • Occupying French Indochina

  • Signing Tripartite Pact with Germany and Italy to form Axis alliance

  • Signing nonaggression pact with Russians to ensure safety of northern front in China

  • American response

  • Granted loans to China

  • Refused to export arms to Japan

  • Froze all Japanese assets in US

  • Stopped exporting oil to Japan

  • Significant punishment

  • Considering 80% of Japanese oil came from US

  • Roosevelt refused to lift embargo until Japanese troops withdrew from China and Indochina

  • In Japan PM Fumimaro Konoye sought compromise

  • But militants led by War Minister Hideki Tojo pushed Konoye out of office

  • Japanese continued to negotiate with US

  • Military planned strike on Allied bases in Pacific.

  • Pearl Harbor

  • Dec. 7, 1941 Japanese attacked naval base

  • Had sunk or damaged 19 ships, destroyed many planes,

  • Killed more than 2,400 service men and civilians.

  • Dec. 8, Roosevelt declared war

  • German declared war Dec. 11

UNITED STATES IN WAR

PACIFIC THEATER

  • Japanese Admiral Isoruku Yamamato

  • Believed only quick victories would allow Japan to beat the Allies

  • Attack on Pearl Harbor didn’t cripple US navy because aircraft carriers in Pacific Fleet had left Hawaii several days before attack

  • Japanese offensive

  • Guam, Wake Island, Gilbert Islands

  • Hong Kong and Singapore

  • Dutch East Indies (Indonesia)

  • Burma

  • Philippines

  • Japanese bombed US airfields in Philippines

  • Americans under General Douglas MacArthur abandoned mainland and retreated

  • To Bataan Peninsula

  • March 1942 MacArthur escaped to Australia

  • Under orders from his superiors

  • April American troops retreated to island of Corregidor

  • Remaining American forces at Corregidor surrendered May 6

  • Battle of Coral Sea

  • US halted Japanese advances May 1942

  • Began when US forces encountered Japanese’s ships bound for New Guinea

  • US turned ships back

  • This victory prevented deployment of Japanese troops sent to participate in eventual invasion of Australia

  • Battle of Midway

  • US victory over Japanese June. 1942

  • After American cryptologists had uncovered secret Japanese plan to invade Hawaii, US Navy commanders decided to intercept Japanese fleet before it could attack

  • Japanese lost all four aircraft carriers they brought to Midway (US lost only one)

  • Japanese did not win another significant battle in the Pacific for rest of war


EUROPEAN STRATEGY

  • U-Boats and Battle of Atlantic

  • “Wolf packs” of German subs began making American shipping after US declared war

  • U-boats sank 100s of ships along US Atlantic coast and in Caribbean throughout 1942

  • By mid 1943 Allies had neutralized the dangers posed by U-boats and won Battle of Atlantic

  • Allied Strategy in Europe

  • Allies decide when and where to strike Germans and Italians

  • Stalin wanted British and Americans to stage cross-channel invasion of France ASAP to open second front and pull troops away from eastern front

  • Churchill wanted smaller offensives around edges to build up to full-scale invasion of Germany

  • Meeting with Churchill in Washington 1942

  • Roosevelt opted for British plan

  • Would get American troops into battle more quickly

NORTH AFRICA

  • North Africa Campaign

  • American ground forces first test in deserts of N. Africa

  • German forces under General Erwin Rommel had penetrated British-controlled Egypt

  • Hope of capturing Suez Canal

  • Oct. 1942, British halted Rommel’s advance at al-Alamein in Egypt

  • Then began pushing Germans back across Libya

  • Nov. 8, 1942

  • General Dwight D. Eisenhower landed American troops in French Morocco to join the British forces attacking Rommel

  • By May 1943

  • Allies had forced the Germans out of North Africa and clears way for invasion of Italy

  • Casablanca

  • Jan. 1943 Roosevelt and Churchill met in Casablanca Morocco to discuss war plans

  • Both Americans and British decide need more time to prepare for invasion of France

  • But agree to invade Italy via Sicily

  • And accept only unconditional surrender from Axis powers

ITALIAN CAMPAIGN

  • 1943 Allies begin rolling back Axis in earnest

  • Churchill and Roosevelt ignored Stalin’s request to engage Germans on second front

  • Instead followed up on their success in N. Africa

  • But invading Italy

  • 1944 US and GB attack in West

  • Invaded France

  • Allies pressed on in Germany from both sides

  • Meeting in spring 1945

  • Forcing Germany’s surrender

  • Italian Campaign

  • July 1943, 160,000 Americans and British troops invaded island of Sicily

  • Unprepared to fight

  • Italians quickly retreated to Italian mainland

  • By end of month

  • Fascist regime had collapsed

  • Mussolini had fled to northern Italy

  • Italian govt. surrendered unconditionally and joined Allies

  • Hitler 11th hour campaign to restore Mussolini to power

  • Allies capture Rome June 1944

MEETINGS


  • Cairo, Nov. 1943

  • Roosevelt, Churchill, Stalin meet face to face first time

  • After conferring with Chinese leader Chiang Kai-shek in Cairo, Egypt, Allies issue Declaration of Cairo

  • Reaffirmed demand for Japan’s unconditional surrender

  • Promised to return all Chinese territory occupied by Japan to china

  • Declared Korean peninsula would become independent state from outside control

  • Tehran Conference Nov. 28-Dec. 1, 1943

  • Big Three plan final assault on Axis powers

  • Agree that US and GB would invade France in May

  • Soviet Union would begin fighting Japan once Germany had surrendered

  • All three would occupy Germany at end of war and establish postwar security organization

VICTORY IN EUROPE


  • Bombing over Europe

  • U.S. and Br. planes lengthy bombing campaign against military and industrial targets in Germany

  • Targeted Dresden and Berlin – bombers delayed German war production and disrupted transportation

  • Depleted German air force

  • Distracted German military attention from other fronts

  • Reduced Hitler’s popularity among German people

  • D-Day

  • Middle 1944, US and BR to open second front with cross-channel invasion of France

  • Dubbed Operation Overlord

  • Germans prepared for an assault but mistakenly believe Allies would cross at narrowest point in English Channel and land at Pas de Calais near French-Belgian border

  • Instead 150,000 allied soldiers landed on beaches of Normandy France

  • On D-Day Jun. 6, 1944

  • Poor landing, logistical errors, German gun emplacements

  • Made invasion difficult

  • Allies eventually secured beach with help of paratroopers dropped behind enemy lines night before.

  • Within 2 weeks, million more Allied troops in France

  • Allies from West

  • Allies push through France toward Germany summer 1944

  • Most serious resistance by Germans at Battle of Bulge

  • By end of year, Americans, British, French in West and Russians in East

  • Had surrounded Germans

  • Surrender of Germany

  • After breaking through German lines at Battle of Bulge

  • American general Omar Bradley led troops to Berlin through central Germany

  • British through N.

  • Russians from East

  • Hitler to underground bunker in Berlin and committed suicide April 30

  • May 2, Berlin fell to Soviets

  • Unconditional surrender

ROOSEVELT DIES


  • Illness, died of massive stroke April 12, 1945

  • VP Truman takes over

VICTORY IN PACIFIC

  • Guadalcanal

  • First major US offensive in Pacific

  • In Solomon Islands, east of New Guinea

  • Aug. 7, 1942, first Marine division attacked Japanese installation building on airfield on island of Guadalcanal

  • Took 6 months to push Japanese off island and prevent them from building air bases from which to attack Australia and New Zealand.

  • Two pronged strategy after Guadalcanal

  • Recommendations of General MacArthur and Admiral Chester Nimitz

  • American troops in S. Pacific would move northward through New Guinea and retake Philippines

  • While naval forces would simultaneously sweep westward through Pacific from Hawaii toward Japanese island outposts

  • Two would meet and prepare for invasion of Japan

  • Macarthur in South Pacific

  • US in Australia and New Guinea approach Philippines by attacking Japanese-controlled territory in South Pacific

  • Battle of Bismarck Sea lasted March 2-3, 1943

  • US forces sink 18 enemy ships and discourage Japanese from shipping future reinforcements to besieged islands

  • Victory allowed MacArthur’s forces to reclaim western Solomon Islands and northern coast of New Guinea with help of Australian troops

  • Nimitz in Central Pacific

  • Island-hopping campaign by attacking Japanese bases in Gilbert islands

  • Over next year, Nimitz moved westward across Pacific

  • 1944 conquered Marshall islands, Mariana Islands, western Caroline Islands

  • Battle of Leyte Gulf

  • MacArthur met with Nimitz Oct. 1944 at Leyte Gulf near Philippines

  • Battle of Leyte Gulf, largest naval battle in history

  • American forces decimated what remained of Japan’s navy

  • Japanese pilots kamikaze units attacked US battleships and aircraft carriers in suicide attacks

  • Iwo Jima and Okinawa

  • Fighting more costly and intense as approaching closer to Japan

  • Iwo Jima

  • Feb. 19, 1945, U.S. Marines land on Iwo Jima island - 750 miles from Tokyo

  • Secured island in six weeks - 7,000 dead

  • Okinawa

  • April 1, 1945 troops land on island of Okinawa, 370 miles from Tokyo

  • Took island in three months

  • More than 100,000 Japanese soldiers died, U.S. = 50,000 casualties


ATOMIC BOMB


  • Manhattan Project

  • 1939 Einstein warned Roosevelt that Germans experimenting with nuclear fission in hope of creating own atomic bomb

  • Roosevelt funds to secret nuclear research program called Manhattan Project.

  • More than 100,000 people worked on secret project

  • In 37 locations

  • Robert Oppenheimer led research team based in Los Alamos, New Mexico

  • July 16, 1945, first explosion in desert

  • Truman’s ultimatum

  • Feared 250,000 Allied troops would die in invasion of japan

  • After hearing successful test at Alamogordo, Truman ultimatum to Japanese

  • Demanded surrender unconditionally before Aug. 3, 1945 or “utter devastation”

  • Hiroshima and Nagasaki

  • Enola Gay Aug. 6, 1945, dropped bomb, flattened city and killed 78,000 instantly

  • By end of year 70,000 more died from radiation

  • Aug. 9, US second bomb, Nagasaki, killed more than 100,000

  • Japanese surrender

  • Sept. 2, 1945

ON THE HOMEFRONT

ORGANIZATIONS

  • War Production Board

  • War Manpower Commission

  • Office of Price Administration

FINANCING THE WAR

  • War bonds

  • Increased taxes

  • Government began withholding income tax from paychecks

INDUSTRY

  • 1000s of aircraft,100,000 armored vehicles, more than 2 million trucks manufactured.

  • Synthetic rubber replaced natural resources

  • New inventions

  • Radar, jet engines

  • West Coast

  • Became center for military-industrial production.

  • California received 1/10th of all federal spending

LABOR

  • Two million workers moved to California to fill jobs in defense-related industries.

  • The government forced employers to recognize unions

  • Union leaders agreed not to strike

  • But there were still some walkouts because of the increased speed of assembly line production and frozen wages

PROPAGANDA AND PATRIOTISM

  • "Victory gardens"


WOMEN

  • Rosie the Riveter

  • More than 1/3 of the civilian labor force made up of women in 1944

  • Women began working in jobs formally restricted to men

JAPANESE INTERNMENT CAMPS

  • 70% of Japanese-Americans lived in California

  • Mostly vegetable farmers

  • 1/3 were issei (first generation) rest were mostly nisei (second generation Japanese)

  • Executive Order 9066 (Feb. 1942)

  • Ordered relocation of all people of Japanese descent in West Coast

  • More than 100,000 moved (2/3 American citizens)

  • Didn't apply to Japanese in Hawaii because they made up nearly 40% of the population

  • Korematsu v. United States(1944)

  • Fred Korematsu, a Japanese-American had been arrested because he refused to be interred

  • He sued the United States because Japanese were relocated without due process

  • The Supreme Court upheld the legality of the internment policy

  • Congress apologized and gave $20,000 to each survivors of the Internment in 1988

AFRICAN-AMERICANS

  • A. Philip Randolph

  • Threatened a march on Washington

  • To prevent march, FDR passed Executive Order 8802

  • Executive Order 8802

  • Banned discrimination in the defense industry

  • And created Fair Employment Practices Commission (FEPC) to enforce integration

  • "liberty trains"

  • 100s of 1000 black migrants left South to find jobs in industry

  • Double V Campaign

  • Nazi theories about a master race discredited racial inequality in America

  • African-Americans vowed to fight for Victory abroad and Victory over racism domestically

  • The American Dilemma

IMMIGRANTS

  • "Patriotic assimilation"

  • Bracero Program

  • Mexican and American governments agreed to send 10s of 1000s of Mexican laborers to work in the United States as agricultural workers

  • Lasted until 1964 - 4.5 million Mexicans

  • Mexicans lived in barrios (ethnic neighborhoods)

  • Mexicans considered "white" but racism against them

ZOOT SUIT RIOTS 1943

  • Los Angeles

NAVAJO CODE TALKERS

  • Transmitted messages in their own language

GI BILL

Offered veterans college tuition, job training, health care and loans to start businesses or buy farms

Local authorities limited benefits to black veterans

  • LEQ

  • Analyze the home-front experiences of TWO of the following groups during the Second World War. (2009)

  1. African Americans

  2. Japanese Americans

  3. Jewish Americans

  4. Mexican Americans

  • SAQ (2017)

  • Briefly explain ONE important way in which the Second World War transformed the relationship of the United States with the rest of the world.

  • Briefly explain ONE important way in which the Second World War transformed United States society.

  • Briefly explain ANOTHER important way in which the Second World War transformed United States society.


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